Introduction to Hydrogen Technology

 
 
John Wiley & Sons Inc (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 19. September 2017
  • |
  • 432 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-26558-0 (ISBN)
 
Introduces the field of hydrogen technology and explains the basic chemistry underlying promising and innovative new technologies
This new and completely updated edition of Introduction to Hydrogen Technology explains, at an introductory level, the scientific and technical aspects of hydrogen technology. It incorporates information on the latest developments and the current research in the field, including: new techniques for isolating and storing hydrogen, usage as a fuel for automobiles, residential power systems, mobile power systems, and space applications.
Introduction to Hydrogen Technology, Second Edition features classroom-tested exercises and sample problems. It details new economical methods for isolating the pure hydrogen molecule. These less expensive methods help make hydrogen fuel a very viable alternative to petroleum-based energy. The book also adds a new chapter on hydrogen production and batteries. It also provides in-depth coverage of the many technical hurdles in hydrogen storage. The developments in fuel cells since the last edition has been updated.
* Offers new chapters on hydrogen production, storage, and batteries
* Features new sections on advanced hydrogen systems, new membranes, greenhouse gas sensors and updated technologies involving solar and wind energies
* Includes problems at the end of the Chapters, as well as solutions for adopters
This book is an introduction to hydrogen technology for students who have taken at least one course in general chemistry and calculus; it will also be a resource book for scientists and researchers working in hydrogen-based technologies, as well as anyone interested in sustainable energy.
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Überarbeitete Ausgabe
  • 14,17 MB
978-1-119-26558-0 (9781119265580)
1119265584 (1119265584)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
K.S.V. SANTHANAM is a Professor in Rochester Institute of Technology's School of Chemistry and Materials Science.
ROMAN J. PRESS is a Visiting Researcher at the Rochester Institute of Technology.
MASSOUD J. MIRI is a Professor in Rochester Institute of Technology's School of Chemistry and Materials Science.
ALLA V. BAILEY is a Principal lecturer in the School of Chemistry and Materials Science at Rochester Institute of Technology.
GERALD A. TAKACS is a Professor in School of Chemistry and Materials Science at the Rochester Institute of Technology.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • About The Companion Website
  • Chapter 1 Available Energy Resources
  • 1.1 Civilization and the Search for Sustainable Energy
  • 1.2 The Planet's Energy Resources and Energy Consumption
  • 1.2.1 Energy Consumption
  • 1.2.2 Regional Differences
  • 1.2.3 Distribution by Economic Sector
  • 1.2.4 Differentiation by Type of Energy Resource
  • 1.2.5 Meeting the Energy Demands of the Future
  • 1.3 The Greenhouse Effect and its Influence on Quality of Life and the Ecosphere
  • 1.3.1 What Is the Effect of Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth?
  • 1.3.2 How the Temperature Is Kept Higher Than the Equilibrium Model
  • 1.3.3 Quality of Life
  • 1.3.4 The Ecosphere
  • 1.4 Nonrenewable Energy Resources
  • 1.4.1 Petroleum
  • 1.4.2 Natural Gas
  • 1.4.3 Coal
  • 1.4.4 Nuclear Energy
  • 1.4.5 Outlook
  • 1.5 Renewable Energy Sources
  • 1.5.1 Wind Energy
  • 1.5.2 Solar Energy
  • 1.5.3 Geothermal Energy
  • 1.5.4 Biomass Energy
  • 1.5.5 Hydropower Energy
  • 1.5.6 Ocean Energy
  • 1.6 Energy Storage
  • 1.6.1 Pumped-Hydro Storage
  • 1.6.2 Compressed Air Energy Storage
  • 1.6.3 Flow Batteries
  • 1.6.4 Batteries
  • 1.6.5 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
  • 1.6.6 Supercapacitors
  • 1.6.7 Flywheels
  • 1.6.8 Hydrogen Storage
  • 1.7 Energy Ethics
  • Problems
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 2 Chemistry Background
  • 2.1 Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium
  • 2.1.1 Equilibrium Equations and Equilibrium Constants
  • 2.1.2 Le Chatelier's Principle: The Effect of Changing Conditions on Equilibria
  • 2.2 Acid-Base Chemistry
  • 2.2.1 A Brief Review: The Arrhenius Concept
  • 2.2.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases, Proton-Transfer Reactions
  • 2.2.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases, Equilibrium Constants for Acids and Bases
  • 2.2.4 Acid-Base Equilibrium, Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs, General Trends in Acid-Base Reactions
  • 2.2.5 Dissociation of Water and pH Scale
  • 2.2.6 Buffer Solutions
  • 2.3 Chemical Thermodynamics
  • 2.3.1 Introduction
  • 2.3.2 Thermodynamic System and Changes in State
  • 2.3.3 Work and Heat
  • 2.3.4 Internal Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
  • 2.3.5 Heat of Reaction at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure
  • 2.3.6 Standard Enthalpies and Heats of Formation
  • 2.3.7 Hess's Law
  • 2.3.8 Second Law, Changes in Entropy, and the Carnot Cycle
  • 2.3.9 Third Law of Thermodynamics and Calculations of Entropy Changes for Chemical Reactions
  • 2.3.10 Gibbs Free Energy
  • 2.3.11 Relationship between Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibrium
  • 2.3.12 Temperature Dependence of the Heat of Reaction
  • 2.3.13 Temperature Dependence of the Change in Entropy and Equilibrium Constant for a Chemical Reaction
  • 2.3.14 Gibbs Free Energy Change, Nernst Equation, and Equilibrium Constant for an Electrochemical Reaction
  • 2.4 Chemical Kinetics
  • 2.4.1 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
  • 2.4.2 The Rate Law
  • 2.4.3 Determination of the Rate Law: The Method of the Initial Rates
  • 2.4.4 Integrated Rate Expressions
  • 2.4.5 Collision Theory
  • 2.4.6 The Effect of Temperature on the Rate
  • 2.4.7 The Mechanism of a Reaction
  • 2.4.8 The Influence of a Catalyst on the Rate of a Reaction
  • 2.4.9 A Closer Look at Hydrogenations: Catalysis Involving Addition of Hydrogen
  • 2.4.10 Summary
  • 2.5 Electrochemistry (Oxidation-Reduction Reactions)
  • 2.5.1 Types of Electrochemical Cells
  • 2.5.2 Electrode Potentials
  • 2.5.3 Hydrogen Electrode
  • 2.5.4 Measurement of Electrode Potentials
  • 2.5.5 Cell Voltages
  • 2.6 Organic Chemistry
  • 2.6.1 Organic Chemistry and Organic Compounds
  • 2.6.2 Hydrocarbons
  • 2.6.3 Alkanes
  • 2.6.4 Alkyl and Aryl Groups
  • 2.6.5 The Systematic Names of Hydrocarbons and Introduction to the IUPAC Nomenclature
  • 2.6.6 Alkenes
  • 2.6.7 Organic Compounds Containing Heteroatoms
  • 2.6.8 Organic Reactions Involving Hydrogen
  • 2.7 Polymer Chemistry
  • 2.7.1 Structural Formulas and Names of Polymers
  • 2.7.2 The Overall Chain Structure in Polymers
  • 2.7.3 Mechanical Properties of Polymers
  • 2.7.4 Synthesis of Polymers
  • 2.7.5 Copolymers
  • 2.7.6 The Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymers
  • 2.7.7 Polymer Crystallinity
  • 2.7.8 Thermal Behavior of Polymers: Glass and Melting Transition Temperature
  • 2.7.9 Influence of the Polymer's Microstructure on Its Crystallinity
  • 2.7.10 Environmental and Energy-Related Issues with Polymers
  • 2.7.11 Electroconductive Polymers
  • 2.7.12 Ionomers and the Protoype of a Fuel Cell Membrane: Nafion
  • 2.8 Photochemistry
  • 2.8.1 Introduction
  • 2.8.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 2.8.3 Laws of Photochemistry
  • 2.8.4 Absorption of Radiation
  • 2.8.5 Photoabsorption Spectrum, Threshold Wavelength, and Quantum Yield for Photodissociation
  • 2.8.6 Solar Radiation
  • 2.8.7 Solar Photochemical Sensitizers and Semiconductors
  • 2.8.8 Introduction to Production of Hydrogen Using Solar Radiation
  • 2.8.9 Solar Thermochemical Production of Hydrogen
  • 2.8.10 Solar Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen
  • 2.8.11 Solar Photobiological Production of Hydrogen
  • 2.9 Plasma Chemistry
  • 2.9.1 Introduction
  • 2.9.2 The Fourth State of Matter
  • 2.9.3 Criteria for Plasma
  • 2.9.4 Plasma Regions
  • 2.9.5 Sun as a Plasma Generator
  • 2.9.6 Industrial Plasma Processing Related to Hydrogen Technology
  • 2.9.7 Plasma Reforming of Fuels into Hydrogen-Rich Gases
  • 2.9.8 Plasma Deposition of Metals
  • 2.9.9 Plasma Water Splitting
  • 2.9.10 Plasma Modification of Proton Exchange Membranes
  • 2.9.11 Plasma Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste
  • Problems
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 3 Hydrogen Production
  • 3.1 Electrolysis
  • 3.2 Thermolysis (Thermal Reactions Involving Solar Energy)
  • 3.3 Photovoltaic Electrolysis
  • 3.4 Plasma ARC Decomposition
  • 3.5 Thermochemical Process (Thermal Decompositions by Processes other than Solar Energy)
  • 3.6 Photocatalysis
  • 3.7 Biomass Conversion
  • 3.8 Gasification
  • 3.9 High-Temperature Electrolysis
  • 3.10 Miscellaneous Methods
  • 3.11 Comparative Efficiencies
  • Problems
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Hydrogen Properties
  • 4.1 Occurrence of Hydrogen, Properties, and Use
  • 4.1.1 General Characteristic and Physical Properties of Hydrogen
  • 4.1.2 Occurrence of Hydrogen
  • 4.1.3 Chemical Properties of Hydrogen
  • 4.1.4 Health Effects of Hydrogen
  • 4.1.5 Use of Hydrogen
  • 4.2 Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier
  • 4.2.1 Comparison to Other Fuels
  • 4.3 Hydrogen Storage
  • 4.3.1 Storage of Hydrogen as a Compressed Gas
  • 4.3.2 Storage of Hydrogen as a Liquid
  • 4.3.3 Solid Hydrogen Storage, Chemical Methods
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 5 Hydrogen Infrastructure and Technology
  • 5.1 Production of Hydrogen
  • 5.1.1 Laboratory Methods
  • 5.1.2 Industrial Methods
  • 5.1.3 Hydrogen Production Using Renewable Energy
  • 5.1.4 Solar Direct Conversion to Hydrogen
  • 5.1.5 Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy
  • 5.1.6 Hydrogen from Biomass
  • 5.1.7 Biological Methods for Hydrogen Production
  • 5.2 Hydrogen Transportation, Storage, and Distribution
  • 5.2.1 Logistics for Hydrogen Distribution
  • 5.2.2 Transportation, Storage, and Distribution
  • 5.2.3 Centralized Hydrogen Station
  • 5.2.4 Decentralized Hydrogen Station
  • 5.2.5 Refueling Stations Design
  • 5.3 Hydrogen Safety
  • 5.3.1 Hydrogen Safety-Related Properties
  • 5.3.2 Codes and Regulating Safety
  • 5.4 Hydrogen Technology Assessment
  • 5.4.1 Introduction
  • 5.4.2 The State of Fossil Fuel Reserves
  • 5.4.3 Hydrogen Production Assessment
  • 5.4.4 Current Issues
  • 5.4.5 Summary
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 6 Batteries
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.1 Example of a Battery
  • 6.2 Definitions
  • 6.2.1 Battery
  • 6.2.2 Battery Voltage
  • 6.3 Working Units
  • 6.3.1 Specific Energy
  • 6.3.2 Energy Efficiency
  • 6.3.3 Power Density
  • 6.3.4 Discharge Rate
  • 6.3.5 Coulombic Efficiency
  • 6.3.6 Energy Efficiency (EF)
  • 6.3.7 Volumetric Density (VD)
  • 6.3.8 C and E Rates in Discharging a Battery
  • 6.3.9 Self-discharge and Shelf Life
  • 6.3.10 Cycle Life
  • 6.4 Examples of Selected Batteries
  • 6.4.1 Zn-Ni battery
  • 6.4.2 Ni-Metal Hydride Battery
  • 6.4.3 Zinc-Air Battery
  • 6.4.4 Alkaline Cells
  • 6.4.5 Pb-PbO2 Acid Battery
  • 6.4.6 Lithium Batteries
  • 6.5 Conducting Polymer Batteries (Organic Batteries)
  • 6.6 Practical Considerations
  • 6.6.1 Features of Selected Batteries
  • 6.7 Electric Transportation
  • 6.7.1 Background Information
  • 6.7.2 Primary Batteries
  • 6.7.3 Batteries for Portable Devices
  • 6.7.4 Traction Battery (TB) or Electric Vehicle Battery (EVB)
  • 6.7.5 Recharging
  • 6.7.6 Travel Range Before Recharging
  • 6.7.7 Batteries and Transportation
  • 6.7.8 Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion Engine Comparison
  • 6.7.9 Fuel Cells and Electric Batteries Comparison
  • Problems
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 7 Fuel Cell Essentials
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Definition of Fuel
  • 7.3 What is a Fuel Value?
  • 7.4 Why do we Want to use Hydrogen as Fuel?
  • 7.5 Classification of Fuel Cells
  • 7.6 Open Circuit Voltages of Fuel Cells
  • 7.6.1 Estimation of Fuel Cell Voltages Based on Redox Potentials of Fuel Cell Reactions
  • 7.6.2 Rules for Balancing Fuel Cell Reaction
  • 7.6.3 Half-Cell Potentials
  • 7.7 Thermodynamic Estimate of Fuel Cell Voltage
  • 7.7.1 Voltage Losses
  • 7.8 Efficiency of a Fuel Cell
  • 7.9 Efficiency and Temperature
  • 7.10 Influence of Electrode Material on Current Output
  • 7.10.1 Measurement of Exchange Current Densities
  • 7.11 Pressure Dependence of Fuel Cell Voltage
  • 7.12 Thermodynamic Prediction of Heat Generated in a Fuel Cell
  • 7.12.1 Factors that Contribute to Fuel Cell Heat
  • 7.13 Fuel Cell Management
  • 7.13.1 Hydrogen Supply
  • 7.13.2 Oxygen Supply
  • 7.13.3 Air Usage
  • 7.13.4 Water Output
  • 7.14 Rate of Consumption of Hydrogen and Oxygen
  • 7.15 Rate of Production of Water
  • Problem
  • 7.16 Fuel Crossover Problem
  • 7.17 Polymer Membranes for PEMFC
  • 7.17.1 General Aspects
  • 7.17.2 Modification of Existing Polymers
  • 7.17.3 Ion Transport
  • 7.18 Parts of PEMFC and Fabrication
  • 7.18.1 Anode
  • 7.18.2 Cathode
  • 7.18.3 Membrane
  • 7.18.4 Bipolar Plates
  • 7.18.5 The Need for a Bipolar Plate
  • 7.18.6 Materials for Bipolar Plates
  • 7.19 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFCs)
  • 7.19.1 Electrodes
  • 7.19.2 Anode
  • 7.19.3 Cathode
  • 7.19.4 Electrolyte and Operating Temperature
  • 7.19.5 Membraneless AFC
  • 7.20 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
  • 7.20.1 Electrodes
  • 7.20.2 Anode
  • 7.20.3 Cathode
  • 7.20.4 Electrolyte and Electrolyte Support
  • 7.20.5 Electrode Poisoning
  • 7.21 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
  • 7.21.1 Materials
  • 7.21.2 Anode
  • 7.21.3 Cathode
  • 7.21.4 Electrolyte Bridging the Cathode and Anode
  • 7.21.5 Load Curves
  • 7.21.6 Applications of SOFC
  • 7.22 Flowchart for Fuel Cell Development
  • 7.23 Relative Merits of Fuel Cells
  • 7.24 Fuel Cell Technology
  • 7.24.1 Status in Automobile Industry
  • 7.25 Fuel Cells for Special Applications
  • 7.26 Fuel Cell Reformers
  • 7.26.1 Steam Reformer
  • 7.27 Fuel Cell System Architecture
  • 7.27.1 Fuel Processor
  • 7.27.2 Power Conditioning and Controls
  • 7.27.3 Balance of Plant
  • 7.27.4 Fuel Cell Power System (FCPS) Subsystems
  • 7.27.5 Fuel Cell Power System (FCPS) Functions and Features
  • 7.27.6 FCPS Performance Characteristics
  • 7.27.7 Fuel Choice
  • Problems
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 8 Fuel Cells Applications
  • 8.1 Stationary Power Production
  • 8.1.1 Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Hybridization
  • 8.2 Fuel Cell Transportation
  • 8.2.1 Vehicle Efficiency
  • 8.2.2 Fuel Economy
  • 8.2.3 FCV Range
  • 8.2.4 Emission
  • 8.2.5 Cost
  • 8.2.6 Well-to-Wheel Analysis
  • 8.2.7 Practical Transportation Applications
  • 8.2.8 Other Transport Applications
  • 8.3 Micropower Systems
  • 8.4 Mobile and Residential Power Systems
  • 8.5 Fuel Cells for Space and Military Applications
  • 8.5.1 Space Exploration
  • 8.5.2 The Army
  • 8.5.3 Aerospace
  • 8.5.4 Naval
  • 8.6 Conclusion
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • Bibliography
  • Index
  • EULA

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