Small Signal Audio Design

Taylor & Francis Ltd (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 17. April 2020
  • |
  • 784 Seiten
E-Book | PDF ohne DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-000-05042-4 (ISBN)

Small Signal Audio Design is a highly practical handbook providing an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be assembled to make almost any type of audio system. The publication of Electronics for Vinyl has freed up space for new material, (though this book still contains a lot on moving-magnet and moving-coil electronics) and this fully revised third edition offers wholly new chapters on tape machines, guitar electronics, and variable-gain amplifiers, plus much more. A major theme is the use of inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance for noise, distortion, crosstalk, frequency response accuracy and other parameters. Virtually every page reveals nuggets of specialized knowledge not found anywhere else. For example, you can improve the offness of a fader simply by adding a resistor in the right place- if you know the right place.

Essential points of theory that bear on practical audio performance are lucidly and thoroughly explained, with the mathematics kept to an absolute minimum. Self's background in design for manufacture ensures he keeps a wary eye on the cost of things.

This book features the engaging prose style familiar to readers of his other books. You will learn why mercury-filled cables are not a good idea, the pitfalls of plating gold on copper, and what quotes from Star Trek have to do with PCB design.

Learn how to:

      • make amplifiers with apparently impossibly low noise

      • design discrete circuitry that can handle enormous signals with vanishingly low distortion

      • use humble low-gain transistors to make an amplifier with an input impedance of more than 50 megohms

      • transform the performance of low-cost-opamps

      • build active filters with very low noise and distortion

      • make incredibly accurate volume controls

      • make a huge variety of audio equalisers

      • make magnetic cartridge preamplifiers that have noise so low it is limited by basic physics, by using load synthesis

      • sum, switch, clip, compress, and route audio signals

      • be confident that phase perception is not an issue

      This expanded and updated third edition contains extensive new material on optimising RIAA equalisation, electronics for ribbon microphones, summation of noise sources, defining system frequency response, loudness controls, and much more. Including all the crucial theory, but with minimal mathematics, Small Signal Audio Design is the must-have companion for anyone studying, researching, or working in audio engineering and audio electronics.

      3. Auflage
      • Englisch
      • Milton
      • |
      • Großbritannien
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      978-1-000-05042-4 (9781000050424)
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      Douglas Self studied engineering at Cambridge University then psychoacoustics at Sussex University. He has spent many years working at the top level of design in both the professional audio and hi-fi industries and has taken out a number of patents in the field of audio technology. He currently acts as a consultant engineer in the field of audio design.

      Chapter 1: The Basics



      Voltage amplifiers

      Transconductance amplifiers

      Current amplifiers

      Transimpedance amplifiers

      Negative feedback

      Nominal signal levels and dynamic range

      Frequency response

      Frequency response: cascaded stages

      Phase perception

      Gain structures

      Amplification then attenuation

      Attenuation then amplification

      Raising the input signal to the nominal level



      Johnson noise

      Shot noise

      1/f noise (flicker noise)

      Popcorn noise

      Summing noise sources

      Noise in amplifiers

      Noise in bipolar transistors

      Bipolar transistor voltage noise

      Bipolar transistor current voltage

      Noise in JFETs

      Noise in opamps

      Noise gain

      Low-noise opamp circuitry

      Noise measurements

      How to attenuate quietly

      How to amplify quietly

      How to invert quietly

      How to balance quietly
      Ultra low-noise design with multipath amplifiers

      Ultra low-noise voltage buffers

      Ultra low-noise amplifiers

      Multiple amplifiers for greater drive capability

      Chapter 2: Components


      Copper and other conductive elements

      The metallurgy of copper

      Gold and its uses

      Cable and wiring resistance

      PCB track resistance

      PCB track-to-track crosstalk

      The 3-layer PCB

      Impedances and crosstalk: a case history


      Through-hole resistors

      Surface-mount resistors

      Resistor series

      Resistor accuracy: two resistor combinations

      Resistor accuracy: three resistor combinations

      Other resistor combinations

      Resistor value distributions

      The uniform distribution

      Resistor imperfections

      Resistor excess noise

      Resistor non-linearity


      Capacitor series

      Capacitor non-linearity examined

      Non-electrolytic capacitor non-linearity

      Electrolytic capacitor non-linearity


      Chapter 3: Discrete transistor circuitry

      Why use discrete transistor circuitry?

      Bipolars and FETs

      Bipolar junction transistors

      The transistor equation


      Unity-gain buffer stages

      The simple emitter-follower

      The constant-current emitter-follower

      The push-pull emitter-follower

      Emitter-follower stability

      CFP emitter-followers

      Improved unity-gain buffers

      Gain stages

      One-transistor shunt-feedback gain stages

      One-transistor series-feedback gain stages

      Two-transistor shunt-feedback gain stages

      Two-transistor shunt-feedback stages: improving linearity

      Two-transistor shunt-feedback stages: noise

      Two-transistor shunt-feedback stages: bootstrapping

      Two-transistor shunt-feedback stages as summing amplifiers

      Two-transistor series-feedback gain stages

      Discrete opamp design

      Discrete opamp design: the input stage

      Discrete opamp design: the second stage

      Discrete opamp design: the output stage

      High input impedance bipolar stages

      Chapter 4: Opamps and their properties


      A Very Brief History of Opamps.

      Opamp properties: noise

      Opamp properties: slew rate

      Opamp properties: common mode range

      Opamp properties: input offset voltage

      Opamp properties: bias current

      Opamp properties: cost

      Opamp properties: distortion

      Opamp internal distortion

      Slew-rate limiting distortion

      Distortion due to loading

      Thermal distortion

      Common-mode distortion

      Common-mode distortion: Bipolar input opamps

      Common-mode distortion: JFET opamps

      Selecting The Right Opamp

      Opamps surveyed: BJT input types

      The LM741 opamp

      The NE5532/5534 opamp

      Deconstructing the 5532

      The LM4562 opamp

      The AD797 opamp

      The OP27 opamp

      The OP270 opamp

      The OP275 opamp

      Opamps surveyed: JFET input types

      The TL072 opamp

      The TL052 opamp

      The OPA2134 opamp

      The OPA604 opamp

      The OPA627 opamp

      Chapter 5: Opamps for low voltages

      High Fidelity from Low Voltages

      Running opamps from a single +5V supply rail

      Opamps for 5V operation

      The NE5532 in +5V operation

      The LM4562 in +5V operation

      The AD8022 in +5V operation

      The AD8397 in +5V operation

      Opamps for 3.3 V operation

      Chapter 6: Filters


      Passive filters

      Active filters

      Low pass filters

      High pass filters

      Combined low pass & high pass filters

      Bandpass filters

      Notch filters

      All-pass filters

      Filter characteristics

      Sallen & Key lowpass filters

      Sallen & Key highpass filters

      Distortion in Sallen & Key filters

      Multiple-feedback bandpass filters

      Notch filters

      Differential Filters

      Chapter 7: Preamplifier architectures

      Passive preamplifiers

      Active preamplifiers

      Amplification and the gain-distribution problem

      Active gain controls plus passive attenuators

      Recording facilities

      Tone controls

      Chapter 8: Variable gain stages

      Amplifier stages with gain from unity upwards: single gain pot

      Amplifier stages with gain from unity upwards: dual gain pot

      Combining gain stages with active filters

      Amplifier stages with gain from zero upwards: single gain pot

      Amplifier stages with gain from zero upwards: dual gain pot

      Switched-gain amplifiers

      Chapter 9: Moving-magnet inputs: levels & RIAA equalisation

      Cartridge types

      The vinyl medium

      Spurious signals

      Other vinyl problems

      Maximum signal levels from vinyl

      Moving-Magnet cartridge sensitivities

      Overload margins and amplifier limitations

      Equalisation and its discontents

      The unloved IEC Amendment

      The 'Neumann pole'

      MM amplifier configurations

      Opamp MM input stages

      Calculating the RIAA equalisation components

      Implementing RIAA equalisation

      Implementing the IEC amendment

      RIAA series-feedback network configurations

      RIAA optimisation: C1 as a single E6 capacitor, 2xE24

      RIAA optimisation: C1 as 3x10nF capacitors, 2xE24

      RIAA optimisation: C1 as 4x10nF capacitors, 2xE24

      RIAA optimisation: the Willmann Tables

      RIAA optimisation: C1 as 3x10nF capacitors, 3xE24

      RIAA optimisation: C1 as 4x10nF capacitors, 3xE24

      Switched-gain MM RIAA amplifiers

      Switched-gain MM/MC RIAA amplifiers

      Open-loop gain and RIAA accuracy

      Passive and semi- passive RIAA equalisation

      MM cartridge loading & frequency response

      MM cartridge-preamplifier interaction

      MM cartridge DC and AC coupling

      Noise in MM RIAA preamplifiers

      Hybrid MM amplifiers

      Balanced MM inputs

      Noise in balanced MM inputs

      Noise weighting

      Noise measurements

      Cartridge load synthesis for lower noise

      Subsonic filters

      Subsonic filtering: Butterworth filters

      Subsonic filtering: elliptical filters

      Subsonic filtering by cancellation

      Ultrasonic filters

      A practical MM amplifier: #3

      Chapter 10: Moving-coil head amplifiers

      Moving-coil cartridge characteristics

      The limits on MC noise performance

      Amplification strategies

      Moving-coil transformers

      Moving-coil input amplifiers

      An effective MC amplifier configuration

      The complete circuit


      Chapter 11: Tape replay

      The Return of Tape

      A brief history of tape recording

      The basics of tape recording

      Multitrack recording

      Tape heads

      Tape replay

      Tape replay equalisation

      Tape replay amplifiers

      Replay noise: calculation

      Replay noise: measurements

      Load synthesis

      Noise reduction systems

      Dolby HX-Pro

      Chapter 12: Guitar preamplifiers

      Electric guitar technology

      Guitar pickups

      Pickup characteristics

      Guitar wiring

      Guitar leads

      Guitar preamplifiers

      Guitar preamplifier noise: calculations

      Guitar preamplifier noise: measurements

      Guitar amplifiers and guitar effects

      Guitar direct injection

      Chapter 13: Volume controls

      Volume controls

      Volume control laws

      Loaded linear pots

      Dual-action volume controls

      Tapped volume controls

      Slide faders

      Active Volume controls

      The Baxandall active volume control

      The Baxandall volume control law

      A practical Baxandall active volume stage

      Low-noise Baxandall active volume stages

      The Baxandall volume control: loading effects

      An improved Baxandall active volume stage with lower noise

      Baxandall active volume stage plus passive control

      The Overlap Penalty

      Potentiometers and DC

      Belt-ganged volume controls

      Motorised potentiometers

      Stepped volume controls

      Switched attenuator volume controls

      Relay-switched volume controls

      Transformer-tap volume controls

      Integrated circuit volume controls

      Loudness controls

      The Newcomb and Young loudness control

      Chapter 14: Balance controls

      The ideal balance law

      Balance controls: passive

      Balance controls: active

      Combining balance controls with other stages

      Switched balance controls

      Mono-stereo switches

      Width controls

      Chapter 15: Tone controls & equalisers


      Passive tone controls

      Baxandall Tone Controls

      The Baxandall one-LF-capacitor Tone Control

      The Baxandall two-LF-capacitor Tone Control

      The Baxandall two-HF-capacitor tone control

      The Baxandall tone control: impedance and noise

      Combining a Baxandall stage with an active balance control

      Switched-HF-frequency Baxandall controls

      Variable-frequency HF EQ

      Variable-frequency LF EQ

      A new type of switched-frequency LF EQ

      Variable-frequency HF and LF EQ in one stage

      Tilt or tone-balance controls

      Middle controls

      Fixed frequency Baxandall middle controls

      Three-band Baxandall EQ in one stage

      Wien fixed middle EQ

      Wien fixed middle EQ: altering the Q

      Variable-frequency middle EQ

      Single-gang variable-frequency middle EQ

      Switched-Q variable-frequency Wien middle EQ

      Switchable peak/shelving LF/HF EQ

      Parametric middle EQ

      Graphic equalisers

      Chapter 16: Mixer architecture


      Performance factors

      Mixer internal levels

      Mixer architecture

      The split mixing architecture

      The in-line mixing architecture

      A closer look at split format modules

      The channel module (split format)

      Effect return modules

      The group module

      The master module

      Talkback and oscillator systems

      The in-line channel module

      Chapter 17: Microphone preamplifiers

      Microphone types

      Microphone preamplifier requirements

      Transformer microphone inputs

      The simple hybrid microphone preamplifier

      The balanced-feedback hybrid microphone preamplifier

      Microphone and line input pads

      The padless microphone preamplifier

      Capacitor microphone head amplifiers

      Ribbon microphone amplifiers

      Chapter 18: Line inputs

      External signal levels

      Internal signal levels

      Input amplifier functions

      Unbalanced inputs

      Balanced interconnections

      The advantages of balanced interconnections

      The disadvantages of balanced interconnections

      Balanced cables and interference

      Balanced connectors

      Balanced signal levels

      Electronic vs transformer balanced inputs

      Common mode rejection

      The basic electronic balanced input

      Common-mode rejection

      The basic electronic balanced input

      The basic balanced input and opamp effects

      Opamp frequency response effects

      Opamp CMRR effects

      Amplifier component mismatch effects

      A practical balanced input

      Variations on the balanced input stage

      Combined unbalanced and balanced inputs

      The Superbal input

      Switched-gain balanced inputs

      Variable-gain balanced inputs

      Combined line input and balance control stage with low noise

      The Self variable-gain line input

      High input-impedance balanced inputs

      The inverting two-opamp input

      The instrumentation amplifier

      Instrumentation amplifier applications

      The instrumentation amplifier with 4x gain

      The instrumentation amplifier at unity gain

      The instrumentation amplifier and gain controls

      The instrumentation amplifier and the Whitlock bootstrap

      Transformer balanced inputs

      Input overvoltage protection

      Low-noise balanced inputs

      Low-noise balanced inputs in action

      Ultra-low-noise balanced inputs

      Chapter 19: Line outputs

      Unbalanced outputs

      Zero-impedance outputs

      Ground-cancelling outputs: basics

      Ground-cancelling outputs: zero-impedance output

      Ground-cancelling outputs: CMRR

      Ground-cancelling outputs: send amplifier noise

      Ground-cancelling outputs: into a balanced input

      Ground-cancelling outputs: history

      Balanced outputs: basics

      Balanced outputs: output impedance

      Balanced outputs: noise

      Quasi-floating outputs

      Transformer balanced outputs

      Output transformer frequency response

      Output transformer distortion

      Reducing output transformer distortion

      Chapter 20: Headphone amplifiers

      Driving heavy loads

      Driving headphones

      Special opamps

      Multiple opamps

      Opamp-transistor hybrid amplifiers

      Discrete Class-AB headphone amplifiers

      Discrete Class-A headphone amplifiers

      Balanced headphone amplifiers

      Chapter 21: Signal switching

      Mechanical switches

      Input-select switching: mechanical

      The Virtual Contact: mechanical

      Relay switching

      Electronic switching

      Switching with CMOS analogue gates

      CMOS gates in voltage mode

      CMOS gates in current mode

      CMOS series-shunt current mode

      Control voltage feedthrough in CMOS gates

      CMOS gates at higher voltages

      CMOS gates at low voltages

      CMOS gate costs

      Discrete JFET switching

      The series JFET switch in voltage mode

      The shunt JFET switch in voltage mode

      JFETS in current mode

      Reducing distortion by biasing

      JFET drive circuitry

      Physical layout and offness

      Dealing with the DC conditions

      A soft changeover circuit

      Control voltage feedthrough in JFETS

      Chapter 22: Mixer subsystems

      Mixer bus systems

      Input arrangements


      Insert points

      How to move a circuit block


      Improving fader offness

      Post-fade amplifiers

      Direct outputs


      Passive panpots

      The active panpot

      LCR panpots

      Routing systems

      Auxiliary sends

      Group module circuit blocks

      Summing systems: voltage summing

      Summing systems: Virtual-earth summing

      Balanced summing systems

      Ground-cancelling summing systems

      Distributed summing systems

      Summing amplifiers

      Hybrid summing amplifiers

      Balanced hybrid summing amplifiers

      Balancing tracks to reduce crosstalk

      The multi-function summing amplifier

      PFL systems

      PFL summing

      PFL switching

      PFL detection

      Virtual-earth PFL detection

      AFL systems

      Solo-In-Place systems

      Talkback microphone amplifiers

      Line-up oscillators

      The flash bus

      Power supply protection

      Console cooling and component lifetimes

      Chapter 23: Level indication & metering

      Signal-present indication

      Peak indication

      The Log Law Level LED (LLLL)

      Distributed peak detection

      Combined LED indicators

      VU meters

      PPM meters

      LED bargraph metering

      A more efficient LED bargraph architecture

      Vacuum fluorescent displays

      Plasma displays

      Liquid crystal displays

      Chapter 24: Level control & special circuits

      Gain-control elements

      A brief history of gain-control elements


      Operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs)

      Voltage-Controlled Amplifiers (VCAs)

      Compressors and limiters

      Attack artefacts

      Decay artefacts

      Subtractive VCA control

      Noise gates


      Diode clipping

      Active clipping with transistors

      Active clipping with opamps

      Noise generators

      Pinkening filters

      Chapter 25: Power supplies

      Opamp supply rail voltages

      Designing a ±15V supply

      Designing a ±17V supply

      Using variable-voltage regulators

      Improving ripple performance

      Dual supplies from a single winding

      Power supplies for discrete circuitry

      Large power supplies

      Mutual shutdown circuitry

      Very Large power supplies

      Microcontroller and relay supplies

      +48V phantom power supplies

      Chapter 26: Interfacing with the digital domain

      PCB layout considerations

      Nominal levels and ADCs

      Some typical ADCs

      Interfacing with ADC inputs

      Some typical DACs

      Interfacing with DAC outputs

      Interfacing with microcontrollers

      "Self provides solid, well-explained technical information throughout the book, all gained from years of experience and a thorough understanding of the entire topic (...) His book exudes skilful engineering on every page, and I found it a very refreshing, enjoyable, and inspirational read (...) if you have the slightest interest in audio circuit design this book has to be considered an essential reference. Very highly recommended." - Hugh Robjohns, Sound on Sound Magazine

      "This book presents a large body of knowledge and countless insider-tips from an award-winning commercial audio designer (...) Douglas Self dumps a lifetime's worth of thoroughly-tested audio circuit knowledge into one biblical tome." - Joseph Lemmer, Tape Op

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