The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 16. März 2017
  • |
  • 848 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-00220-8 (ISBN)
 
Updated and revised, the highly-anticipated second edition of The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness offers a collection of readings that together represent the most thorough and comprehensive survey of the nature of consciousness available today.
* Features updates to scientific chapters reflecting the latest research in the field
* Includes 18 new theoretical, empirical, and methodological chapters covering integrated information theory, renewed interest in panpsychism, and more
* Covers a wide array of topics that include the origins and extent of consciousness, various consciousness experiences such as meditation and drug-induced states, and the neuroscience of consciousness
* Presents 54 peer-reviewed chapters written by leading experts in the study of consciousness, from across a variety of academic disciplines
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons
  • 8,58 MB
978-1-119-00220-8 (9781119002208)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Susan Schneider is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at the University of Connecticut, a faculty member in the technology and ethics group at Yale's Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics and a member at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ. Her work is on the nature of the self and mind, which she examines through issues in philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence (A.I.), metaphysics, astrobiology, epistemology, and neuroscience. She is the author of The Language of Thought: a New Philosophical Direction (2011) and Science Fiction and Philosophy, Second Edition (Wiley Blackwell, 2016), and was responsible for the volume's philosophical content.
Max Velmans is Emeritus Professor of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, and has been involved in consciousness studies for over 40 years. He has over 100 publications on this topic including Understanding Consciousness (2000/2009) and Towards a Deeper Understanding of Consciousness (2017). He is a co-founder and former Chair of the Consciousness and Experiential Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society, and was responsible for the volume's scientific content.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Notes on Contributors
  • Introduction
  • Part I: The Problems of Consciousness
  • 1 A Brief History of the Scientific Approach to the Study of Consciousness
  • The Origin of Consciousness Studies: René Descartes
  • After Descartes
  • The Scientific Study of the Mental in the Nineteenth Century
  • Developments in the Early Twentieth Century
  • The Last 50 Years: The Triumph of Cognitive Psychology
  • Introspection, Protocol Analysis, and Meta-cognition
  • The Current State of Consciousness Research
  • Scientific Questions
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 2 Philosophical Problems of Consciousness
  • The Problem of Ownership
  • The Problem of Perspectival Subjectivity
  • The Problem of Mechanism
  • The Problem of Duplicates
  • The Problem of the Inverted Spectrum
  • The Problem of Transparency
  • The Problem of Unity
  • The Problem of Divided Consciousness
  • The Problem of Animal Consciousness
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 3 The Hard Problem of Consciousness
  • The Easy Problems and the Hard Problem
  • Functional Explanation
  • Some Case Studies
  • The Extra Ingredient
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • Part II: The Origins and Distribution of Consciousness
  • 4 Consciousness in Infants
  • Natural Origins of Human Consciousness and Its Growth in Human Company
  • Genesis of Awareness in Action, and in Imitation of Actions
  • Adaptations for Human Consciousness Before Birth
  • Newborn Consciousness, Dependent on Care, But Independently Imaginative and Imitative
  • How Can the Development of Infant 'Individual' Consciousness Be Observed Scientifically?
  • Infant Consciousness Coordinates Movements That Are Self-Aware, Emotional, and Communicative
  • Innate Rhythms of the Infant Mind, in Communication and for Elaboration of Consciousness
  • The "Musicality" of Protoconversation at 2 Months
  • From 6 Weeks to 6 Months: Tightening up Movements and Sharpening Awareness
  • Exploring and Using Things
  • Sharing Routines and Rituals: Performing "Musically," and Showing Off a Personality
  • Sharing Humor, with Self-Consciousness, Pleasure, and Pride
  • From 9 to 18 Months: Making Sense of the Space for Action in a Human-Made World
  • Coda: If Consciousness Is a Naturally Developing Function of Animal Life, Why Then Do Philosophers and Psychologists Have Problems with It?
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • 5 Animal Consciousness
  • Motivations
  • What's the Issue?
  • Representational Theories of Phenomenal Consciousness
  • Degrees of Consciousness
  • Evolution and Distribution of Consciousness
  • Self-consciousness and Metacognition
  • Animal Pain and Suffering
  • Summary
  • References
  • 6 Rethinking the Evolution of Consciousness
  • Introduction
  • Natural History, Adaptation, and Just-So Stories
  • Questions About the Natural History of Consciousness
  • Consciousness and the Complexity Argument
  • Just-So Stories and Beyond
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 7 Machine Consciousness
  • Introduction
  • Criteria for a Conscious Machine
  • Why Build Conscious Machines?
  • A Spectrum and a Paradigm
  • Global Workspace Systems
  • Virtual Machine Functionalism
  • Integrated Information: A Link Between the Material and the Mental
  • Cognitive Neural Architectures
  • Attention and Consciousness
  • The Physiology of a Child
  • A Depictive Model
  • Phenomenology and Models
  • The Emerging Paradigm
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 8 Panpsychism
  • Constitutive Panpsychism
  • Panpsychism and its Rivals
  • Reasons to Believe Panpsychism I - Explaining Biological Consciousness
  • Reasons to Believe Panpsychism II - Characterizing the Nature of Matter
  • Reasons to Doubt Panpsychism I - It's Just Crazy, isn't it?
  • Reasons to Doubt Panpsychism II - The Combination Problem
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part III: Some Varieties of Conscious Experience
  • 9 States of Consciousness
  • Definition and Components of Consciousness
  • Formal Capacities of Mind
  • The Sleep-Waking Cycle
  • The Neurophysiology of Sleep with Special Reference to Consciousness
  • A Four-Dimensional Model of Conscious State
  • Brain Imaging and Lesion Studies in Humans
  • Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • 10 Affective Consciousness
  • Evolution of Primal Affective Consciousness
  • The Unconditional Affects of the Brain
  • Neuro-conceptual Distinctions between Affective and Cognitive Variants of Consciousness
  • Sub-neocortical Systems for Affective Consciousness
  • Summary of Emotional Systems
  • Pervasive Cognition-Emotion Interactions
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 11 Clinical Pathologies and Unusual Experiences
  • Defining Psychopathological States
  • Common Psychological Conditions
  • The Psychoses
  • Conclusions and Clinical Implications
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 12 Altered States of Consciousness
  • Coda
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 13 Anomalous Experiences
  • Introduction
  • Anomalous Experiences and Individual Differences
  • Anomalous Experiences and Psychopathology
  • Neuroscientific Research on Anomalous Experiences
  • The Beneficial Effects of Anomalous Experiences
  • Epistemological Challenges
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 14 Mindfulness
  • Introduction
  • Mindfulness: A Therapeutic Tool
  • Cultivating Mindfulness
  • Mechanisms of Mindfulness
  • Evidence of Effectiveness
  • Quantifying Mindfulness
  • Beyond Mindfulness
  • Conclusions and Open Issues
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 15 Altered States
  • The Nature of Mystical Experience
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • Part IV: Some Contemporary Theories of Consciousness
  • 16 The Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness
  • Introduction
  • The Central Puzzle: Conscious Limits vs. Unconscious Vastness
  • Brain Evidence for Vast Capacity of Unconscious Processes
  • Psychological Evidence for Vast Unconscious Capacity
  • Autobiographical Memory
  • Global Access: An Answer to the Puzzle of Limited Capacity?
  • Critiques of Globalist Approaches
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 17 The Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness
  • Starting from Phenomenology
  • Axioms: Essential Properties of Experience
  • Postulates: Properties Required of a Physical Substrate to Support Experience
  • Identity: An Experience as a Conceptual Structure
  • Predictions and Explanations
  • Extrapolations: From Mechanisms to Phenomenology
  • Acknowledgements
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 18 The Intermediate Level Theory of Consciousness
  • Locating Consciousness
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 19 Representationalism about Consciousness
  • The Way of Ideas
  • Representation to the Rescue
  • The Exhaustion Thesis
  • Wide vs. Narrow Representationalism
  • Relational and Projectivist Approaches to the Exhaustion Thesis
  • Transparent Experience
  • The Demarcation Problem
  • Introspective Minds
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 20 Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness
  • Higher-Order Theories Explained and Contrasted with First-Order Ones
  • Inner-Sense Theory
  • Actualist Higher-Order Thought Theory
  • Dispositionalist Higher-Order Thought Theory
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 21 Quantum Approaches to Brain and Mind
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Quantum Brain
  • 3 Quantum Mind
  • 4 Brain and Mind as Dual Aspects
  • Acknowledgments
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 22 Daniel Dennett on the Nature of Consciousness
  • Dennett's Critique of the Cartesian Theater Model
  • Some Further Features of Dennett's Views on Consciousness
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 23 Biological Naturalism
  • Biological Naturalism as Scientifically Sophisticated Common Sense
  • Objections to Biological Naturalism from the Point of View of the Philosophical Tradition
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 24 Emergentism
  • 1 Objections
  • 2 Emergentism's Apologetics
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 25 Dualism, Reductionism, and Reflexive Monism
  • The Dualist View
  • The Reductionist View
  • Reflexive Monism
  • How Phenomenal Objects Relate to Real Objects
  • Is the Brain in the World or the World in the Brain?
  • Why This Matters
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 26 Naturalistic Dualism
  • Nonreductive Explanation
  • Outline of a Theory of Consciousness
  • The Principle of Structural Coherence
  • The Principle of Organizational Invariance
  • The Double-Aspect Theory of Information
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 27 Physicalist Panpsychism
  • Folly?
  • Physicalist Panpsychism
  • Experience
  • Psychism
  • An Argument
  • Step 1
  • Step 2
  • Step 3
  • Step 4
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • Part V: Some Major Topics in the Philosophy of Consciousness
  • 28 Anti-materialist Arguments and Influential Replies
  • Introduction
  • Two Forms of Anti-materialism
  • Objections to the Central State Identity Theory and Functionalism
  • The Conceivability Argument
  • The Knowledge Argument
  • The Explanatory Gap
  • Replies
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 29 Physicalism and the Knowledge Argument
  • How the Argument Works
  • Rejecting Step 1
  • Rejecting Step 2
  • Hard-to-classify Responses
  • Jackson's Conclusions
  • Russellian Monism
  • Concluding Remark
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 30 Type Materialism for Phenomenal Consciousness
  • Objection 1
  • Reply
  • Objection 2
  • Reply
  • Objection 3
  • Reply
  • Follow up to Objection 3
  • Reply
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 31 Functionalism and Qualia
  • Varieties of Functionalism
  • Views of Qualia
  • Anti-functionalist Arguments
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 32 The Causal Efficacy of Consciousness
  • Huxley's Epiphenomenalism
  • Scientific Considerations: Methodological Epiphenomenalism
  • Philosophical Problems of Mental Causation
  • Mental Causation and Mind-Body Reduction
  • Functionalization of Mental Properties
  • Saving What's Important about Phenomenal Consciousness
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 33 The Neurophilosophy of Consciousness
  • Neuroscience and Visual Consciousness
  • Neurophilosophical Theories of Consciousness
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 34 Self-Consciousness
  • The Problems of Self-Consciousness
  • Self-Consciousness and the Metaphysics of the Self
  • Direct Awareness and Propositional Awareness
  • Immunity to Error through Misidentification
  • The Scope of Self-Consciousness
  • Self-Consciousness and the Cognitive Sciences
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 35 Philosophical Psychopathology and Self-Consciousness
  • Introduction
  • My Body, My Mind
  • Searching for Real Cases of Misidentification
  • Multiple Personality Disorder and Self-Consciousness
  • A Case of Alienated Self-Consciousness
  • Thought Insertion
  • Trying to Resolve the Interpretative Puzzle
  • Interpretation and Explanation
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 36 Coming Together
  • An Elusive Quarry
  • Ownership, Awareness, Attention
  • Phenomenal Spaces and Fields
  • Relational Unity: Pluralism versus Monism
  • Subsumption, Wholes, and Holism
  • Diachronic Unity
  • A Branching of the Ways
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 37 Consciousness and Intentionality
  • Introduction
  • Inseparatism Described and Refined
  • Two Implications of Thesis C-Ins
  • Why Endorse Thesis C-Ins?
  • Nonconscious Mental States: Three Alternative Positions
  • An Epistemic Gap Counter-Argument against C-Ins
  • Inseparatism and the Impulse to Unity
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • Part VI: Major Topics in the Science of Consciousness
  • 38 Studying Consciousness Through Inattentional Blindness, Change Blindness, and the Attentional Blink
  • Inattentional Blindness, Change Blindness, and the Attentional Blink
  • Is Attention Necessary for Consciousness?
  • To What Extent is Information Processed Unconsciously?
  • A Neural Signature of Conscious Processing
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 39 Conscious and Unconscious Perception
  • Unconscious Perception
  • Conclusion
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 40 Conscious and Unconscious Memory
  • Seven (Plus or Minus Two) Principles of Conscious Recollection
  • Dissociating Explicit and Implicit Memory
  • Taxonomic Issues
  • Theories of Explicit and Implicit Memory
  • Interactions between Explicit and Implicit Memory
  • The Phenomenal Experience of Remembering
  • The Implicit and the Unconscious
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • 41 Consciousness of Action
  • Introduction
  • Cues for Action Recognition
  • What is Consciously Represented in Actions
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • Topics in the Neuroscience of Consciousness
  • 42 Methodologies for Identifying the Neural Correlates of Consciousness
  • Preliminaries
  • Behavioral Correlates of Unconscious Processing
  • Neural Correlates of Unconscious Processing
  • Neural Correlates of Conscious Processing
  • Necessary and Sufficient Neural Processes?
  • Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • 43 Conscious Processing
  • Introduction
  • Conscious versus Subconscious Processing
  • Unity in Space or Time?
  • Is Consciousness a Graded Phenomenon?
  • The "Hard Problem" Revisited
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 44 Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Existence
  • Different Kinds of Existence
  • Intrinsic Meaning: Concepts and Relations
  • Existence and Constitution: The Incoherence of Ontological Reductionism
  • Acknowledgements
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 45 Split-brain Cases
  • Characterizing Consciousness in the Split-brain Patient
  • Examining the Corpus Callosum's Contribution to Unified Subjective Experience
  • Explaining Unified Conscious Experience in the Split Brain
  • Toward an Understanding of the Neural Bases of Consciousness
  • Conclusions
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 46 Duplex Vision
  • Introduction
  • Two Visual Pathways in the Cerebral Cortex
  • Neurological Evidence
  • Evidence from Visual Illusions
  • Biological Tele-assistance
  • Consciousness and the Two Streams
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 47 Altered States of Consciousness after Brain Injury
  • Altered States of Consciousness after Brain Injury
  • Coma and Chronic Disorders of Consciousness
  • Brain Anatomy in Disorders of Consciousness
  • Neurophysiology of the Minimally Conscious and Unresponsive States
  • Models of Consciousness
  • Diagnostic and Ethical Challenges
  • Conclusion and Future Directions
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 48 Anesthesia and Consciousness
  • Anesthesia and Consciousness
  • The Evolution of General Anesthesia
  • Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia
  • Anesthesia and Awareness
  • Unconscious Processing During Anesthesia
  • The Limits of Implicit Memory in Anesthesia
  • Implicit Perception During Anesthesia, Implicit Memory Afterward
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 49 The Neuropsychology of Conscious Volition
  • Introduction
  • Cause and Effect
  • Hierarchical versus Dynamic Models of Decision Making and Action Initiation
  • The Empirical Study of Self-initiated Movement and Conscious Volition
  • Neuropsychological Disorders of the Will
  • Summary
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • First-Person Contributions to the Science of Consciousness
  • 50 Phenomenological Approaches to Consciousness
  • The Intentionality of Consciousness
  • The Phenomenal Aspect of Consciousness
  • The Temporal Structure of Consciousness
  • Self-awareness
  • Embodied Consciousness
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 51 Neurophenomenology and the Micro-phenomenological Interview
  • Is Neurophenomenology a Branch of Naturalism?
  • Deep Neurophenomenology
  • At the Heart of the Neurophenomenological Method: Studying Experience
  • Neurophenomenology in the Making: Epistemology and Methodology
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 52 Descriptive Experience Sampling
  • Pristine Inner Experience
  • Descriptive Experience Sampling in Brief
  • Constraints
  • Applications
  • Summary
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 53 Experiential Neuroscience of Pain
  • Defining Pain through an Experiential Perspective and Method
  • Characteristics of Pain-Related Emotions
  • Overview of Neural Processing of Pain
  • Existential Meanings of Pain
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • 54 An Epistemology for the Study of Consciousness
  • The Investigation of Conscious Experiences
  • Common Assumptions About the Way that Physical Phenomena Relate to Psychological Phenomena
  • When an Experimenter is also a Subject
  • The Sense in Which all Experienced Phenomena are Private and Subjective
  • Public Access to the Stimulus Itself
  • Public in the Sense of Similar Private Experiences
  • From Subjectivity to Intersubjectivity
  • The Quest for Objectivity
  • Four Kinds of Objectivity
  • Intra-Subjective and Inter-Subjective Repeatability
  • Consequences of the Above Analysis for a Science of Consciousness
  • The Empirical Method
  • How Methods Used to Study Consciousness Differ from Methods Used in Physics
  • Symmetries and Asymmetries of Access
  • Critical Realism
  • Critical Phenomenology
  • Further Readings
  • References
  • Resources for Students
  • 1 Web Resources
  • 2 Blogs Related to Consciousness
  • 3 Introductory Books on Consciousness and Overviews of Fields in Consciousness Studies
  • About the Editors
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

Notes on Contributors


Igor Aleksander is an electrical engineer who has researched artificial intelligence, cognitive systems, and the analysis of conscious organisms. Author of fourteen books and over 200 papers, in 1987 he was elected to the Royal Academy of Engineering, and in 2000 was awarded a Lifetime Achievement medal for Informatics by the Institution for Electrical Engineering. He is currently Emeritus Professor in Neural Systems Engineering and Senior Research Investigator at Imperial College, London.

Colin Allen is Provost Professor at Indiana University, where he teaches in the Cognitive Science Program and the Department of History & Philosophy of Science & Medicine. He has published numerous books and articles on topics spanning animal cognition, artificial moral agents, and digital methods in philosophy and history of science. His work has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, and he is a member of a group of five faculty at Indiana University working on the evolution of human cognition and expertise with a multi-year grant from the Templeton Foundation.

Torin Alter is Associate Professor of Philosophy at The University of Alabama. He specializes in philosophy of mind and language, with a special interest in consciousness, intentionality, and the mind-body problem. He has also written on free will and personal identity

Harald Atmanspacher works at Collegium Helveticum, University and ETH Zurich. Until 2013 he was head of the theory group at the Institute for Frontier Areas of Psychology at Freiburg, and is currently President of the Society for Mind-Matter Research, and editor-in-chief of the interdisciplinary international journal Mind and Matter. His fields of research are the theory of complex dynamical systems, conceptual and theoretical aspects of (algebraic) quantum theory, and mind-matter relations from interdisciplinary perspectives.

Bernard J. Baars PhD is an affiliate research Fellow of the Neurosciences Institute in San Diego, California (www.nsi.edu). He is the author of A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness (1988), In the Theater of Consciousness: The Workspace of the Mind (1997), and editor of Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness (2003, with William P. Banks and James R. Newman). Baars was founding co-editor of the Elsevier/Academic Press journal Consciousness and Cognition with William P. Banks. Recent journal articles have appeared in Trends in Cognitive Sciences and Trends in Neurosciences.

Richard P. Bentall is Professor of Clinical Psychology at Liverpool University and has previously held chairs at Manchester University and Bangor University. His research interests have mainly focused on psychosis. He has studied the cognitive and emotional mechanisms involved in psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and manic states, using methods ranging from psychological experiments and experience sampling to functional magnetic resonance imaging. He has published over 200 peer-review papers and a number of books including Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature (2003) and Doctoring the Mind: Why Psychiatric Treatments Fail (2009).

José Luis Bermúdez is a Professor of Philosophy and the Director of the Philosophy-Neuroscience-Psychology program at Washington University in St Louis. He is the author of The Paradox of Self-Consciousness (1998), Thinking without Words (2003), and Philosophy of Psychology: A Contemporary Introduction (2005).

Michel Bitbol is a researcher at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, based at the Husserl Archive, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris (France). He successively received an MD, a PhD in physics, and a "Habilitation" in philosophy. After starting in scientific research, he turned to philosophy, editing texts by Erwin Schrödinger and formulating a neo-kantian philosophy of quantum mechanics. He then studied the relations between the philosophy of physics and the philosophy of mind, working in close collaboration with Francisco Varela, and is currently developing a phenomenological critique of naturalist theories of consciousness.

David Bourget is completing his PhD at the University of Toronto and is currently on exchange to the Australian National University. His work centers around the topics of consciousness and representation, although he has recently published an article on quantum mechanics and consciousness in the Journal of Consciousness Studies.

Etzel Cardeña holds the Thorsen Professor Chair at Lund University. His PhD is from the University of California, Davis, and he was a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University. A fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Studies, and other societies, his areas of research include anomalous experiences, dissociation and trauma, hypnosis, and the stream of consciousness. His more than 300 publications include the books Varieties of Anomalous Experience, and Altering Consciousness.

Peter Carruthers is Professor and Chair of the Philosophy Department at the University of Maryland (College Park). He works primarily on issues in the philosophy of psychology: on consciousness, on modularity, on innateness, on the nature of intentional content, and on the place of natural language in human cognition.

David Chalmers is a Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Centre for Consciousness at the Australian National University, and an ARC Federation Fellow. He works especially in the philosophy of mind, and in related areas of philosophy and cognitive science. He is especially interested in consciousness, but also in philosophical issues about meaning and possibility, and in the foundations of cognitive science.

Marvin M. Chun is the Richard M. Colgate Professor of Psychology at Yale University with joint appointments in the Cognitive Science Program and the Yale School of Medicine Neurobiology Department. His research program uses brain imaging to study visual attention, perception, and memory.

Michael A. Cohen is a postdoctoral fellow at the McGovern Institute of Brain Research and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His work focuses on the capacity limits of visual cognition and visual awareness. He has published on these topics in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, and Psychological Science.

Mary (Molly) Colvin is a staff clinical neuropsychologist at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and an Instructor of Psychology at Harvard Medical School. She completed a doctorate in cognitive neuroscience at Dartmouth College, mentored by Michael Gazzaniga. Her clinical training included a graduate program in clinical psychology at Suffolk University, followed by an internship and postdoctoral fellowship in clinical neuropsychology at MGH and Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, MA. Her current research relates to clinical syndromes and brain function. She has particular interests in understanding the emergence of atypical patterns of lateralization across the lifespan and in the development of systems involved in emotional and behavioral regulation.

Randall C. Cork was a Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology and Director of the Pain Management Clinic at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center. He received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Arizona State University and his MD from the University of Arizona.

Barry Dainton is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Liverpool, and author of Stream of Consciousness (2000) and Time and Space (2001).

Jennifer Dorfman received her PhD from the University of California, San Diego, and has been a Visiting Scholar at UC Berkeley.

Nathan Faivre is a cognitive neuroscientist working at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland). His work focuses on the interplay between perceptual consciousness and the sense of self. He studied the behavioral and neural bases of unconscious processing in different sensory modalities including vision, audition, and touch. His recent work on self-consciousness focuses on the multisensory integration of bodily signals and metacognition.

David Fontana (1934-2010) was Reader in educational Psychology at the University of Cardiff, visiting Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of the Algarve, and a visiting professor of Transpersonal Psychology at Liverpool John Moores University. He authored over 150 papers and over 30 books translated into 26 languages that include The Elements of Meditation, The Secret Language of Symbols, The Meditator's Handbook, Learn to Meditate, and The Secret Language of Dreams. He was a co-founder and for many years chair of the Transpersonal Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society.

Chris D. Frith FRS FBA is Emeritus Professor of Neuropsychology at University College London and Honorary Research Fellow at the Institute of Philosophy, University of London. His publications include The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia (1992/2015), and Making up the Mind: How the Brain Creates Our Mental World (2007).

Shaun...

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