Provides comprehensive coverage of corrosion inhibitors in the oil and gas industries
Considering the high importance of corrosion inhibitor development for the oil and gas sectors, this book provides a thorough overview of the most recent advancements in this field. It systematically addresses corrosion inhibitors for various applications in the oil and gas value chain, as well as the fundamentals of corrosion inhibition and interference of inhibitors with co-additives.
Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industries is presented in three parts. The first part on Fundamentals and Approaches focuses on principles and processes in the oil and gas industry, the types of corrosion encountered and their control methods, environmental factors affecting inhibition, material selection strategies, and economic aspects of corrosion. The second part on Choice of Inhibitors examines corrosion inhibitors for acidizing processes, inhibitors for sweet and sour corrosion, inhibitors in refinery operations, high-temperature corrosion inhibitors, inhibitors for challenging corrosive environments, inhibitors for microbiologically influenced corrosion, polymeric inhibitors, vapor phase inhibitors, and smart controlled release inhibitor systems. The last part on Interaction with Co-additives looks at industrial co-additives and their interference with corrosion inhibitors such as antiscalants, hydrate inhibitors, and sulfide scavengers.
-Presents a well-structured and systematic overview of the fundamentals and factors affecting corrosion
-Acts as a handy reference tool for scientists and engineers working with corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industries
-Collectively presents all the information available on the development and application of corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industries
-Offers a unique and specific focus on the oil and gas industries
Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industries is an excellent resource for scientists in industry as well as in academia working in the field of corrosion protection for the oil and gas sectors, and will appeal to materials scientists, electrochemists, chemists, and chemical engineers.
Viswanathan S. Saji is a Research Scientist III at the Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Saudi Arabia. He received PhD (2003) degree from the University of Kerala, India. He was a Research Associate at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay (2004-2005) & Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore (2005-2007), Postdoctoral Researcher at Yonsei University (2007-2008) & Sunchon National University (2009), Senior Research Scientist at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) (2009-2010), Research Professor at Chosun University (2008-2009) & Korea University (2010-2013), and Endeavour Research Fellow at University of Adelaide (2014). He has authored 65 journal publications, contributed to 5 books and 10 book chapters. His research interest lies in electrochemistry, corrosion science, and nano/bio/energy materials.
Saviour A. Umoren, PhD, is a research scientist with Centre of Research Excellence in Corrosion (CoRE-C) of the Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He was also a lecturer and researcher at the Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Nigeria and the Head of Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo.
PART I. FUNDAMENTALS AND APPROACHES
An Overview of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry: Upstream, Midstream and Downstream Sectors
Fundamentals of Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Oil and Gas Sectors
Environmental Factors Affecting Corrosion Inhibition in Oil and Gas Industry
Key Materials in Oil and Gas Production and the Choice of Inhibitors
Corrosion Inhibition in Oil and Gas Industry: Economic Considerations
PART II. CHOICE Of INHIBITORS
Corrosion Inhibitors for Acidizing Process in Oil and Gas Sectors
Corrosion Inhibitors for Sweet Oilfield Environment (CO2 Corrosion)
Corrosion Inhibitors for Sour Oilfield Environment (H2S Corrosion)
Corrosion Inhibitors for Refinery Operations
Inhibitors for High Temperature Corrosion in Oil and Gas Fields
Experience in Using Chemicals to Mitigate Corrosion in Difficult Corrosive Environments in the Oil and Gas Industry
Polymeric Corrosion Inhibitors for Oil and Gas Industry
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Inhibition in Oil and Gas Industry
Vapor Phase Corrosion Inhibitors for Oil and Gas Field Applications
Mechanisms of Inhibitor Action - Passivation and Self-Healing
PART III. INTERACTION WITH CO-ADDITIVES
Antiscalants and their Compatibility with Corrosion Inhibitors
Hydrate Inhibitors and their Interferences in Corrosion Inhibition
Sulfide Scavengers and their Interference in Corrosion Inhibition
An Overview of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry: Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream Sectors
Yahya T. Al-Janabi
Research and Development Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, 31311, Saudi Arabia
The oil and gas industry is normally divided into three major components: upstream, midstream, and downstream. The upstream sector explores, locates, and produces crude oil and natural gas from both underground and underwater fields, which are referred to as onshore and offshore fields, respectively. For this, the upstream sector is sometimes referred to as exploration and production (E&P). Types of wells handled in the upstream sector include oil, gas, and water. The midstream sector involves the transportation (by pipeline, rail, barge, oil tanker, or truck), processing, storage, and wholesale marketing of crude or refined petroleum products. Pipelines and other transport systems are used to move crude oil and natural gas from production sites to refineries and petrochemical plants. Natural gas pipeline networks gather gas from natural gas producing wells and from separation and purification plants and deliver it to downstream sector and customers, such as local utilities. Midstream operations often overlap with some elements of the upstream and downstream sectors. For example, the midstream sector may encompass natural gas processing plants that purify the raw natural gas as well as removing and producing elemental sulfur and natural gas liquids (NGLs). The third component is the downstream sector that includes crude oil refineries, petrochemical plants, and petroleum products distribution. One major component of the downstream sector is the refining of crude oil into gasoline, diesel, jet, and other fuels. In addition, the downstream industry provides thousands of products such as jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas, and propane.
At the early stages of crude oil production from a newly discovered field, the produced fluids streams are normally dry. Water, however, is required for corrosion to occur at low temperatures. As a result, the majority of equipment used in oil production were conveniently constructed from the relatively low cost carbon steel that has the required strength for pressure containment. It is very common that the life of these installations exceed 50?years without the need to apply any corrosion control measure as long as the streams remain dry or dominated by the hydrocarbon phase. Nothing remains the same with the passage of time. As oil and gas fields matured, the amount of produced water increased either naturally or due to recovery by waterflooding, for example. This increase in water content called for employing an effective and practically easy to apply corrosion control method.
Corrosion inhibition has been the method of choice that allowed production from fields that were about to be abandoned because of the increase in corrosion activity. The accumulated experience of using carbon steel with corrosion inhibition encouraged extending this approach even to environments with aggressive corrosion conditions such as wells with higher H2S contents. Batch and continuous corrosion inhibitor treatments became two of the most common methods to control internal corrosion of carbon steel piping and equipment in oil and gas production, transportation, and processing. A large number of commercial corrosion inhibitors are available, and new products are being continuously developed by chemical manufacturers. Several international standards have been developed  and are being developed  for corrosion inhibitor evaluation and selection.
Corrosion encountered in the production of oil and gas is very costly and it involves direct and indirect costs associated with lost time, the replacement of materials of construction, and the continuous involvement of personnel in corrosion management as well as safety and environmental consequences. In 2016, NACE International released the "International Measures of Prevention, Application and Economics of Corrosion Technology (IMPACT)" study, which estimates the global cost of corrosion to be approximately US$2.5?trillion. The study reviewed cost of corrosion studies performed by several countries including, Australia, China, Finland, Germany, India, Japan, Kuwait, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Based on these studies, the annual corrosion costs in each nation ranged from approximately 1-5% of their gross national product (GNP). These studies do not include the cost of corrosion failures consequences on safety and environment. The IMPACT study found that significant savings between 15% and 35% of the cost of damage can be realized by implementing corrosion control practices that are equivalent to reducing the global corrosion cost by US$375-875 billion annually.
1.2 Corrosion in Upstream Production Operations
The upstream sector  includes exploration, drilling, completion, production, processing, and workover of both oil and gas fields. Simplified process flow diagrams for oil and gas production are shown in Figure 1.1 along with typical midstream processing facilities .
Exploration involves searching for oil and gas reserves both conventional and unconventional. Drilling for these reserves could be in the vertical direction only or combined with horizontal-lateral-drilling. The drilled wells are completed using casings only or with production tubing, and different types of valves. The production casing or tubing are perforated to allow flow from the reservoir. To control flow, different valves are installed within the well, at the wellhead, and at the assembly on top of the well head - usually called the Christmas tree. The fluids from the wells are transported using flowlines and trunklines to processing facilities to separate gas, oil, and water. The wells are worked over in case of drop in production due to plugging, for example, or if a major well component fails. A schematic of a typical oil well is shown in Figure 1.2.
Figure 1.1 Simplified upstream and midstream process flow diagrams for (a) oil wells and (b) gas wells.
Source: Adapted from Baker Hughes 2013 .
Figure 1.2 Schematic of a typical oil well.
Hydrocarbon reservoirs can be gaseous, liquid, or both. A natural gas reservoir under initial conditions contains a single gaseous hydrocarbon phase. If the gaseous hydrocarbon phase contains heavier ends that become liquid at the surface, the reservoir is classified as a gas condensate reservoir. An oil reservoir, on the other hand, can be either two-phase (gas-liquid) or single liquid phase. A gas well produces from a natural gas reservoir and an oil well produces from an oil reservoir. Natural gas reservoirs are usually at higher temperatures than crude oil reservoirs. This implies higher downhole temperatures in gas wells than in oil wells. Two main characteristics of the wells are the bottomhole temperature (BHT) and the bottomhole pressure (BHP). BHT is the temperature at the center of the perforated interval, while BHP is the pressure at the center of the perforated interval under shut-in conditions. The pressure can reach to more than 90?MPa (~13?000?psi) and the temperature to more than 200?°C (~390?°F).
A reservoir or a well are classified as sweet whencarbon dioxide (CO2) is present with no or very little hydrogen sulfide (H2S). They will be classified as sour if H2S is present at noticeable amounts. CO2 and H2S are called acid gases. Due to the different corrosion damage mechanisms, sweet and sour wells usually have different corrosion control strategies from drilling to transportation. The gas could be non-associated when produced alone or associated when produced with oil. Condensate wells are gas wells with condensed liquids as well. A characteristic quantity is the gas-oil ratio (GOR), which is the ratio of produced gas to produced oil at standard conditions.
At the beginning of their production life, oil and gas wells could be dry, i.e. no formation water, or have low water cuts. Normally, the water cut increases with time as the well matures, so does damage due to corrosion attacks. The scaling tendency and the potential of emulsion formation are dependent on the type of formation water. A comprehensive geochemical analysis of formation water is essential for reservoir characterization. Reservoirs are also characterized by permeability and porosity or pore classification and distribution. Permeability is a measure of the ease of fluid flow through a body of porous material under a standard pressure differential. Porosity is a measure of the reservoir pore volume, distribution, and connectivity. These three parameters generally govern the reservoir productivity.
Drilling could be for conventional oil or natural gas, or water, and could be onshore or offshore. The drilled wells can be on any depth from surface to 6000?m. The drilling process is facilitated using drilling fluids that are recirculated as the drill bit digs through the different formations that could be, for example, sandstone or limestone. To reach different parts of...