Epidemics and War: The Impact of Disease on Major Conflicts in History

 
 
ABC-CLIO (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 30. April 2018
  • |
  • 340 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-4408-5225-1 (ISBN)
 
How did small pox have a tremendous effect on two distinct periods of war--one in which the disease devastated entire native armies and leadership, and the other in which technological advancements and the application of medical knowledge concerning the disease preserved an army and as a result changed the course of events? Epidemics and War: The Impact of Disease on Major Conflicts in History examines fascinating historical questions like this and dozens more, exploring a plethora of communicable diseases--viral, fungal, and/or bacterial in nature--that spread and impacted wars or were spread by some aspect of mass human conflict. Written by historians, medical doctors, and people with military backgrounds, the book presents a variety of viewpoints and research approaches. Each chapter examines an epidemic in relation to a period of war, demonstrating how the two impacted each other and affected the populations involved directly and indirectly. Starting with three still unknown/unidentified epidemics (ranging from Classical Athens to the Battle of Bosworth in England), the book's chapters explore a plethora of diseases that spread through wars or significantly impacted wars. The book also examines how long-ended wars can play a role in the spread of epidemics a generation later, as seen in the 21st-century mumps epidemic in Bosnia, 15 to 20 years after the Bosnian conflicts of the 1990s.
  • Englisch
  • Santa Barbara
  • |
  • USA
978-1-4408-5225-1 (9781440852251)
1440852251 (1440852251)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Part I: Contested Epidemics during Well-Known Conflicts: Introduction
  • Chapter 1: Plague of Athens: A Fate More Terrible Than the Spartans, 430-426 BCE
  • Origins of the Plague amid the Great Peloponnesian War
  • Symptoms Observed
  • Modern Theories and Retrospective Diagnoses
  • Historical Debates of the Causes and Effects of the Plague of Athens
  • Combined Impact of the Plague and War in Athens
  • Notes
  • Chapter 2: The Antonine Plague: Unknown Death within the Roman Empire, 165-180 CE
  • Symptoms and Associations with the Antonine Plague
  • Problems with Retrospective Diagnoses
  • Historical Debates Regarding the Antonine Plague
  • Military Actions and Politics as a Stage for the Antonine Plague
  • Combined Impact of the Antonine Plague and War on Rome
  • Notes
  • Chapter 3: English Sweating Sickness and the Battle of Bosworth: Misfortune or Retribution, 1485 CE
  • Problems with Retrospective Diagnoses
  • Historical Debates Regarding the Cause and Identity of the "Sweat"
  • Recent Historical Revelations-Bacteria or Virus?
  • Impact of the Sweat on Events in the War of the Roses
  • Combined Impact of the Sweat and the Battle of Bosworth on England
  • Notes
  • Part II: Bacterial Epidemics in the Context of Wars: Introduction
  • Chapter 4: The Black Death and Nation-State Wars of the 14th Century: Environment, Epigenetics, Excess, and Expiation, 1346-1450
  • Characteristics of the Yersinia pestis Bacteria
  • Forms of the Plague-Methods of Contagion
  • Historical Waves of the Black Death
  • Discoveries and Changing Historical Debates
  • Impacts of Health and Environment on Virulence of the Plague
  • Tracking the Plague's Diffusion
  • The Events and Context of the Hundred Years' War
  • War and Nations Disrupted by Ravages of the Black Death
  • Combined Impact of the Plague and War on Society
  • Notes
  • Chapter 5: Typhus: Napoleon's Tragic Invasion of Russia, the War of 1812
  • Understanding the Bacteria That Causes Typhus
  • Symptoms of Typhus Fever
  • Diffusion and Disease Vectors for Typhus
  • History of Typhus in Wars of the Past
  • Napoleon's 1812 Invasion into Russia
  • Lessons Learned?
  • Combined Impact of War and Typhus on Napoleon's Invasion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 6: Cholera: Dread Disease of the Crimean War, 1854-1855
  • Understanding the Historical Origins of the Bacteria Vibrio cholerae
  • Context of Cholera Epidemics during a Period of Imperialistic Competition
  • Theories of Cholera in the 19th Century
  • Origins of the Crimean War during the 19th Century
  • Cholera Makes Its Appearance in the War
  • Conditions of War That Facilitated the Spread of Cholera
  • Attempts at Combating Cholera during the Crimean War
  • Lasting Impacts of Cholera and War on Resulting Reforms
  • Notes
  • Chapter 7: Typhoid Fever: Failure in the Midst of Victory in the Spanish-American War, 1898
  • Status of Medical and Military Reforms at the Turn of the Century
  • Status of Gender and Race in Medicine and Military at War's Outset
  • Conditions Affecting Diffusion of Typhoid Fever in the Spanish-American War
  • Combating Typhoid with Emerging Science and Emerging Structural Support
  • Combined Impact of Typhoid and War on Increasing Reforms
  • Notes
  • Chapter 8: Diphtheria in the Tajikistan War: Circumventing Post-World War II Medical Advances, 1992-1994
  • Diffusion of Diphtheria
  • The Identity and Symptoms of the Bacteria Responsible for Diphtheria
  • Diphtheria in Wars of the 20th Century
  • Origin and Conditions of Tajik Civil War
  • Conditions of War That Facilitate the Spread of Diphtheria and Other Diseases
  • The Combined Impact of Diphtheria and War in Circumventing Disease Eradication
  • Notes
  • Part III: Viral Epidemics in the Context of Wars: Introduction
  • Chapter 9: Smallpox: Ensuring the Destruction of Armies in Colonial New Spain and Peru, 1518-1625
  • America Not "New" to Disease: Fertile Ground for Old World Viruses
  • Origin and Symptoms of Smallpox Virus
  • Diffusion of Smallpox and the Impact on Societies: Endemic and Virgin Soil
  • Tracking the Spread of Smallpox through New World Conflicts
  • Historical Accounts of the Combined Influence of Disease and Wars on Early America
  • Notes
  • Chapter 10: Smallpox: Ensuring the Survival of an Army in Revolutionary America, 1775-1783
  • The 18th-Century Status of Smallpox
  • Smallpox as a Weapon in Early 18th-Century Conflicts
  • The Devastation of Smallpox among Colonial Forces in Revolutionary America
  • The Devastation of Smallpox among Native Americans in Revolutionary America
  • Rumors of Weaponized Smallpox in the Revolution
  • Early Attempts to Combat the Spread of Smallpox among American Forces
  • The Dilemma of Inoculation during a Period of War
  • New Strategies for Inoculation during the Revolution
  • The Impact of Smallpox on the British and African Americans during the Revolution
  • The Impact of Smallpox on Intended French Strategies for Supporting the Revolution
  • The Combined Impact of Smallpox and Warfare during the American Revolution
  • Notes
  • Chapter 11: Yellow Fever: Unexpected Ally in the Haitian Revolution, 1802-1803
  • Origins of Yellow Fever among the Haitian Population
  • Understanding the Yellow Fever Virus, Its Symptoms, and Impact on Humans
  • Conditions Supporting the Prevalence of Yellow Fever among the French
  • Occurrence of Yellow Fever before and after the Haitian Revolution
  • Origins of the Haitian Revolution
  • The Role of Slavery and Abolition in the Haitian Revolution
  • The Impact of Yellow Fever on French Efforts to Reestablish Control over Haiti
  • The Combined Impact of Yellow Fever and War Strategies on the Outcome of Revolution
  • Notes
  • Chapter 12: Measles in World War I: Pestilence within Mobilization Camps and Transport Ships, 1915-1919
  • Understanding the Measles Virus, Its Symptoms, and Transmission
  • Historic Occurrence of Measles during Mobilization for Wars
  • Understanding the Complexities of Measles Diffusion during World War I
  • Using Medical Research as a Strategy to Combat Measles in World War I
  • Communicating Successes in Medical Strategies for Treating Measles Outbreaks
  • Combined Impact of Measles, Medical Research, and Mobilization in World War I
  • Notes
  • Chapter 13: Influenza during World War I: The Great Flu Pandemic, 1916-1919
  • Identification and Transmission of Influenza Virus
  • Constant Adaptation of Influenza as a Cause of Pandemics
  • Extreme Virulence and High Death Toll of the "Spanish Flu"
  • Historical Analysis of Memory and Reality in Studying the Great Flu Pandemic
  • Tracing the Origins and Diffusion of Influenza during World War I
  • Public and Military Responses to Emerging Influenza Outbreaks
  • Analyzing the Impact of the Deadly Second Wave of the 1918 Pandemic
  • Lasting Impacts of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and World War I
  • Notes
  • Chapter 14: Colonialism and War as Drivers of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990-2003
  • Colonialism Context for Wars and HIV Virus
  • Identifying and Understanding the HIV Virus
  • Factors Common to Diffusion of HIV
  • Historical Analysis of the Spread of HIV
  • Origins of Three Related Sub-Saharan African Conflicts
  • Sexual Violence and the Congo Wars as a Means of Spreading HIV
  • Combined Impact of Wars, Violence, and HIV on the Emerging Modern Pandemic
  • Notes
  • Chapter 15: Mumps: Lasting Remnant of the Bosnian War, 1992-2012
  • Understanding the Presentation and Transmission of the Mumps Virus
  • Historical Origins of the Bosnian Wars
  • Yugoslavian Structure and Cultural Discord
  • Lasting Impact of Bosnian War on Medical Care
  • Stress and Health during and after War
  • Disruptions of War as a Lasting Impact on Heath-Mumps in Postwar Bosnia
  • Notes
  • Part IV: Epidemics of Mixed Origins during Wartime: Introduction
  • Chapter 16: Malaria: Continuing Pestilence from World War II to the Vietnam War, 1939-1975
  • Protozoan Origins of Malaria
  • Historical Connection of Malaria to Environment and Mosquitos
  • History of Malaria during Wars
  • Development of Medical Treatments for Malaria
  • Malaria's Impact during World War II and Korea
  • America, the Vietnam War, and the Spread of Malaria
  • Malaria on the Homefront in America
  • Combination of War, Malaria, and Failed Medical Protocols
  • Notes
  • Chapter 17: Dysentery in the American Civil War: An Inverse Force Multiplier, 1861-1865
  • Disease as the Leading Killer in the Civil War
  • Difficulty in Identifying Dysentery among Other Illnesses
  • Tracing the History of a Disease with Multiple Causes
  • Medical Inadequacy and Military Urgency
  • Inconsistent Diagnoses and Dangerous "Cures"
  • The Role of Nutrition for Soldiers Contracting Dysentery
  • Large Armies and Declining Hygiene
  • Civil War Prisons-Breeding Grounds for Dysentery
  • The Combination of Dysentery, Conditions of War, and Attempted Reforms
  • Notes
  • Chapter 18: Pneumonia in the American Civil War: Death Knell of the Sick and Invalid, 1861-1865
  • Symptoms and Various Causes of Pneumonia
  • Prevalence of Secondary Pneumonia amid Ineffective Medical Care
  • Context and Conditions at the Start of the Civil War
  • Health Issues for Union and Confederate Soldiers and African Americans during the Civil War
  • The Role of Nutrition and Hygiene in the Health of Armies
  • Realities of Civil War Medicine and Care
  • Reforms in Medicine during the War
  • Combined Impacts of Disease, Wounds, Conditions of War, and Secondary Pneumonia
  • Notes
  • Epilogue: Epidemics and Wars in the Context of Historical Inquiry
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • About the Editor and Contributors
  • Index

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