Sugarcane

Agricultural Production, Bioenergy and Ethanol
 
 
Elsevier Science (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 1. Januar 2015
  • |
  • 492 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-802560-4 (ISBN)
 

Sugarcane: Agricultural Production, Bioenergy and Ethanol explores this vital source for 'green' biofuel from the breeding and care of the plant all the way through to its effective and efficient transformation into bioenergy.

The book explores sugarcane's 40 year history as a fuel for cars, along with its impressive leaps in production and productivity that have created a robust global market. In addition, new prospects for the future are discussed as promising applications in agroenergy, whether for biofuels or bioelectricity, or for bagasse pellets as an alternative to firewood for home heating purposes are explored.

Experts from around the world address these topics in this timely book as global warming continues to represent a major concern for both crop and green energy production.


  • Focuses on sugarcane production and processing for bioenergy
  • Provides a holistic approach to sugarcane's potential - from the successful growth and harvest of the plant to the end-use product
  • Presents important information for 'green energy' options
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
  • 43,14 MB
978-0-12-802560-4 (9780128025604)
0128025603 (0128025603)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Sugarcane
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • 1 Agricultural Planning
  • Introduction
  • 1.1 Planning
  • 1.1.1 Planning for Planting
  • 1.1.2 Planning of Varieties
  • 1.1.3 Planning for Harvesting
  • 1.2 Final Remarks
  • Bibliography
  • 2 Physiology
  • Introduction
  • 2.1 Photosynthesis
  • 2.1.1 Absorption of Light Energy and Water Oxidation
  • 2.1.2 Photosynthetic Electron Flow and Oxidation of Water
  • 2.1.3 Photophosphorylation
  • 2.2 Carbon Metabolism
  • 2.2.1 CO2 Fixation and C4 System Sugarcane
  • 2.2.2 C3 Carbon Reactions (Calvin-Benson Cycle)
  • 2.2.3 Efficiency of CO2 Utilization and Characteristics of Photosynthesis in Sugarcane
  • 2.3 Synthesis and Storage of Starch and Sucrose
  • 2.3.1 Synthesis of Starch
  • 2.3.2 Synthesis of Sucrose
  • 2.3.3 Transport and Allocation of Sucrose
  • 2.4 Physiology of Development
  • 2.4.1 Propagation
  • 2.4.2 Root System
  • 2.4.3 Stalk
  • 2.4.4 Leaf
  • 2.4.5 Inflorescence
  • 2.4.6 Stages of Cultivation
  • Sprouting and establishment stage
  • Tillering
  • Stalk growth stage
  • Maturation stage
  • 2.5 Crop Ecophysiology
  • 2.6 Flowering Aspects
  • 2.7 Aspects of Maturation
  • Bibliography
  • 3 Planting
  • Introduction
  • 3.1 Planning
  • 3.1.1 Production Environment
  • 3.1.2 Varieties
  • 3.1.3 Planting Season
  • 3.1.4 Spacing
  • 3.1.5 Depth of Furrow
  • 3.2 Soil Preparation
  • 3.2.1 Eradication of Previous Crop
  • 3.2.2 Infrastructure of the Ranges
  • 3.2.3 Range Sizing
  • 3.2.4 Dirt Roads
  • 3.2.5 Area Leveling and Systematization
  • 3.2.6 Terracing
  • 3.2.7 Conventional Tillage
  • 3.2.8 Reduced Tillage
  • 3.2.9 No Tillage
  • 3.2.10 Seedlings
  • 3.3 Planting
  • 3.3.1 Manual Planting
  • Furrowing
  • Cutting, loading and transportation of seedlings
  • Distribution of seedlings in the groove
  • "Covering"
  • 3.3.2 Mechanized Planting
  • Mechanized planting of entire cane
  • Mechanized planting of chopped sugarcane
  • Mechanized planting of isolated buds
  • Bibliography
  • 4 Nutrition and Fertilization
  • Introduction
  • 4.1 Considerations on Fertilization
  • 4.2 Sugarcane Mineral Nutrition
  • 4.2.1 What Should Be Applied?
  • 4.2.2 How Much Should Be Applied?
  • 4.2.3 When Should it Be Applied?
  • 4.2.4 How Should it Be Applied?
  • 4.3 Soil Fertility Assessment
  • 4.3.1 Visual Diagnosis
  • 4.3.2 Leaf Diagnosis
  • 4.3.3 Soil Assessment
  • Soil sampling
  • Analysis interpretation
  • 4.4 Chemical Management of the Soil
  • 4.4.1 Lime Application
  • 4.4.2 Phosphogypsum Application
  • (1) Fertilizing effect: source of sulfur
  • (2) Salt level corrective
  • (3) Subsurface conditioning
  • 4.4.3 Phosphate Application
  • 4.4.4 Green Fertilization
  • 4.4.5 Organic Fertilization
  • 4.4.6 Mineral N-P2O5-K2O Fertilization and Micronutrients
  • Planting fertilization
  • Ratoon fertilization: N-K2O and B fertilization
  • 4.4.7 Micronutrient Fertilization
  • (a) Through the soil
  • (b) Through herbicides
  • (c) Through foliage
  • (d) Through foliage
  • 4.5 Final Considerations
  • 4.5.1 Cane-Plant
  • 4.5.2 Ratoon
  • Bibliography
  • 5 Management of Pests and Nematodes
  • Introduction
  • 5.1 Pests
  • 5.1.1 Sugarcane Borer
  • Scientific names
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.2 Giant Borer
  • Scientific name
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.3 Termite
  • Scientific names
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.4 Sugarcane Leaf and Root Cicada
  • Scientific names
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.5 Migdolus
  • Scientific name
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.6 Elasmo Larva
  • Scientific name
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.7 Hairy Borer
  • Scientific name
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.8 Sugarcane Weevil
  • Scientific names
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 5.1.9 Maggot
  • Scientific names
  • Distribution
  • Description
  • Damage and economical importance
  • Control
  • 6 Disease Management
  • Introduction
  • 6.1 Diseases Caused by Viruses
  • 6.1.1 Mosaic (Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Disease - SCMV)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.2 Bacterial Diseases
  • 6.2.1 Leaf Scald Disease (Xanthomonas albilineans, Dowson)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.2.2 Red Stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilineans, Stapp)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.2.3 Ratoon Stunting Disease (Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.3 Diseases Caused by Fungi
  • 6.3.1 Smut (Sporisorium scitamineum)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.3.2 Brown Rust (Puccinia melanocephala, H. and P. Syd)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.3.3 Orange Rust (Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms, dissemination, and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.3.4 Red Rot (Colletotrichum falcatum, Went)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.3.5 Pineapple Rot (Ceratocystis paradoxa, Moreau)
  • History
  • Causal agent
  • Symptoms
  • Dissemination and predisposing conditions
  • Control
  • 6.4 Final Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • 7 Weed Management
  • Introduction
  • 7.1 Losses Caused by Weeds in the Sugarcane Crop
  • 7.1.1 Reduction of Stalk and Sugar Productivity
  • 7.1.2 Decrease in Sugarcane Field Longevity
  • 7.1.3 Difficulty and Increase in Harvesting Cost
  • 7.1.4 Decrease in the Industrial Quality of the Raw Material
  • 7.1.5 Shelter for Sugarcane Pests and Diseases
  • 7.1.6 Depreciation of Land Value
  • 7.2 Integrated Weed Management (Concepts and Objectives)
  • 7.2.1 Main Infecting Weeds
  • 7.2.2 Description of Some Infecting Weed Species in the Sugarcane Crop
  • Brachiaria decumbens - family: Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Panicum maximum - family: Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Sorghum halepense - family: Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Digitaria horizontalis - family: Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Brachiaria plantaginea - family: Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Cynodon dactylon - family: Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Rottboellia exaltata - family: Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Cyperus rotundus - family: Cyperaceae
  • 7.3 Planting Seasons and Interference Periods
  • 7.4 Weed Control Methods
  • 7.4.1 Preventive Control
  • 7.4.2 Cultural Control
  • 7.4.3 Mechanical Control
  • 7.4.4 Biological Control
  • 7.4.5 Chemical Control
  • 7.5 Climatic Factors Which Influence the Activities of Herbicides
  • 7.5.1 Solar Radiation
  • 7.5.2 Rainfall
  • 7.5.3 Relative Air Humidity
  • 7.5.4 Temperature
  • 7.5.5 Wind
  • 7.6 Weed Control in Green Cane
  • 7.7 Tolerance of Sugarcane Varieties to Herbicides
  • 7.8 Behavior of Herbicides in the Soil
  • 7.9 Weed Resistance to Herbicides
  • 7.10 Weed Tolerance to Herbicides in the Sugarcane Crop
  • 7.11 Herbicide Application Technology in Sugarcane
  • 7.11.1 Application by Air
  • 7.11.2 Application by Tractor
  • 7.11.3 Coastal Application
  • 7.12 Weed Management in Green Cane
  • Bibliography
  • 8 Irrigation Management
  • Introduction
  • 8.1 Most Used Irrigation Methods in the Sugarcane Crop
  • 8.1.1 Sprinkler Irrigation Method
  • Center pivot
  • Spool winder
  • Direct mounting
  • Portable rain gun
  • 8.1.2 Subsurface Drip Irrigation
  • 8.1.3 Furrow Irrigation
  • 8.2 Irrigation Management
  • 8.2.1 Important Parameters in Irrigation Management
  • Field capacity
  • Permanent wilting point
  • Soil density
  • Effective depth of the root system
  • Factor of water availability in soil
  • Evapotranspiration of the crop
  • Efficiency for water application of the irrigation system
  • 8.3 Irrigation Management Strategies
  • 8.3.1 Irrigation Without Water Deficit
  • Irrigation management with fixed watering shift
  • Irrigation management based on the soil moisture
  • Irrigation management based on the estimation of the crop evapotranspiration
  • Irrigation management with variable watering shift
  • Irrigation management based on the soil moisture
  • Irrigation management based on the evapotranspiration estimation of the crop
  • 8.3.2 Irrigation with Water Deficit
  • Bibliography
  • 9 Precision Agriculture and Remote Sensing
  • Introduction
  • 9.1 Data Acquisition in Precision Farming
  • 9.1.1 Sampling in a Regular Grid
  • 9.1.2 Sampling in Directed Grids
  • 9.2 Applications of Remote Sensing Imagery in Precision Agriculture
  • 9.2.1 Spectral Behavior of Vegetation
  • 9.2.2 Water Spectral Behavior
  • 9.2.3 Spectral Behavior of Soils
  • 9.2.4 Interaction between Radiation and Plant Canopy
  • 9.2.5 Acquisition and Canopy Geometry
  • 9.2.6 Soil-Beds
  • 9.2.7 Architecture of the Plant Canopy
  • 9.2.8 Distinction between Types of Vegetation
  • 9.2.9 Distinction between Crop Stages and Amount of Biomass (Harvest Prediction)
  • 9.2.10 Detection of Phenotypic Changes (Stress or Change in Crop Stage)
  • 9.3 Mapping Spatial Variability in Precision Agriculture
  • 9.3.1 Nearest Neighbor
  • 9.3.2 Moving Average
  • 9.3.3 Inverse Distance
  • 9.3.4 Kriging
  • Modeling of semivariograms
  • Validation of interpolation
  • 9.4 Spatial Variability Maps
  • Bibliography
  • 10 Stalk Harvesting Systems
  • Introduction
  • 10.1 Types of Harvesting Systems
  • 10.1.1 Cutting Subsystem
  • 10.1.2 Manual Cutting
  • 10.1.3 Mechanized Cut
  • 10.2 Cutters versus Harvesters
  • 10.2.1 Cutters (whole stalks)
  • 10.2.2 Harvesters (chopped stalks)
  • 10.3 Factors Involved in the Selection and Operational Capacity of Harvesters
  • 10.3.1 Machine Factors
  • Center of gravity
  • Capacity of the active cutting and internal conduction mechanisms
  • Moving speed
  • Characteristics of the mechanisms for lifting and chopping of lodged stalks and for ventilation (cleaning)
  • Power
  • Wheeling
  • 10.3.2 Farm-Specific Factors
  • Variety
  • Status of the crop
  • Soil preparation, planting system, and stalk spacing
  • Planting row length and state of dirt roads
  • Layout of the parcels
  • Terrain declivity
  • Coordination and synchronicity of subsystems
  • Management of the system
  • 10.4 Loading Subsystems
  • 10.4.1 Manual
  • 10.4.2 Mechanized or Semi-Mechanized
  • Quality of burning
  • Granulometry and soil humidity
  • Disposition of the cut stalks
  • Types of rake and grab
  • Operator aptitude
  • Types of parcel
  • 10.5 Transportation Subsystems
  • 10.5.1 Road Transportation Subsystem
  • Types of transportation unit
  • Animal
  • Tractors towing semi-trailers
  • Truck
  • 10.5.2 Railway Transportation Subsystem
  • 10.5.3 Waterway Transportation Subsystem
  • 10.5.4 Transshipment Options
  • 10.6 Reception Subsystem
  • 10.6.1 Unloading
  • Bibliography
  • 11 Breeding Program and Cultivar Recommendations
  • Introduction
  • 11.1 Breeding Programs in Brazil
  • 11.2 Strategies for the Breeding Program
  • 11.2.1 Flowering and Hybridization
  • 11.2.2 Stages of the RIDESA Breeding Program
  • 11.2.3 Recurrent Selection
  • 11.3 Desirable Characteristics in Cultivars of Sugarcane
  • 11.3.1 High Productivity
  • 11.3.2 High Sucrose Content
  • 11.3.3 Fiber Content
  • 11.3.4 Sprouting and Longevity of the Ratoons
  • 11.3.5 Tillering and Characteristics of the Stalks
  • 11.3.6 Excessive Non-Flowering
  • 11.3.7 Tolerance to Major Diseases and Pests
  • 11.4 Management of Cultivars
  • 11.4.1 Definition of Management, Number and Allocation of Cultivars
  • 11.4.2 Grading of Cultivars According to Maturation
  • 11.4.3 Planning of Planting and Allocation of the Cultivars
  • 11.4.4 Validation of the Performance of Clones and New Cultivars
  • 11.5 Final Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • 12 Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
  • Introduction
  • 12.1 Molecular Bases of Biotechnology
  • 12.2 Tissue Culture
  • 12.2.1 Disorganized Tissue Culture
  • 12.2.2 Culture of Organized Structures
  • 12.3 Genomics, Transcriptomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics
  • 12.4 Genetic Engineering and Genetically Modified Varieties
  • 12.4.1 Roundup Ready Varieties
  • 12.4.2 Insect-Resistant Varieties
  • 12.4.3 Disease-Resistant Varieties
  • 12.4.4 Non-Flowering Varieties
  • 12.4.5 Varieties with High Sucrose Content
  • 12.4.6 Drought-Resistant Varieties
  • Bibliography
  • 13 Quality Control in the Sugar and Ethanol Industries
  • Bibliography
  • 14 The Sugar Production Process
  • Introduction
  • 14.1 Quality of the Raw Material
  • 14.2 Treatment of the Sugarcane Juice
  • 14.3 Project Design and Equipments
  • 14.3.1 Evaporation
  • 14.3.2 Heating-Crystallization
  • 14.3.3 Supersaturation
  • 14.3.4 Solubility
  • 14.3.5 Saturation
  • 14.3.6 Supersaturation Index
  • Methods for measuring saturation
  • 14.3.7 Crystallization
  • Waiting method
  • Shock induced crystallization
  • Complete seeding method
  • Efficiency of crystallization
  • Crystallization rates
  • 14.3.8 Optimal Concentration of the Grains
  • Maximum surface of crystals
  • Maximum concentration of crystals per unit of final massecuite.
  • Final size of the crystals
  • Maximum porosity of the crystal layers in the centrifugal
  • Magnitude of the crystal
  • Uniformity of crystal size
  • 14.3.9 Uniformity of the Crystals
  • 14.3.10 Irregular Crystals
  • Clusters
  • 14.3.11 Twin Crystals
  • 14.3.12 Fake Grain
  • 14.3.13 Acicular Crystals
  • 14.4 Operation of the Vacuum Pans
  • 14.4.1 Preparation of the Vacuum Pan and Materials
  • 14.4.2 Volume of the Nuclei
  • 14.4.3 Graining of the Sugar
  • 14.4.4 Material to Be Crystallized
  • 14.4.5 Degree of Supply
  • 14.4.6 Density of Supply
  • 14.4.7 Final Height of the Massecuite
  • 14.4.8 Final Concentration of the Massecuite for Discharge
  • 14.4.9 System of Massecuites
  • 14.4.10 Seeding
  • Calculation of the seed
  • Number of cookings
  • Development of the crystal nuclei
  • 14.4.11 Magma
  • Conditioning of the magma
  • Thinning of the magma
  • 14.4.12 Thinning Honey
  • Recasting of the magma ("C" Sugar).
  • 14.4.13 Double Massecuite System
  • 14.4.14 Triple Massecuite System with Double Magma
  • Advantages of the system
  • 14.4.15 Number of Pan Boiling Processes to Be Produced for Each Crystallization
  • 14.4.16 Depletion-Maximum Recovery of Sucrose
  • Important points to consider
  • Depletion of the honey
  • Factors that determine a better depletion
  • 14.4.17 Complementary Crystallization by Cooling
  • Bibliography
  • 15 Ethanol Fermentation
  • 15.1 General Information Regarding Ethanol
  • 15.2 The Ethanol Industry in Brazil
  • 15.3 Historical Background of Ethanol Fermentation
  • 15.4 Production Processes
  • 15.4.1 Distillation of Alcoholic Liquids
  • 15.4.2 Synthetic Distillation
  • 15.4.3 Ethanol Fermentation (Fermentation of Carbon Hydrates)
  • 15.5 Raw Materials
  • 15.5.1 Introduction
  • 15.5.2 Classification
  • Sugar-rich raw materials
  • Starch-rich and fecula-rich raw materials
  • Cellulosic raw materials
  • 15.5.3 Sugarcane
  • 15.5.4 Molasse
  • 15.6 Agent Microorganisms in Ethanol Fermentation
  • 15.6.1 Introduction
  • 15.6.2 Characteristics of Industry-Relevant Yeasts
  • 15.7 Preparation and Adjustment of Musts
  • 15.8 Conducting of the Fermentation Process
  • 15.8.1 Introduction
  • 15.8.2 Non-Continuous Processes
  • 15.8.3 Process with One Inoculum for Each Fermentation (Simple or Conventional Batch Feeding)
  • 15.8.4 Batch Feeding by Cuts
  • 15.8.5 Decantation Process
  • 15.8.6 The Melle-Boinot Process
  • 15.8.7 Continuous Processes
  • 15.8.8 Processes with Immobilized Cells
  • 15.9 Physical and Chemical Factors Which Affect Performance for Ethanol Fermentation
  • 15.9.1 Concentration of Sugars
  • 15.9.2 Concentration of Oxygen
  • 15.9.3 Stirring
  • 15.9.4 Temperature
  • 15.9.5 pH and Acidity
  • 15.9.6 Concentration of Cells
  • 15.9.7 Nutrients
  • 15.9.8 Antibiotics/Antiseptics
  • 15.10 Stages of Ethanol Fermentation
  • 15.11 Control of Ethanol Fermentation
  • 15.11.1 Fermentation Time
  • 15.11.2 Foam Presentation
  • 15.11.3 Smell
  • 15.11.4 Residual Sugars
  • 15.11.5 Temperature of Fermentation (or of the Fermentation Environment)
  • 15.11.6 Acidity and pH
  • 15.11.7 Fermentation Efficiency
  • 15.11.8 Productivity
  • 15.11.9 Output
  • 15.11.10 Concentration of Sugars
  • Bibliography
  • 16 Distillation
  • Introduction
  • 16.1 Principles of Distillation: Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium
  • 16.2 Distillation Columns
  • 16.2.1 Condensers
  • 16.2.2 Reboilers
  • 16.2.3 Regenerators
  • 16.2.4 Coolers
  • 16.2.5 Instruments for Flow, Temperature, and Pressure Control
  • 16.3 Raw Materials
  • 16.4 Ethanol: Uses and Classification
  • 16.4.1 Fuel Ethanol
  • Hydrated ethanol
  • Anhydrous ethanol
  • 16.5 Industrial Production of Ethanol in Brazil
  • 16.5.1 Hydrous Fuel Ethanol
  • Process description
  • 16.5.2 Anhydrous Ethanol
  • Azeotropic distillation
  • Process description
  • Extractive distillation
  • Process description
  • Molecular sieve
  • Process description
  • 16.5.3 Special Alcohols
  • Impurities or byproducts
  • Anhydrous
  • Hydrous
  • Transfer operation
  • Hydroselection operation
  • Neutral ethanol
  • Process description
  • Appendix 16.1 Specifications of Hydrous Ethanol for Export
  • Appendix 16.2 Specifications of Neutral Hydrous Ethanol
  • Bibliography
  • 17 Industrial Waste Recovery
  • Introduction
  • 17.1 Bagasse and Straw Recovery
  • 17.1.1 Biomass Hydrolysis
  • 17.1.2 Furfural
  • 17.1.3 Using Bagasse for Cattle Feed
  • 17.2 Yeast and Molasses Recovery
  • 17.2.1 Chemical Composition of Yeast
  • 17.2.2 Yeast Recovery for Animal Feed
  • 17.2.3 Use of Yeast Byproducts in Food
  • 17.3 Filter Cake Recovery
  • 17.4 Vinasse Recovery
  • 17.4.1 Fertirrigation with Unprocessed Vinasse
  • 17.4.2 Vinasse Concentration
  • 17.4.3 The Cost of using Vinasse
  • 17.4.4 Biodigestion for the Production of Biogas
  • 17.5 Carbon Dioxide Recovery
  • Bibliography
  • 18 Sugarcane Bioenergy
  • Introduction
  • 18.1 Bioenergy, the Energy from Biomass
  • 18.2 Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass
  • 18.3 Sugarcane Breeding Program: Tradition and Future
  • 18.4 Energy Cane: Potential and Collection
  • 18.5 Introgression Programs
  • 18.6 Energy Cane: Characteristics, Quality, and Utility Value
  • Bibliography
  • 19 Remuneration System of Sugarcane
  • Introduction
  • 19.1 Model Assignments of Self Management - Consecana
  • 19.1.1 Steps of the Consecana System
  • 19.2 Quality Evaluation of the Raw Material
  • 19.2.1 Technical Standards for Operational Control
  • 19.3 Determination of Technological Parameters of Sugarcane
  • 19.4 Consecana System Calculations
  • 19.5 Methodology Employed in the Final Price of Sugarcane
  • 19.6 Conversion Factors
  • 19.6.1 Direct Ethanol
  • Anhydrous ethanol (99.3° INPM)
  • Hydrated ethanol (93.0° INPM)
  • 19.6.2 Sugar
  • 19.6.3 Honeys
  • 19.7 Methodology for Evaluation of Product Prices
  • 19.7.1 Calculation Procedure
  • Sources and characteristics of primary information
  • 19.7.2 Data Collection
  • 19.7.3 Treatment of Collected Information
  • 19.7.4 Indicator Prices for Sugar Export
  • 19.7.5 Technical Terms
  • Bibliography
  • 20 Theoretical Background of Sugarcane/Ethanol Analyses
  • Introduction
  • 20.1 Solutions
  • 20.2 Densimetry
  • 20.3 Refractometry
  • 20.4 Polarimetry
  • 20.5 Redox Titration
  • Bibliography
  • Suggested Websites
  • 21 Managing Costs of Production and Processing
  • Introduction
  • 21.1 Important Concepts
  • 21.1.1 Understanding Costs
  • 21.1.2 What Is Expense?
  • 21.1.3 Costs versus Expenses
  • 21.2 Classification of Costs
  • 21.2.1 Fixed Costs
  • 21.2.2 Variable Costs
  • 21.2.3 Total Costs
  • 21.2.4 Direct Costs
  • 21.2.5 Indirect Costs
  • 21.3 Contribution Margin
  • 21.4 Period Costs
  • 21.5 Break Even Point
  • 21.6 Costs as Strategy
  • 21.7 Costing Systems
  • 21.7.1 Absorption Costing Traditional Costing Systems
  • 21.7.2 Contribution Costing System, Direct, or Variable
  • 21.7.3 Activity-Based Costing
  • 21.8 Cost-Based Decisions
  • 21.9 Final Remarks
  • Bibliography
  • Index
Chapter 1

Agricultural Planning


Fernando Bomfim Margarido1 and Fernando Santos2,    1Santelisa Vale, Brazil,    2Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

According to the classical definition, it could be said that managing means planning, organizing, directing and controlling. On the basis of this definition, planning means deciding in advance what should be done for a particular purpose to be achieved, namely, to maximize agricultural and industrial yields and, thus, profits. That is the starting point for good management. Planning plays an important role in farming activities and it has taken on paramount relevance due to the expansion of areas planted with sugarcane, the influence of increased production, and the need to work to a budget. This chapter addresses planning through technical expertise aimed at operational practices. It is, therefore, a simplified view of planning.

Keywords


Sugarcane; Ethanol; Sugar; Planning; Agricultural

Introduction


Nowadays, management involves less risk than it used to. However, the responsibility involved is much greater, considering the technological processes surrounding an administrative decision. According to the classical definition, it could be said that managing means planning, organizing, directing and controlling. On the basis of this definition, planning means deciding in advance what should be done for a particular purpose to be achieved, namely, to maximize agricultural and industrial yield and, thus, profits. That is the starting point for good management.

The sugar and ethanol sector in Brazil is going through one of its best periods. There has been significant change in the sector's dynamics resulting in reduced competitiveness among industrial units, expansion of cultivated areas and adjustments in strategies adopted by companies. This chapter addresses planning through technical expertise aimed at operational practices. It is, therefore, a simplified view of planning.

1.1 Planning


The main role of agricultural managers is to foment the activity. In simple terms, fomenting the agricultural activity means guaranteeing the supply of raw materials for the industry, which involves, in the case of sugarcane culture, agricultural production, soil conservation and preparation, planting, crop practices for cane-plants, harvesting, crop practices for the ratoon and supplying mills with raw material during the harvest period. Such supply relates not only to the total quantity of cane to be crushed over the harvest period, but also the constant hourly supply, involving the concept of logistics throughout the plantation, observing machinery size and personnel availability. The agricultural production system is relevant for strategic planning in industrial units, so as to anticipate production, storage and marketing of final products.

According to Pinazza (1985), high productivity levels derive from four basic types of factors: physical, structural, institutional and development factors. Physical factors represent the edaphic and climatic conditions of a region and agricultural production. Institutional factors involve government action by means of implementation of agricultural policies. Development factors are related to the research system, and to what extent knowledge generates increased productivity. Structural factors refer to the management system adopted, and have a decisive influence on the strategic and operational performance of mills and distilleries.

Agricultural planning observes industrial planning, therefore, the starting point is the amount one plans to process along the next three growing seasons. It is important to take into account that the agricultural sector requires planning at least 2 years ahead, since it is necessary to arrange partnership agreements, prepare the soil and wait for harvest time - on average, the first cut is carried out 1½ years after planting.

1.1.1 Planning for Planting


In agricultural planning, it is important to know the productive potential of the region vis-à-vis climate, soil quality and resources available for production (use of vinasse, irrigation and fertilization). This information is especially necessary for the introduction of a new unit. When a unit is already in operation, one can look at productivity history over the last 5 or 6 years. Historical data older than 10 years are not pertinent, since varieties will not behave in the same way after such a period.

The technical area is very important as, at this point, it is necessary to survey the amount of arable land available at the various properties, their productive potential, the opportunities to purchase raw materials in regional markets, the options of land renting or production partnerships; in addition, the technical area should analyze the edaphic zoning (per production environment), topography (feasibility of mechanical harvesting), climate characteristics in the region (temperature, rainfall, light, photoperiod, water balance, frost) and the region's road system, anticipating the flow of production. In some cases, these factors make it unfeasible to locate a production unit in a particular area, for example, where high toll fees would increase transportation costs, or areas with a ban on sugarcane burning (as of 2012, in the State of São Paulo) on slopes with over 12% gradient or with the presence of stones. It should be noted that, for sugarcane production in the past, soil fertility was the sole determinant of land value, but currently, topography and presence of obstacles in the area are also determining factors.

Table 1.1 shows an example of a balanced sugarcane plantation, considering theoretical average productivity of the site and areas with equal size in each category of cutting.

Table 1.1

Balanced sugarcane production system.

Cane-plant - 4100.00 - 1° cut 120.00 4100.00 492,000.00 2° cut 100.00 4100.00 410,000.00 3° cut 92.00 4100.00 377,200.00 4° cut 81.00 4100.00 332,100.00 5° cut 73.00 4100.00 299,300.00 Other cuts 66.00 2050.00 135,300.00 Total   26,650.00 2,045,900.00

Productivity data used refer to average productivity in the north of the state of São Paulo, in the Alta Mogiana Region. To analyze a particular region, it is important to consider local productivity.

Table 1.2 considers that first cut sugarcane has been used for planting and that 1 ha produces seedlings to plant 7 ha. It should be noted that, in this case, the area where the first cut took place was smaller.

Table 1.2

Balanced sugarcane production system considering the production of seedlings.

Cane-plant - 4100.00 - 1° cut 120.00 3514.29 421,714.29 2° cut 100.00 4100.00 410,000.00 3° cut 92.00 4100.00 377,200.00 4° cut 81.00 4100.00 332,100.00 5° cut 73.00 4100.00 299,300.00 Other cuts 66.00 2050.00 135,300.00 Total   26,064.29 1,975,614.29

One can observe that the first cut area decreases, since part of it (1/7 on average) is used to produce seedlings for cane-plant planting.

For a better picture of agricultural planning, we will use as an example the construction of a new industrial unit with overall capacity to crush 2,000,000 t of sugarcane, and daily crushing capacity of 12,000 t. In this case, several factors should be considered in planning, such as physical, edaphic and climate conditions in the region, planting system, crop practices and harvesting.

Tables 1.3 to 1.11 refer to a planting plan aimed at crushing 2,000,000 t within 5 years. In this case, initial planting is large (7500 ha), decreasing slightly in the second and third years (5000 ha) and stabilizing in the fourth year (4100 ha). The technical manager in charge of planning can easily use an Excel spreadsheet to make projections, change planting areas and productivity to obtain yearly production values.

Table 1.3

Planning for the first year of sugarcane production.

Cane-plant - 7500.00 - 1° cut 120.00 - - 2°...
DNB DDC Sachgruppen

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