Decision-Making in Crisis Situations

Research and Innovation for Optimal Training
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. Oktober 2018
  • |
  • 218 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-55782-1 (ISBN)
This book presents concepts and methods for optimal training for decision making in crisis situations. After presenting some general concepts of decision-making during crisis situations, it presents various innovations for optimal training, such as serious games, scenario design, adapted animation of crisis exercises, observation and debriefing of exercises related to pedagogical objectives.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 1,24 MB
978-1-119-55782-1 (9781119557821)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Professor Sophie SAUVAGNARGUES, Teacher-researcher, Ecole des Mines d'Ales, France.
  • Cover
  • Half-Title Page
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • I.1. References
  • 1. Concepts, Tools and Methods for Crisis Management Training
  • 1.1. The crisis unit at the heart of the process
  • 1.2. Training for crisis units
  • 1.3. Simulation of critical situations
  • 1.4. The construction of crisis simulation exercises
  • 1.5. The simulation and research platform of the Institute of Risk Sciences (IMT Mines Alès)
  • 1.6. Conclusion
  • 1.7. References
  • 2. Towards A Serious Game Within the Frame of Major Crisis Simulations for Decision-makers: How Do We Connect the DOTs?
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. State of the art
  • 2.2.1. Teaching strategy
  • 2.2.2. Simulation strategy
  • 2.2.3. Training environment
  • 2.3. Methodology
  • 2.3.1. Definition of "Degrees of Training"
  • 2.3.2. Connecting the DOTs with a definition of the skills required
  • 2.3.3. Skills activation by a crisis scenario
  • 2.3.4. Scenario execution through a simulation
  • 2.3.5. Simulation execution through a semi-virtual training environment (SVTE)
  • 2.3.6. Towards serious gaming in a real infrastructure for crisis management training
  • 2.4. Discussion
  • 2.5. Conclusion
  • 2.6. References
  • 3. Improving Crisis Exercises and Managers' Skills through the Development of Scenario Design
  • 3.1. What is a pedagogical scenario for a crisis exercise?
  • 3.2. Why and for whom the script is crucial?
  • 3.2.1. Stakes of scriptwriting for participants
  • 3.2.2. Stakes of scriptwriting for animators
  • 3.2.3. Stakes of scriptwriting for observers
  • 3.3. How can we improve the pedagogical scripting of crisis exercises?
  • 3.4. Methodology to develop a crisis exercise scenario
  • 3.4.1. Prepare the scriptwriting
  • 3.4.2. Better define the objectives to achieve
  • 3.4.3. Develop the crisis scene and construct the initial spatio-temporal structure of the scenario
  • 3.4.4. Insert learning levers to solicit training objectives: the obstacles
  • 3.4.5. Insert stimuli to not solicit unselected objectives: support stimuli
  • 3.4.6. Adjust the number of stimuli to the level and objectives of the participants
  • 3.4.7. Recreate a crisis universe: crisis stimuli
  • 3.4.8. Verify and validate the pedagogical scriptwriting
  • 3.4.9. Prepare the scenario for animators and observers
  • 3.5. Conclusion
  • 3.6. References
  • 4. Elaboration of Tools to Facilitate the Scenario Development of Crisis Management Training
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. State of the art
  • 4.2.1. The limitations encountered
  • 4.2.2. Analogy with interactive narratives
  • 4.3. Method
  • 4.3.1. Facilitation form
  • 4.3.2. Management of facilitation data
  • 4.4. Results
  • 4.4.1. Facilitation form for the technical field team leader
  • 4.4.2. The "lockdown" mission's information flow diagram used in a simulation exercise at the communal level
  • 4.5. Conclusion and perspectives
  • 4.6. References
  • 5. How Can We Evaluate the Participants of a Crisis Management Training Exercise?
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Review
  • 5.3. Methodology
  • 5.4. Results
  • 5.5. Conclusion
  • 5.6. References
  • 6. Managing the Game Within Crisis Exercises
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.1.1. The concept of Ludicity: a definition
  • 6.2. Key components of Ludicity
  • 6.2.1. The span of the game space
  • 6.2.2. Magic circle and rabbit hole
  • 6.2.3. Characters and persona
  • 6.2.4. Game master
  • 6.3. Manifestations of Ludicity
  • 6.3.1. Engagement and pedagogy
  • 6.3.2. Style of play
  • 6.4. Managing Ludicity
  • 6.4.1. Observing and detecting Ludicity
  • 6.4.2. Using Ludicity to augment the simulation
  • 6.5. Conclusions
  • 6.5.1. Using Ludicity to mend the simulation
  • 6.5.2. Crisis exercise or crisis simulacrum: does the exercise imitate life or does life imitate the exercise?
  • 6.6. References
  • 7. Digital Training for Authorities: What is the Best Way to Communicate During a Crisis?
  • 7.1. What is a good crisis communication?
  • 7.2. Information dissemination
  • 7.3. Behavioral communication
  • 7.4. Method
  • 7.5. Results
  • 7.5.1. Situation report
  • 7.5.2. Editorial line: normal and crisis times
  • 7.5.3. Quality of communication
  • 7.5.4. Defining a crisis editorial line
  • 7.5.5. Behavior, dissemination orders and crisis storytelling
  • 7.6. Summary
  • 7.7. Limits
  • 7.8. Conclusion
  • 7.9. References
  • 8. Some Perspectives Moving Forward
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Understanding what is played out in a crisis unit
  • 8.2.1. From the observation and debriefing point of view
  • 8.2.2. From the physiological and behavioral point of view
  • 8.3. Developing new methods to improve learner immersion
  • 8.3.1. Getting closer to reality, or modifying it
  • 8.3.2. Encouraging learner engagement
  • 8.3.3. Developing credible, pedagogical and interactive exercise scenarios
  • 8.4. Implementing innovative complementary tools
  • 8.5. Conclusion
  • 8.6. References
  • List of Authors
  • Index
  • Other titles from iSTE in Information Systems, Web and Pervasive Computing
  • EULA

Concepts, Tools and Methods for Crisis Management Training

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the field of crisis management training. As a first step, the descriptive elements of the crisis unit will make it possible to delineate the characteristics of this top decision-making place. Then, the different aspects of crisis management training will be addressed, before thoroughly introducing the concept of crisis simulations, which are one of the specific forms that trainings may adopt. Simulations are built and characterized by scenarios which materialize the training goals and educational content and thus favor a relevant organizational learning process. Finally, in order to illustrate the overview of this problem, we will portray the simulation and research platform of the French Institute of Risk Sciences (IMT Mines Alès).

1.1. The crisis unit at the heart of the process

The crisis team reunites decision makers who face a critical situation in a single place.

A crisis unit can be defined as a team with strong organizational integration (Sundstrom et al. 1990), in which different roles and responsibilities are finely structured (Salas et al. 1992) and hierarchized (Ahlstrom et al. 2000; Vraie et al. 2010). The members of the crisis unit are mobilized because of their skills and knowledge, and share a frame of reference and procedures (Ahlström et al. 2000) in order to accomplish the missions entrusted to them (Lachtar 2012). Considering that the activation of a crisis unit depends on the occurrence of an event requiring its mobilization, it is actually an ephemeral organization (Dautun and Lacroix 2013; MAEE 2017).

This top decision-making place, which, by definition, must suddenly be ready for operations, can quickly assume the features of a bunker, in order to accomplish its function for centralizing the various members of the organization (Maisonneuve 2010). However, it is essential that its members do not perceive the crisis room as a bunker (Lagadec 1995, 2012), so as to avoid the harmful effects of confinement on the decision-making process.

Human behavior, whether individual or collective, is at the core of a crisis unit's life (Guzzo et al. 1995; Marks et al. 2001; Weil et al. 2004; Hussain et al. 2007). Beyond the achievement of specific tasks, behavioral processes occupy a prominent place in the functioning of the crisis unit (Shanahan et al. 2007), particularly in regard to coordination, cooperation and communication mechanisms between members. In an emergency, the decision-making process is complex because the crisis unit is exposed to high levels of stress (highly challenging decisions, hierarchical or media pressure, etc.), as well as different prejudices, which may have an impact on its members, their representations and their decisions. During the acute phase of a crisis, it seems that policymakers prefer procedural (Crichton 2000; O'Connor and Dea 2007; Lagadec 2012), intuitive (Klein 1997; Lagadec and Guilhou 2002a,b) and creative (Crichton 2000; O'Connor and Dea 2007) decision-making, in the measure that their experience and the unpredictability of the crisis increase (Lapierre 2016).

Therefore, training exercises can prepare crisis unit decision makers for the complexity of these unstable universes, and help them to deal with the obstacles encountered during a critical situation, regardless of whether these are individual difficulties or collective dysfunctions.

Collective dysfunctions mainly concern the transmission of information within the crisis unit, as well as among the actors involved, particularly on how they understand the situation and cope with stress and organizational aspects. They have a direct impact on decision-making and an indirect one on the whole of the organization. These dysfunctions can be classified according to the categories presented in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1. Collective dysfunctions that may emerge at the crisis unit (according to Lapierre (2016) and Limousin (2017))

Problems related to the transmission of information References Weak information sharing King et al. (2008) Improper information transmission: omissions, inaccuracies, lack of clarity, etc. Crichton and Flin (2004), Guarnieri et al. (2016), Guarnieri et al. (2015) Selectivity in the information chosen, oversight of other relevant data Kowalski-Trakofler and Vaught (2003), Guarnieri et al. (2015) Lack of validation, decision control Guarnieri et al. (2015) Dysfunctions related to the situation Insufficient knowledge about the event and the stakes involved Dautun (2007) Difficulty to obtain a common operating picture, a common mental representation Seppänen et al. (2013), Lagadec (2015) Collapse of sense ("sense-making") Weick (1995) Control fantasy Kouabenan et al. (2006) Misrepresentation of risk, normalization of deviance Vaughan (1996) Effects of "groupthink" on the crisis unit Guarnieri et al. (2015) Lack of perspective on the situation Lagadec and Guilhou (2002a,b) Negation of the unexpected Lagadec (2012) Inadequate or erroneous assessment of the situation Crichton and Flin (2004), Guarnieri et al. (2015), Orasanu (2010) Misunderstanding in the face of inconsistent, inadequate or unfeasible demands Guarnieri et al. (2015) Dysfunctions related to stress Denial, voluntary blindness, negation of the unexpected Kouabenan et al. (2006), Lagadec (2010), Heiderich (2010), Lagadec (2012) Blocking action, ineffective processing of information Kouabenan et al. (2006), Combalbert and Delbecque (2012) Feeling of invulnerability Kouabenan et al. (2006) Consternation Crocq et al. (2009) Disorientation of members Heiderich (2010) Decrease in alertness and memory capabilities Kontogiannis and Kossiavelou (1999) Need to find/appoint leaders, instead of becoming involved Wybo (2009) Ignorance, beliefs, ideology, arrogance and intellectual misrepresentation Lagadec (2010), Heiderich (2010), Lagadec (2012) Organizational dysfunctions Partial implementation or difficulty of setting up the cell Dautun (2007) Lack of available resources Guarnieri et al. (2015) Lack of reflexes, or bad reflexes Suchet (2015) Ambiguity of roles Moulin (2014) Incorrect distribution of tasks, lack of (or bad pooling of) resources Kanki (2010) Blind endorsement or misapplication of procedures Crichton and Flin (2004), Lagadec (2012) Weak leadership Kanki (2010), Moulin (2014) Disobedience to the leader Guarnieri et al. (2015) Tensions, conflicts, lack of cohesion Van Vliet and van Amelsfoort (2008), Argillos (2004) Lack of consensus Denis (1993) Collapse or lack of coordination devices Weick (1995), Lagadec (2012), Kim et al. (2015), Smith and Dowell (2000) Lack of support from the leaders, excessive hierarchical pressure Guarnieri et al. (2015) Lack of deep personal knowledge and of other players Moulin (2014) Isolation and confinement of crisis unit members Guarnieri et al. (2015) Lack of adaptability, difficulty to innovate, improvise or reorganize oneself Edmond (2011), Autissier et al. (2012) Lack of anticipation Lagadec and Guilhou (2002a,b) Dysfunctions associated with external crisis communication Absence or lack of external communication to the cell Lagadec (1995) Difficult or inappropriate communication with the outside Dautun (2007); Kim et al. (2015)

These difficulties and shortcomings show the importance of the human factor for crisis management. On the other hand, during critical situations, managers are confronted with other...

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