Organizational Culture and Leadership

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 5. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. Dezember 2016
  • |
  • 416 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-21213-3 (ISBN)
 
The book that defined the field, updated and expanded for today's organizations
Organizational Culture and Leadership is the classic reference for managers and students seeking a deeper understanding of the inter-relationship of organizational culture dynamics and leadership. Author Edgar Schein is the 'father' of organizational culture, world-renowned for his expertise and research in the field; in this book, he analyzes and illustrates through cases the abstract concept of culture and shows its importance to the management of organizational change. This new fifth edition shows how culture has become a popular concept leading to a wide variety of research and implementation by various organizations and expands the focus on the role of national cultures in influencing culture dynamics, including some practical concepts for how to deal with international differences.
Special emphasis is given to how the role of leadership varies with the age of the organization from founding, through mid-life to old age as the cultural issues vary at each stage. How culture change is managed at each stage and in different types of organizations is emphasized as a central concern of leader behavior..
This landmark book is considered the defining resource in the field. Drawing on a wide range of research, this fifth edition contains 25 percent new and revised material to provide the most relevant new concepts and perspectives alongside the basic culture model that has helped to define the field.
Dig into assumptions and typologies to decipher organizational culture
* Learn how culture begins, thrives, or dies with leadership
* Manage cultural change effectively and appropriately
* Understand the leader's role in managing disparate groups
The resurgence of interest in organizational culture has spurred an awakening in research, and new information is continuously coming to light. Outdated practices are being replaced by more effective methods, and the resulting shift affects organizations everywhere. Organizational Culture and Leadership is an essential resource for scholars, consultants and leaders seeking continuous improvement in the face of today's business realities.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
EDGAR H. SCHEIN is the Society of Sloan Fellows Professor of Management Emeritus and a professor emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management. A world-renowned expert on organizational culture credited with founding the field, he is the bestselling author of Humble Inquiry, Helping, and Humble Consulting.
1 - Organizational Culture and Leadership [Seite 3]
2 - Contents [Seite 7]
3 - Acknowledgments [Seite 11]
4 - Preface [Seite 15]
5 - Foreword [Seite 17]
6 - About the Authors [Seite 25]
7 - Part One: Defining the Structure of Culture [Seite 27]
7.1 - 1. How to Define Culture in General [Seite 29]
7.1.1 - The Problem of Defining Culture Clearly [Seite 29]
7.1.1.1 - Accumulated Shared Learning [Seite 32]
7.1.1.2 - Basic Taken-for-Granted Assumptions-The Cultural DNA [Seite 33]
7.1.1.3 - Solving Problems of External Adaptation and Internal Integration [Seite 33]
7.1.1.4 - Solutions That Have Worked Well Enough to Be Considered Valid [Seite 34]
7.1.1.5 - Perception, Thought, Feeling, and Behavior [Seite 35]
7.1.1.6 - What You Imply When You Use the Word Culture [Seite 36]
7.1.1.7 - Taught to New Members: The Process of Socialization or Acculturation [Seite 37]
7.1.1.8 - Can Culture Be Inferred from Behavior Alone? [Seite 38]
7.1.1.9 - Do Occupations Have Cultures? [Seite 39]
7.1.1.10 - Where Does Leadership Come In? [Seite 40]
7.1.2 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 40]
7.1.3 - Suggestions for Readers [Seite 42]
7.2 - 2. The Structure of Culture [Seite 43]
7.2.1 - Three Levels of Analysis [Seite 43]
7.2.1.1 - Artifacts-Visible and Feelable Phenomena [Seite 43]
7.2.1.2 - Espoused Beliefs and Values [Seite 45]
7.2.1.3 - Taken-for-Granted Underlying Basic Assumptions [Seite 47]
7.2.1.4 - The Metaphor of the Lily Pond [Seite 51]
7.2.1.5 - The Individual from a Cultural Perspective [Seite 53]
7.2.1.6 - The Group or Micro System from a Cultural Perspective [Seite 54]
7.2.2 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 55]
7.2.3 - Suggestions for Readers [Seite 56]
7.3 - 3. A Young and Growing U.S. Engineering Organization [Seite 57]
7.3.1 - Case 1: Digital Equipment Corporation in Maynard, Massachusetts [Seite 57]
7.3.1.1 - Artifacts: Encountering the Company [Seite 58]
7.3.1.2 - Espoused Beliefs, Values, and Behavioral Norms [Seite 61]
7.3.1.3 - Basic Assumptions: The Basic DEC Paradigm [Seite 64]
7.3.1.4 - Additional Basic Assumptions [Seite 66]
7.3.2 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 68]
7.3.3 - Suggestions for Readers [Seite 69]
7.4 - 4. A Mature Swiss-German Chemical Organization [Seite 71]
7.4.1 - Case 2: Ciba-Geigy Company in Basel, Switzerland [Seite 71]
7.4.1.1 - Artifacts-Encountering Ciba-Geigy [Seite 71]
7.4.1.2 - Espoused Beliefs and Values [Seite 76]
7.4.1.3 - Assumptions-The Ciba-Geigy Company's Cultural Paradigm [Seite 77]
7.4.2 - Can Organizational Cultures Be Stronger than National Cultures? [Seite 81]
7.4.3 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 82]
7.4.4 - Questions for Readers [Seite 85]
7.5 - 5. A Developmental Government Organization in Singapore [Seite 87]
7.5.1 - Case 3: Singapore's Economic Development Board [Seite 87]
7.5.2 - The EDB Nested Cultural Paradigms [Seite 89]
7.5.2.1 - 1. The Contextual Paradigm: Assumptions about the Role of Government in Economic Development [Seite 89]
7.5.2.2 - 2. The Cultural Paradigm of the EDB as an Organization [Seite 92]
7.5.3 - Summary and Conclusions: The Multiple Implications of the Three Cases [Seite 99]
7.5.4 - Questions for Readers [Seite 101]
8 - Part Two: What Leaders Need to Know about Macro Cultures [Seite 103]
8.1 - 6. Dimensions of the Macro-Cultural Context [Seite 107]
8.1.1 - Travel and Literature [Seite 107]
8.1.2 - Survey Research [Seite 108]
8.1.2.1 - Hofstede's IBM Study [Seite 108]
8.1.2.2 - The Globe Study [Seite 110]
8.1.3 - Ethnographic, Observational, and Interview-Based Research [Seite 112]
8.1.3.1 - Language and Context [Seite 112]
8.1.3.2 - The Nature of Reality and Truth [Seite 113]
8.1.3.3 - Basic Time Orientation [Seite 115]
8.1.3.4 - The Meaning of Space: Distance and Relative Placement [Seite 118]
8.1.4 - Human Essence and Basic Motivation [Seite 122]
8.1.4.1 - Assumptions about Appropriate Human Activity [Seite 124]
8.1.4.2 - Assumptions about the Nature of Human Relationships [Seite 126]
8.1.5 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 128]
8.1.6 - Questions for Readers [Seite 130]
8.2 - 7. A Focused Way of Working with Macro Cultures [Seite 131]
8.2.1 - Cultural Intelligence [Seite 133]
8.2.2 - How to Foster Cross-Cultural Learning [Seite 135]
8.2.2.1 - The Concept of a Temporary Cultural Island [Seite 135]
8.2.2.2 - Focused Dialogue in a Cultural-Island Setting [Seite 137]
8.2.2.3 - Using Dialogue for Multicultural Exploration [Seite 139]
8.2.2.4 - Legitimizing Personalization in Cross-Cultural Conversation [Seite 141]
8.2.3 - The Paradox of Macro Culture Understanding [Seite 143]
8.2.4 - Echelons as Macro Cultures [Seite 144]
8.2.5 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 147]
8.2.6 - Suggestion for the Change Leader: Do Some Experiments with Dialogue [Seite 148]
8.2.6.1 - How to Set Up a Dialogue [Seite 148]
8.2.7 - Suggestion for the Recruit [Seite 149]
8.2.8 - Suggestion for the Scholar or Researcher [Seite 149]
8.2.9 - Suggestion for the Consultant or Helper [Seite 149]
9 - Part Three: Culture and Leadership through Stages of Growth [Seite 151]
9.1 - 8. How Culture Begins and the Role of the Founder of Organizations [Seite 153]
9.1.1 - A Model of How Culture Forms in New Groups [Seite 153]
9.1.1.1 - Stage 1, Forming: Finding One's Identity and Role [Seite 153]
9.1.1.2 - Stage 2, Storming: Resolving Who Will Have Authority and Influence [Seite 154]
9.1.1.3 - Stage 3, Norming: Resolving at Which Level of Relationship We Want to Operate [Seite 155]
9.1.1.4 - Stage 4, Performing: The Problem of Task Accomplishment [Seite 156]
9.1.2 - The Role of the Founder in the Creation of Cultures [Seite 156]
9.1.3 - Example 1: Ken Olsen and DEC Revisited [Seite 158]
9.1.4 - Example 2: Sam Steinberg and Steinberg's of Canada [Seite 162]
9.1.5 - Example 3: Fred Smithfield, a "Serial Entrepreneur" [Seite 166]
9.1.6 - Example 4: Steve Jobs and Apple [Seite 168]
9.1.7 - Example 5: IBM-Thomas Watson Sr. and His Son [Seite 170]
9.1.8 - Example 6: Hewlett and Packard [Seite 170]
9.1.9 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 172]
9.1.10 - Suggestions for Readers [Seite 173]
9.1.11 - Implications for Founders and Leaders [Seite 173]
9.2 - 9. How External Adaptation and Internal Integration Become Culture [Seite 175]
9.2.1 - The Socio-Technical Issues of Organizational Growth and Evolution [Seite 176]
9.2.1.1 - External Adaptation [Seite 176]
9.2.1.2 - Internal Integration [Seite 177]
9.2.1.3 - Language and Categories of Thought [Seite 177]
9.2.1.4 - Mission and Reason to Be [Seite 178]
9.2.1.5 - Issues around Goals Derived from the Mission [Seite 182]
9.2.1.6 - Issues around the Means: Structure, Systems, and Processes [Seite 184]
9.2.1.7 - Issues around Measurement [Seite 186]
9.2.1.8 - Correction and Repair Strategies [Seite 190]
9.2.1.9 - Issues in Defining Group Boundaries and Criteria for Inclusion [Seite 194]
9.2.1.10 - Issues in Distributing Power, Authority, and Status [Seite 196]
9.2.1.11 - Issues in Developing Norms of How to Relate to Each Other around Trust and Openness [Seite 199]
9.2.1.12 - Issues in Allocating Rewards and Punishment [Seite 201]
9.2.1.13 - Issues in Managing the Unmanageable and Explaining the Unexplainable [Seite 203]
9.2.2 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 204]
9.2.3 - Suggestion for the Culture Analyst [Seite 205]
9.2.4 - Suggestion for the Manager and Leader [Seite 205]
9.3 - 10. How Leaders Embed and Transmit Culture [Seite 207]
9.3.1 - Primary Embedding Mechanisms [Seite 209]
9.3.1.1 - What Leaders Pay Attention to, Measure, and Control on a Regular Basis [Seite 210]
9.3.1.2 - Leader Reactions to Critical Incidents and Organizational Crises [Seite 216]
9.3.1.3 - How Leaders Allocate Resources [Seite 218]
9.3.1.4 - Deliberate Role Modeling, Teaching, and Coaching [Seite 219]
9.3.1.5 - How Leaders Allocate Rewards and Status [Seite 220]
9.3.1.6 - How Leaders Select, Promote, and Excommunicate [Seite 221]
9.3.2 - Secondary Reinforcement and Stabilizing Mechanisms [Seite 222]
9.3.2.1 - Organization Design and Structure [Seite 223]
9.3.2.2 - Organization Systems and Procedures [Seite 224]
9.3.2.3 - Rites and Rituals of the Organization [Seite 226]
9.3.2.4 - Design of Physical Space, Façades, and Buildings [Seite 227]
9.3.2.5 - Stories about Important Events and People [Seite 228]
9.3.2.6 - Formal Statements of Organizational Philosophy, Creeds, and Charters [Seite 229]
9.3.2.7 - Lessons for Leaders and Researchers [Seite 229]
9.3.3 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 230]
9.3.4 - Questions for Researchers, Students, and Employees [Seite 232]
9.4 - 11. The Culture Dynamics of Organizational Growth, Maturity, and Decline [Seite 233]
9.4.1 - General Effects of Success, Growth, and Age [Seite 234]
9.4.1.1 - Face-to-Face Communication and Personal Acquaintance Is Lost [Seite 234]
9.4.1.2 - "Functional Familiarity" Is Lost [Seite 234]
9.4.1.3 - Coordination Methods Change [Seite 235]
9.4.1.4 - Measurement Mechanisms Change [Seite 235]
9.4.1.5 - Pressures for Standardization Increase [Seite 235]
9.4.1.6 - Standardized Methods Become More Abstract and Potentially Irrelevant [Seite 235]
9.4.1.7 - The Nature of Accountability Changes [Seite 235]
9.4.1.8 - Strategic Focus Becomes More Difficult [Seite 236]
9.4.1.9 - The Role of Central Functions and Services Becomes More Controversial [Seite 236]
9.4.1.10 - Growth of Responsibility for Others Increases [Seite 236]
9.4.1.11 - Decision Making Becomes Biased by Responsibility for Others [Seite 236]
9.4.1.12 - Family Feeling Is Lost [Seite 237]
9.4.1.13 - A Common Culture Is Harder to Maintain [Seite 237]
9.4.2 - Differentiation and the Growth of Subcultures [Seite 237]
9.4.2.1 - Functional or Occupational Differentiation [Seite 238]
9.4.2.2 - Geographic Decentralization [Seite 241]
9.4.2.3 - Differentiation by Product, Market, or Technology [Seite 242]
9.4.2.4 - Divisionalization [Seite 243]
9.4.2.5 - Differentiation by Hierarchical Level [Seite 245]
9.4.3 - The Need for Alignment between Three Generic Subcultures: Operators, Designers, and Executives [Seite 247]
9.4.3.1 - The Subculture of the Operator Function [Seite 247]
9.4.3.2 - The Subculture of the Engineering and Design Function [Seite 250]
9.4.3.3 - The Executive Subculture [Seite 252]
9.4.4 - The Unique Role of the Executive Function: Subculture Management [Seite 255]
9.4.5 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 255]
9.4.6 - Suggestions for the Reader [Seite 257]
9.5 - 12. Natural and Guided Cultural Evolution [Seite 259]
9.5.1 - Founding and Early Growth [Seite 260]
9.5.1.1 - Incremental Change through General and Specific Evolution [Seite 260]
9.5.1.2 - Self-Guided Evolution through Insight [Seite 262]
9.5.1.3 - Managed Evolution through Hybrids [Seite 262]
9.5.2 - Transition to Midlife: Problems of Succession [Seite 263]
9.5.2.1 - Taking Advantage of Subculture Diversity [Seite 266]
9.5.2.2 - Changes in Technology [Seite 266]
9.5.2.3 - Culture Change through Infusion of Outsiders [Seite 269]
9.5.3 - Organizational Maturity and Potential Decline [Seite 271]
9.5.3.1 - Culture Change through Scandal and Explosion of Myths [Seite 273]
9.5.3.2 - Culture Change through Mergers and Acquisitions [Seite 274]
9.5.3.3 - Culture Change through Destruction and Rebirth [Seite 275]
9.5.4 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 276]
9.5.5 - Questions for Readers [Seite 277]
10 - Part Four: Assessing Culture and Leading Planned Change [Seite 279]
10.1 - 13. Deciphering Culture [Seite 281]
10.1.1 - Why Decipher Culture? [Seite 281]
10.1.1.1 - Deciphering from the Outside [Seite 282]
10.1.1.2 - Deciphering in a Researcher Role Is an Intervention [Seite 283]
10.1.1.3 - Clinical Inquiry: Deciphering in a Helper or Consultant Role [Seite 286]
10.1.2 - How Valid Are Clinically Gathered Data? [Seite 288]
10.1.3 - Ethical Issues in Deciphering Culture [Seite 289]
10.1.3.1 - Risks of an Analysis for Research Purposes [Seite 289]
10.1.3.2 - Risks of an Internal Analysis [Seite 290]
10.1.4 - Professional Obligations of the Culture Analyst [Seite 292]
10.1.5 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 293]
10.1.6 - Questions for the Reader [Seite 295]
10.2 - 14. The Diagnostic Quantitative Approach to Assessment and Planned Change [Seite 297]
10.2.1 - Why Use Typologies, and Why Not? [Seite 298]
10.2.1.1 - Issues in the Use of Surveys to "Measure" Culture [Seite 300]
10.2.1.2 - When to Use Surveys [Seite 302]
10.2.2 - Typologies that Focus on Assumptions about Authority and Intimacy [Seite 304]
10.2.2.1 - 1. Coercive Organizations [Seite 304]
10.2.2.2 - 2. Utilitarian Organizations [Seite 304]
10.2.2.3 - 3. Normative Organizations [Seite 305]
10.2.3 - Typologies of Corporate Character and Culture [Seite 307]
10.2.4 - Examples of Survey-Based Profiles of Cultures [Seite 311]
10.2.5 - Automated Culture Analysis with Software-as-a-Service [Seite 314]
10.2.6 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 319]
10.2.7 - Suggestions for the Reader [Seite 321]
10.3 - 15. The Dialogic Qualitative Culture Assessment Process [Seite 323]
10.3.1 - Case 4: MA-COM-Revising a Change Agenda as a Result of Cultural Insight [Seite 324]
10.3.1.1 - Lessons Learned [Seite 327]
10.3.2 - Case 5: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Reassessing Their Mission [Seite 328]
10.3.2.1 - Step 1: Obtain Top Leadership Commitment [Seite 328]
10.3.2.2 - Step 2: Select Groups for Self-Assessment [Seite 329]
10.3.2.3 - Step 3: Select an Appropriate Setting for the Group Self-Assessment [Seite 329]
10.3.2.4 - Step 4: Explain the Purpose of the Group Meeting (15 Minutes) [Seite 329]
10.3.2.5 - Step 5: Understand How to Think about Culture (15 Minutes) [Seite 330]
10.3.2.6 - Step 6: Elicit Descriptions of the Artifacts (60 Minutes) [Seite 330]
10.3.2.7 - Step 7: Identify Espoused Values (15-30 Minutes) [Seite 330]
10.3.2.8 - Step 8: Identify Shared Underlying Assumptions (15-30 Minutes) [Seite 331]
10.3.2.9 - Step 9: Identify Cultural Aids and Hindrances (30-60 Minutes) [Seite 331]
10.3.2.10 - Step 10: Make Decisions on Next Steps (30 Minutes) [Seite 332]
10.3.2.11 - Lessons Learned [Seite 333]
10.3.3 - Case 6: Apple Assessing Its Culture as Part of a Long-Range Planning Process [Seite 333]
10.3.3.1 - Lessons Learned [Seite 336]
10.3.4 - Case 7: SAAB COMBITECH-Building Collaboration in Research Units [Seite 337]
10.3.4.1 - Lessons Learned [Seite 338]
10.3.5 - Case 8: Using A Priori Criteria for Culture Evaluation [Seite 339]
10.3.6 - What of DEC, Ciba-Geigy, and Singapore? Did Their Cultures Evolve and Change? [Seite 340]
10.3.7 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 341]
10.3.8 - Suggestion for the Reader [Seite 343]
10.4 - 16. A Model of Change Management and the Change Leader [Seite 345]
10.4.1 - The Change Leader Needs Help in Defining the Change Problem or Goal [Seite 346]
10.4.2 - General Change Theory [Seite 347]
10.4.3 - Why Change? Where Is the Pain? [Seite 348]
10.4.4 - The Stages and Steps of Change Management [Seite 349]
10.4.4.1 - Stage 1: Creating Motivation and Readiness for Change [Seite 349]
10.4.4.2 - Principle 1: Survival Anxiety or Guilt Must Be Greater than Learning Anxiety [Seite 353]
10.4.4.3 - Principle 2: Learning Anxiety Must Be Reduced Rather than Increasing Survival Anxiety [Seite 354]
10.4.4.4 - Stage 2: The Actual Change and Learning Process [Seite 356]
10.4.4.5 - Imitation and Identification versus Scanning and Trial-and-Error Learning [Seite 356]
10.4.4.6 - Stage 3: Refreezing, Internalizing, and Learning Agility [Seite 363]
10.4.5 - Cautions in Regard to "Culture" Change [Seite 363]
10.4.6 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 365]
10.4.7 - Suggestions for Readers [Seite 367]
10.5 - 17. The Change Leader as Learner [Seite 369]
10.5.1 - What Might a Learning Culture Look Like? [Seite 370]
10.5.2 - Why These Dimensions? [Seite 375]
10.5.3 - Learning-Oriented Leadership [Seite 376]
10.5.3.1 - Learning Leadership in Culture Creation [Seite 377]
10.5.3.2 - Learning Leadership in Organizational Midlife [Seite 377]
10.5.3.3 - Leadership in Mature and Declining Organizations [Seite 378]
10.5.4 - A Final Thought: Discover the Culture within My Own Personality [Seite 380]
11 - References [Seite 381]
12 - Index [Seite 393]
13 - EULA [Seite 411]

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