Marine and beach tourism is one of the still growing fields in tourism worldwide. These tourism activities include scuba diving, snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, cruising or ferry riding, sea kayaking, visiting fishing villages and lighthouses, sailing, and motor yachting. The growth in marine and beach tourism has helped develop and improve coastal areas.
Thailand, with its numerous attractions and tourist destinations, continues to amaze the world regarding marine and beach tourism. One of the most popular marine and beach destinations in Thailand is Phuket. Phuket is Thailand's largest island and considered to be the most famous. This island has an exceptional climate: The monsoon in Phuket comes earlier than in the other parts of the gulf and during the rainy season, the island experiences rain only once or twice a day.
The purpose of this study aims to develop the fields of ecotourism, sea tourism, and beach tourism. The study was conducted at the site of Phuket, being one of the worldwide known marine and beach attractions and well-known among foreigners. Moreover, the island of Phuket also has many beautiful marine and beach attractions that are still to be discovered by the public and need to be developed to entice more tourists to come and revisit the island.
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Dr. Sinee Sankrusme is currently an associate professor of International Business at the Department of International Business, Faculty of Business Administration, Ramkhamhaeng University, Thailand. She also held a position as head department of international business. She has authored almost one hundred articles and several books related to international business communication, international business and trade documents, international business and effects on changes, organizational behavior and management, agribusiness, agricultural marketing, agricultural business, management and human resource management, etc. Her textbook entitled International Business Correspondence was published in Germany. Most of her research focuses on international business, marketing, human resource, business, organization and management, etc. She is widely recognized for numerous publications in the international business journals and also joined several international business conferences.
Chapter: Measurement of Variables:
Measurement variables were used in order to gauge tourist satisfaction. These measurement variables, namely, product, attributes, management, satisfaction, tourist expenditures and tourist demographic, were considered in the structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was then given to 100 tourists visiting marine and beach tourism in Phuket, Thailand. The respondents were asked to assess their travel experience while in Phuket. The evaluation measurement had rate based on the five-point Likert scales. More details of the measurement variables can be seen in Table 3.1. This research will analyze how tourist satisfaction is being influenced by the measurement variables, product, attributes, and management of tourism product, tourist expenditures and tourist demographic.
There were six items considered in order to measure the satisfaction based on product. These six items considered were "Sea," "Sand," Beach," "Island," "Mountain," and "Eco-tourism product". Each of the six items was measured using a single 5-point Likert-type scale. The scale ranged from 1 = very unsatisfied to 5 = very satisfied.
There were four items considered in order to measure the satisfaction based on attributes. In this study, the four items considered were "Clean", "Beautiful", "Safety", and "Virgin". Each of the four items was measured using a single 5-point Likert-type scale. The scale ranged from 1 = very unsatisfied to 5 = very satisfied.
There were four items considered in order to measure the satisfaction based on management. In this study, the four items considered were "Attraction", "Amenities", "Accessibility", and "Image". Each of the four items was measured using a single 5-point Likert-type scale. The scale ranged from 1 = very unsatisfied to 5 = very satisfied.
There were three items considered in order to measure the satisfaction. In this study, the three items considered were "Overall satisfaction", "Comparison with expectation", and "Comparison with ideal". Each of the three items was measured using a single 5-point Likert-type scale. The scale ranged from 1 = very unsatisfied to 5 = very satisfied.
5. Tourist Expenditures:
There were five items considered in order to measure the satisfaction based on tourist expenditures. In this study, the five items considered were "Transportation expense to Thailand", "Hotel and accommodation expense in Thailand", "Domestic travelling expense within Thailand", "Shopping expense within Thailand", and "Food expense within Thailand". Each of the five items was measured using a single 5-point Likert-type scale. The scale ranged from 1 = very unsatisfied to 5 = very satisfied.
6. Tourist Demographics:
There were nine items considered in order to measure the tourist demographics. In this study, the three items considered were gender, age, years of schooling, education level, annual income, occupation, nationality, tourist expenditures, and length of the stay. The questions included in this study were asking for personal information such as: "What is your gender?", "What is your age?", "How many years did you spent to complete your highest education?", "What is your educational level?", "What is your annual income?", "What is your occupation?", "What is your nationality?", " How much is your trip expenditure ?", and "How long do you intend to stay?".[.].
In a natural and common definition, reliability is defined as the "steadiness" or "repeatability" of measures. Reliability has also something to do with the quality of measurement. Before reliability can be analyzed, the foundation of reliability needs to be understood. Then, know the score theory of measurement. Aside from that, the different types of measurement error were also important to learn since errors in measures are an important key in lowering the reliability. Having known the mentioned information, you can now move to the basic theory of reliability, as well as an accurate definition of reliability. However, you need to understand that reliability cannot really be calculated, but can only be estimated. With this, there are various ways on how to estimate reliability. It is also important to note that reliability needs to integrate with other quality measurement, like validity. Formulate a way that you can better understand the relationship between reliability and validity. In statistics and psychometrics, reliability is considered the overall consistency of a measure. A variable with high reliability produces similar results under a consistent condition. In a set of test scores, an amount of random errors could be inserted in the scores. Precise, reproducible, and consistent scores after testing is done from one step to another will give a high score of reliability. This is considering that the testing process were repeated with a group of test takers, and still the same results were acquired. The amount of error in the score is indicated by various different kinds of reliability coefficient, with values ranging between 0.00 (much error) and 1.00 (no error). [.].
The data collected for this study was from international tourists visiting marine and beach destinations in Phuket, Thailand. Prior to obtaining the data from the respondents, they were initially informed about the purpose of the research. Respondents were given a questionnaire containing questions that are based on the review of the theories and features of marine and beach destinations in Phuket, Thailand. The questionnaire was pretested using limited sample group in order to test ist validity. Also, it is also pretested was conducted to improve the validity and completeness of the questionnaire. After the pretest was conducted, it was then distributed to the target population of visiting tourists.
Data used in this study was obtained from 2 sources, namely, Primary Data and Secondary Data. (1) Primary Data was collected from in-depth interview with some important persons and experts on marine tourism. This also includes an in-depth interviews with business owners, private and government groups, and tour firms. Furthermore, primary data include the direct answers from the survey conducted with tourists who used the services of marine and beach tourism in Phuket. (2) Secondary Data was obtained from domestic journals, foreign journals, thesis, research books, notices, seminars, statistics, articles, news, publications, advertising, etc. For this part, the respondents were asked to provide a rating score on the product, attributes, management, tourist expenditures, and satisfaction based on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The range is from 1(very unsatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied).
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