The Handbook of International Crisis Communication Research

Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 18. April 2016
  • |
  • 552 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-51677-5 (ISBN)
The Handbook of International Crisis Communication Research articulates a broader understanding of crisis communication, discussing the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of domestic and transnational crises, featuring the work of global scholars from a range of sub-disciplines and related fields.
* Provides the first integrative international perspective on crisis communication
* Articulates a broader understanding of crisis communication, which includes work from scholars in journalism, public relations, audience research, psychology, political science, sociology, economics, anthropology, and international communication
* Explores the topic from cross-national and cross-cultural crisis communication approaches
* Includes research and scholars from countries around the world and representing all regions
* Discusses a broad range of crisis types, such as war, terrorism, natural disasters, pandemia, and organizational crises
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • New York
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 11,52 MB
978-1-118-51677-5 (9781118516775)
111851677X (111851677X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Notes on Contributors
  • 1 Significance and Structure of International Risk and Crisis Communication Research
  • The Significance of International and Cross-Cultural Crisis Communication
  • Categories of International, Cross-Cultural, and Comparative Crisis Communication Research
  • Goals and Structure of the Handbook
  • References
  • Part I: Disciplinary Foundations for International Crisis Communication Research
  • 2 Political Science Research on Crises and Crisis Communications
  • Introduction
  • Crises are Political Phenomena
  • Governmental Structures, Processes, and Procedures
  • Governmental Response Systems and Operations
  • Political Leadership During Crises
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 3 Delving into the Roots of Crises
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual and Methodological Pitfalls in the Traditional Crisis Management Literature
  • The Event Approach to Crises
  • The Process Approach to Crisis
  • Weak Signals: the Genealogy of Crises
  • To Conclude: To Believe or not to Believe
  • Implications for Crisis Communication
  • References
  • 4 The Psychology of Crisis Communication
  • Introduction
  • Risk Communication vs. Crisis Communication
  • The Psychological Application of Crisis Communication and Risk Communication
  • Understanding Human Responses to Crisis Situations
  • Implications for Crisis Communication
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5 Sociological Foundations of Crisis Communication
  • Introduction
  • Sociology as a Science of Crisis
  • On the Terms "Crisis" and "Risk" from a Sociological Perspective
  • Objectivist, Constructivist, and Integrative Concepts of Crisis
  • Contributions from Sociological Subdisciplines to Crisis Research
  • Sociological Theories of Crisis and Communication
  • A Sociological Approach to Crisis Communication
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 6 "Crisis" in Social Anthropology
  • Introduction
  • The Concept of Crisis in Cultural and Social Anthropology
  • The Westernness of Crisis
  • Crisis as a Heuristic Principle
  • Crises and the Problem of Stasis and Dynamics, Persistence and Transformation
  • Beyond Dichotomies: Crises as The Crystallization of Material and Discursive Processes of Ordering
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 7 Communication - Conclusions for an Integrative Approach to International Crisis Communication Research
  • Introduction
  • The Disciplinary Research Approaches to Crisis Communication and Blind Spots
  • Integrative Perspectives on Crisis
  • Integrative Perspectives on Crisis Communication
  • Key Attributes in Handling a Situation
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part II: Actors and Institutional Communicators in International Crises
  • 8 Military, Government, and Media Management in Wartime
  • Introduction
  • Military Media Management - Assumptions and Practices
  • Government-Media Relationships in Wartime - Theoretical Models
  • New Voices of War Communication
  • Conclusion and Implications for Communicator Research
  • References
  • 9 Crisis Communication and Terrorist Attacks
  • Introduction
  • Defining the Field
  • Crisis Communication and Terrorism
  • A Model of Meaning Construction
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 10 Communication Concerning Disasters and Pandemics
  • Introduction
  • Method
  • Sample
  • Data Extraction and Analysis
  • Results
  • Trends and Gaps in the Literature on this Topic
  • Conclusions and Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 11 International Organizational Crisis Communication
  • Introduction
  • International Organizational Crisis Communication
  • Simple Rules: an Approach to Engaging Dynamic and Complex Contexts
  • Simple Rules for Managing the Complexity of International Crisis Communication
  • Simple Communication Rules Organizations Should Follow During a Crisis
  • Simple Communication Rules Organizations Should not Follow During a Crisis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 12 Conceptualizing Political Crisis and the Role of Public Diplomacy in Crisis Communication Research
  • Introduction
  • Toward a Definition of Political Crisis
  • Conceptualizing Political Crisis
  • Crisis Communication Strategies of Political Actors in Crisis
  • Crisis Management Strategies of States in Crisis - Findings from the Icb Project
  • A Neglected Link: Crisis Communication and Public Diplomacy
  • Conclusion and Outlook
  • References
  • Part III: The Role of the Media in the Construction of International Crises
  • 13 The Role of the Media in the Discursive Construction of Wars
  • Introduction
  • Media's Role in Crisis Constructions in Threat Society
  • A New World Order, New Wars, and New Media - Also a New War Journalism?
  • War Journalism in the New World Order: News Frames and Journalists as Targets
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 14 Terrorism and the Role of the Media
  • Introduction
  • Terrorism as Crisis
  • Literature Review
  • Media form Part of the Terrorists' Strategies
  • Indictments of the Media: Pro- or Anti-Terroristic
  • Media Coverage and Content
  • The Power of Images: the Special Role of Television and Photography
  • Guidelines and Censorship - yes or no?
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 15 Media Framing of Disasters
  • Introduction
  • How Media Framing Influences Disaster Communication
  • How the Media Frame Disasters
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 16 Organizational Crisis and the News Media
  • Introduction
  • Significance of the Media in Crisis Communications Studies
  • The Role of the Media in Organizational Crises
  • Transnational Organizational Crises - Findings of International Comparative Research
  • Conclusion: Research Desiderata
  • References
  • 17 Political, Social, and Economic Crises in Public Communication
  • Reputation, Order, and Scandal
  • Social Order and Crisis
  • Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere and the New Volatility of Reputation
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part IV: Domestic and International Audiences in the Context of Crisis Communication
  • 18 War, Media, and Public Opinion
  • Introduction
  • Casualties and Public Opinion
  • Mueller's Hypothesis - Log of Cumulative Casualties
  • National, Local, Marginal Casualties
  • Media, Casualties, and Public Opinion
  • The Iraq War and International Public Opinion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 19 Terrorism - Orchestrated Staging and Indicator of Crisis
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Definition
  • Terror Attacks
  • Terrorism as a New Research Domain
  • Terrorism and the Media
  • Terrorism and the Public's Reactions
  • The Media-Induced Assumption of a Connection Between the Threat of Terrorism and the Muslim World
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 20 Reoccurring Challenges and Emerging Threats
  • Introduction
  • Information Seeking
  • Secondary Audience Reactions
  • Addressing Variability in Psychological Responses
  • Immigration
  • Knowledge Gaps
  • Specific Channels
  • New Media
  • Measurement and Research in Disasters and Pandemics
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 21 Domestic and International Audiences of Organizational Crisis Communication
  • Introduction
  • Attributions of Responsibility
  • Audience Characteristics that Affect Responsibility Attributions
  • Covariation
  • Emotions
  • Cultural Differences
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 22 Environmental Crises and the Public
  • Defining and Systematizing Environmental Crisis
  • The Audience of Crisis Communication in Latent Environmental Crises
  • The Audience of Crisis Communication in Immediate Environmental Crises
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part V: The State of Crisis Communication Research Around the Globe
  • 23 Crisis Communication Research in South Africa
  • Introduction
  • Recent South African Literature on Crisis Communication
  • Crisis Communication at the National Level
  • Rethinking Crisis Communication in the Media: Peace Journalism
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 24 Crisis Communication Research in Nigeria
  • Crisis Communication in Nigeria is Compounded by Culture, Ethnicity, and Religion
  • The Context of Crisis Communication Research in Nigeria
  • Case Study 1: Obasanjo and the Ikeja-Lagos Armory Explosion, 2002
  • Case Study 2: President Umaru Yar'adua's Illness and Death, 2007-2010
  • Case Study 3: Dana Air Crash, 2012
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 25 Crisis Communication Research in the Chinese Mainland
  • Introduction
  • The Context of Crisis Communication in China: Political and Media Systems
  • The Status of Chinese Crisis Communication Research
  • What Chinese Crisis Communication (Ccc) Research Tells Us
  • Crisis type
  • Perspectives of Ccc Research and Their Implications
  • Case Study: the Guo Meimei Incident and the Credibility Crisis of the Red Cross Society of China
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 26 Crisis Communication Research in Singapore
  • The Singaporean Context of Crisis Communication Research
  • Topics and Issues of Crisis Communication in Singapore
  • Case Study: Derailed - the Smrt Crises in 2011
  • Challenges and Future Developments of Singaporean Crisis Communication Research
  • References
  • 27 Crisis Communication Research in South Korea
  • Introduction
  • Status of Crisis Communication Research in South Korea
  • Organizational Perspectives in South Korean Crisis Communication Research
  • Audience Perspective in South Korean Crisis Communication Research
  • Media Perspectives in South Korean Crisis Communication Research
  • Case Study: Korea's Beef Crisis in 2008
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 28 Risk and Crisis Communication Research in India
  • Introduction
  • Definition of Risk and Crisis Communication in the Indian Context
  • Risk and Disaster Communication in India
  • Case Study: the 2008 Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai
  • Crisis Outcomes and Lessons Learned
  • Concluding thoughts
  • References
  • 29 Crisis Communication Research in the Middle East & North Africa (MENA)
  • Status of Crisis Communication and Research in MENA
  • Conceptual framework
  • Roaring of Societal Discontent in MENA
  • Case Study: Normalizing Crisis in Egypt
  • Managing the Media and the Crisis
  • Conclusion: A Crisis of Culture, and a Culture of Crisis
  • References
  • 30 Crisis Communication Research in Israel
  • The Context of Crisis Communication Research in Israel
  • Types of Crises
  • Research and Practice
  • Growth and Diversification
  • International-National Crises: Manuals
  • National Crises: Models and Manuals
  • Rebranding and Crisis Communication: Models and Applications
  • Organizational Crises: Comparative Analysis
  • Intelligence Crises
  • Individual Crises: Case Studies
  • Discussion and Conclusion
  • References
  • 31 Crisis Communication Research in Australia
  • Introduction
  • Context of Australian Crisis Communication Research
  • Studying Disaster and Other Crises
  • Institutional Perspectives
  • Media Perspectives
  • Audience Perspectives
  • James Hardie: Shareholder Value, Scandal, and a Slow-Burn Crisis
  • Asbestos history
  • Future research
  • References
  • 32 Crisis Communication Research in Aotearoa/New Zealand
  • The New Zealand Crisis Communication Context
  • Research on Crisis Communication in New Zealand
  • Case Study: Canterbury Earthquakes
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 33 Crisis Communication Research in Germany
  • The Context of Crisis Communication Research in Germany
  • Crises and the Emergence of Crisis Communication Research in Germany
  • The State of German Crisis Communication Research
  • Conclusion and outlook
  • References
  • 34 Crisis Communication Research in Northern Europe
  • Introduction
  • The Context of Crisis Communication Research in Northern Europe
  • Crisis Communication Research in Sweden
  • Crisis Communication Research in Finland
  • Crisis Communication Research in Denmark
  • Crisis Communication Research in Norway and Iceland
  • Case Study: the Tsunami Disaster and How it was Handled by Governments and Public Authorities in the Nordic Countries
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 35 Crisis Communication Research in Eastern Europe
  • Introduction
  • The Context of Crisis Communication Research in Eastern Europe
  • Crisis Communication Research in Poland
  • Definitions and Approach: Towards a Crisis Managing Society
  • Key Research Avenues: Systemic and Organizational Perspectives
  • Media and Audiences Studies Perspective
  • Other Research Avenues
  • The Context of Crisis Communication in Hungary
  • Institutional Perspectives
  • Media and Stakeholders Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 36 Crisis Management and Communication Research in Russia
  • Crises and Disasters as Political Symbioses in Recent Russian History
  • Russia as a Risk Society
  • The Context of Crisis Communication Research in Russia
  • The Institutional Perspective: the State as Crisis Manager
  • The Media Perspective: Fourth Estate vs. Fifth Estate
  • Risk Producers vs. Risk Consumers: the Audience Perspective
  • Conclusions, Puzzles, and Future Research
  • References
  • 37 Crisis and Risk Communication Research in Colombia
  • The Context of Risk and Crisis Communication Research in Colombia
  • Institutional perspectives
  • Media perspectives
  • Case Study: Risk and Crisis Communication in Disaster
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 38 Crisis Communication Research in the United States
  • Crisis Communication in the United States
  • Institutional perspectives
  • Media perspectives
  • Audience perspectives
  • Summary of us Crisis Communication
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part VI: Challenges and Topics of Future Research on Crisis Communication
  • 39 Paradigms of Risk and Crisis Communication in the Twenty-first Century
  • Introduction
  • Meeting Communication Challenges Head on
  • Risk Communication Paradigms
  • Risk Perception/Expressed Preference Paradigm
  • Mental Models Paradigm
  • Critical and Cultural Paradigm
  • Infrastructural Risk Communication Paradigm
  • Crisis Communication Paradigms
  • Restorative/Status-Quo Crisis Communication
  • Transformative/Change-Growth Oriented Crisis Communication
  • Foundational Crisis Communication Research Streams
  • Efficacy and Fully Functioning Society
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 40 Global Product Recall Communications and Regulatory Focus Theory
  • Introduction
  • Regulatory Focus Theory
  • Country Differences in Regulatory Orientations
  • Differences Between Men and Women in Regulatory Orientations
  • Differences Between Older and Younger Consumers in Regulatory Orientations
  • Discussion and Future Research
  • References
  • 41 Methodological Challenges of International Crisis Communication Research
  • Introduction
  • Basic Research Concerns: Culture, Nations, Analytic Frameworks, and Focus
  • Key Challenges for International Crisis Communication Researchers
  • Evaluative Criteria for International Research
  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 42 New Technologies and Applications in International Crisis Communication and Disaster Management
  • Technology As a Subject of International Crisis Communication Research
  • Software-Based Crisis Communication Management
  • Repair of Mobile Communication Systems After Disasters
  • Augmented Reality for Disaster Management
  • Implications for International Crisis Communication Research and Outlook
  • References
  • 43 The Future Role of Social Media in International Crisis Communication
  • Introduction
  • Social Media Environment
  • Social Media Stakeholders
  • Social Media and Crisis Communication
  • Future Directions and Conclusions
  • References
  • 44 Preparing for Internationaland Cross-cultural Crises
  • Introduction
  • Competing Voices in Decision-Making
  • Inclusivity in Decision-Making
  • Interplay of Responsibility in Global Organizations
  • Global Crisis Communication in Action: The SARS pandemic
  • Conclusions and implications
  • References
  • 45 Putting Research into Practice
  • Introduction
  • Crisis Communication Education at Universities
  • Crisis Communication Training for Practitioners
  • Comparing Courses Designed for Students and Practitioners - What can One Learn from the Other?
  • Recommendations for Enhancing Crisis Communication Education and Training
  • Conclusion
  • Appendix A: List of courses on crisis communication designed for students
  • Appendix B: List of Bodies that Offer Crisis Communication Training for Practitioners
  • References
  • 46 Risk, Crisis, and the Global Village
  • Introduction
  • What the Book Tells us
  • Reconceptualizing Crisis Communication as a Culturally-Sensitive Practice
  • Conceptualizing Crisis, Crisis Communication, and Crisis Management as Culturally Dependent Phenomena
  • Research/Practice Agenda
  • Limitations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

Notes on Contributors

Jesús Arroyave earned his PhD in Communication from the University of Miami. He is the Director of the PhD Communication Program and Associate Professor at the Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia. His professional interest focuses on health communication and development, risk communication, and journalism and media studies. He is the author and coauthor of 3 books and several journal articles and book chapters.

Claudia Auer (MA) is a doctoral candidate in the Institute of Media and Communication Science at the Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany. In her doctoral thesis, she develops a theory of public diplomacy. Her research interests include crisis communication, public diplomacy, strategic communication, political communication, and metatheory. She is a member of the International Research Group on Crisis Communication.

Stefan Beck was Professor of European Ethnology (social anthropology) at the Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany. His research focused on knowledge practices in medicine and their social and cultural implementation as well as on systems of expertise in the sciences and modern life-world(s). Sadly, he passed away in March 2015 before the jointly written article in this collection was published.

Jean-Christophe Binetti is the founder and director of Convis Consult & Marketing Ltd. in Berlin and Paris. His company offers services in communication, project consultation, engineering, software development, and training in risk and crisis management. Based on his long experience in consulting on and auditing management systems and crisis communication in the government, industry, and service sectors, he developed a web application for crisis communication in cooperation with his team and practitioners:

Wolfgang Broll is a Full Professor at Technische Universität Ilmenau, where he holds the chair in Virtual Worlds and Digital Games. He is CEO and cofounder of fayteq, a company concerned with advanced video manipulation technologies. He received a PhD in Computer Science from Tübingen University in 1998. He was a lecturer at the RWTH Aachen University from 2000 to 2009. From 1994 to summer 2012 he headed the VR and AR activities at Fraunhofer FIT in Sankt Augustin. He has been doing research in the area of augmented reality (AR), shared virtual environments, multi-user VR and 3D interfaces since 1993.

Yang (Alice) Cheng is a PhD student at the School of Journalism, University of Missouri-Columbia. Her research interests include new media effects, public relations effectiveness and value, crisis communication and management, conflict resolution, and cross-cultural communication. Some of her other publications have appeared in the New Media & Society, Encyclopedia of Public Relations, and the Journal of Radio & Television Studies, among others. She has received a Master of Arts degree in Global Communication from the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

An-Sofie Claeys (PhD, 2012, Ghent University and Royal Military Academy) is Assistant Professor at KU Leuven. She works at the Faculty of Social Sciences and is part of the Institute for Media Studies. Her research and teaching focuses on public relations and crisis communication. She has examined the impact of stealing thunder and nonverbal cues by organizational spokespersons in crisis communication. Her work has appeared in international journals such as Public Relations Review, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Applied Communication Research and Journal of Communication.

Margie Comrie is an Associate Professor in the School of Communication, Journalism and Marketing at Massey University in New Zealand. She is a Fellow of the Public Relations Institute of New Zealand. Her research interests include news media, public broadcasting, political communication, and health communication.

W. Timothy Coombs (PhD, Purdue University, in Public Affairs and Issues Management) is a Full Professor in the Department of Communication at Texas A&M University. He received the 2002 Jackson, Jackson & Wagner Behavioral Science Prize from the Public Relations Society of America and the 2013 Pathfinder Award from the Institute of Public Relations for his research contributions to research and the practice.

Ganga S. Dhanesh is Assistant Professor in Communication Management at the Department of Communications and New Media, National University of Singapore. She has had experience in corporate and nonprofit organizations and has published in the areas of corporate social responsibility and internal relations in books and journals such as Management Communication Quarterly, Public Relations Review and the Journal of Communication Management.

Mark Eisenegger is a Full Professor at the Department of Communication Studies at the University of Salzburg in Austria; he is also President of the Research Institute for the Public Sphere and Society (fög) at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. His research interests include reputation analysis, organizational and business communication, PR research, and change in the media.

Ana María Erazo-Coronado is a dentist who has carried out postgraduate studies in endodontics at the Universidad Stadual of Campinas, Brazil. She is Assistant Professor at the Universidad Metropolitana in Barranquilla, Colombia. She is a PhD candidate at the School of Communication at the Universidad del Norte. Her professional interest focuses on interpersonal health communication and risk and crisis communication. She is the author and coauthor of several journal articles.

Susan Fountaine teaches public relations in the School of Communication, Journalism and Marketing at Massey University, New Zealand.

Finn Frandsen (Mag. Art., Aarhus University) is Professor of Corporate Communication and Director of the Center for Corporate Communication in the School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark. His research interests include organizational crises, crisis management, and crisis communication. His research has appeared in international academic journals and handbooks such as Corporate Communications: An International Journal, International Journal of Strategic Communication, Management Communication Quarterly, Public Relations Review, and The Handbook of Crisis Communication. His most recent book is Organizational Crisis Communication: A Multi-vocal Approach (Sage, 2016; coauthored with W. Johansen).

Wolfgang Frindte is Professor of Communication Psychology at the Institute of Communication Research, head of the Department of Communication Psychology at Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena, Germany, and scientific head of the "Human Communication Section" at Dresden International University. His work focuses on attitudes and communication in intercultural and intergroup-specific contexts (prejudice, xenophobia, anti-Semitism, group specific violence and intergroup threats, macro-social stress, and terrorism). He is the author of numerous books and articles about xenophobia, violence, anti-Semitism, and communication psychology.

Chris Galloway is a Senior Lecturer in Public Relations at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. He previously held a similar position at Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia. His research interests include issues, crisis, risk, and emergency communication. He is the coeditor of Public Relations Issues and Crisis Management (2005) and his work has been published in a number of leading PR and communication journals.

Amiso M. George (PhD, Ohio University; APR, Fellow PRSA) is Associate Professor and former Chair of the Department of Strategic Communication, Bob Schieffer College of Communication, Texas Christian University. She developed and taught the first course in crisis communication at the University of Nevada, Reno. A visiting Associate Professor of Strategic Communication at Swinburne University in Australia in 2012, George has worked as a journalist and broadcaster in Nigeria and the United States. She is the coeditor of two books, including Case Studies in Crisis Communication: International Perspectives on Hits and Misses (Routledge, 2012).

Daniel Geschke is Lecturer in Social and Communication Psychology and researcher at the Institute of Communication Research at Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena, Germany. His work and publications focus on intergroup relations, prejudice and discrimination, as well as acculturation and integration of minorities.

Eytan Gilboa (PhD, Harvard University) is Professor of International Communication, founder and first Director of the School of Communication, and Director of the Center for International Communication at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. He has been a visiting professor at several leading American and European universities. He has published several books, including American Public Opinion toward Israel and Media and Conflict, and numerous articles and book chapters on international communication and public diplomacy. He has been an adviser to several ministries and NGOs, and a commentator on television and radio networks.

Michel M. Haigh (PhD, University of Oklahoma, 2006) is an Associate Professor in the College of Communications at the Pennsylvania State University. Her research interests are mass media influence and strategic communications.


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