Abbildung von: Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering - Wiley

Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering

Decision Making, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
Stuart Sabol(Autor*in)
Wiley (Verlag)
Erschienen am 17. Mai 2016
256 Seiten
ePUB mit Adobe-DRM
978-1-119-11976-0 (ISBN)
80,99 €inkl. 7% MwSt.
für ePUB mit Adobe-DRM
E-Book Einzellizenz
Als Download verfügbar
Using a case study approach, this reference tests the reader's ability to apply engineering fundamentals to real-world examples and receive constructive feedback
Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering provides real life examples of the application of engineering fundamentals. They relate to real equipment, real people and real decisions. They influence careers, projects, companies, and governments. The cases serve as supplements to fundamental courses in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, instrumentation, economics, and statistics. The author explains equipment and concepts to solve the problems and suggests relevant assignments to augment the cases.
Graduate engineers seeking to refresh their career, or acquire continuing education will find the studies challenging and rewarding. Each case is designed to be accomplished in one week, earning up to 15 hours of continuing education credit. Each case study provides methods to present an argument, work with clients, recommend action and develop new business.
Key features:
* Highlights the economic consequences of engineering designs and decisions.
* Encourages problem solving skills.
* Application of fundamentals to life experiences.
* Ability to practice with real life examples.
Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering is a valuable reference for mechanical engineering practitioners working in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer and related areas.
Mr. Sabol is an engineer with broad experience in the power industry, detailed design, and asset management. His accomplishments include writing of computer programs, detailed fluid system designs, engineering designs for the destruction of chemical weapons, resolution of complex engineering problems, engineering project management, and management of power generating assets. He graduated from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Mechanical Engineering, holds a Professional Engineer's license in the State of Texas and is a certified Project Management Professional. His published works relate to the use of modelling programs, maintenance optimization, and woodworking techniques. Currently residing in Texas, Mr. Sabol provides consulting services.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Case 1: Steam Turbine Performance Degradation
  • 1.1 Steam Turbine Types
  • 1.2 Refresher
  • 1.3 Case Study Details
  • 1.4 Case Study Findings
  • 1.5 Decision Making and Actions
  • 1.6 Closure
  • 1.7 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 1.8 Answer Key
  • References
  • Case 2: Risk/Reward Evaluation
  • 2.1 Case Study
  • 2.2 Background
  • 2.3 Gas Turbine Operating Risks
  • 2.4 Case Study Evaluations
  • 2.5 Case Study Results
  • 2.6 Closure
  • 2.7 Answer Key
  • Reference
  • Case 3: Gas Turbine Compressor Fouling
  • 3.1 Background
  • 3.2 Case Study Details
  • 3.3 Case Study Results?/?Closure
  • 3.4 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 3.5 Answer Key
  • References
  • Case 4: Flow Instrument Degradation, Use and Placement
  • 4.1 Background
  • 4.2 Case Study Details
  • 4.3 Exercises
  • 4.4 Closure
  • 4.5 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 4.6 Answer Key
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • Case 5: Two-Phase Hydraulics
  • 5.1 Background
  • 5.2 Case Study Details
  • 5.3 Exercises
  • 5.4 Closure
  • 5.5 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 5.6 Answer Key
  • References
  • Case 6: Reliability and Availability
  • 6.1 Background
  • 6.2 Case Study Details
  • Exercise
  • 6.3 Closure
  • 6.4 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 6.5 Answer Key
  • Reference
  • Case 7: Efficiency and Air Emissions
  • 7.1 Background
  • 7.2 Case Study Details
  • 7.3 Refresher
  • 7.4 Objective
  • 7.5 Exercises
  • 7.6 Closure
  • 7.7 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 7.8 Answer Key
  • References
  • Case 8: Low-Carbon Power Production1
  • 8.1 Background
  • 8.2 Refresher
  • 8.3 Case Study Details
  • 8.4 Closure
  • 8.5 Answer Key
  • References
  • Case 9: Heat Exchangers and Drain Line Sizing
  • 9.1 Background
  • 9.2 Reading
  • 9.3 Case Study Details
  • 9.4 Closure
  • 9.5 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 9.6 Answer Key
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • Case 10: Optimized Maintenance
  • 10.1 Background
  • 10.2 Refresher
  • 10.3 Presentation Techniques
  • 10.4 Reading
  • 10.5 Case Study Details
  • 10.6 Closure
  • 10.7 Symbols and Abbreviations
  • 10.8 Answer Key
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • Case 11: Project Engineering
  • 11.1 Opening
  • 11.2 Background
  • 11.3 Project Planning and Definition
  • 11.4 Executing the Project
  • 11.5 Closure
  • 11.6 Answer Key
  • Reference
  • Case 12: In the Woodshop
  • 12.1 Background
  • 12.2 Case Study Details
  • 12.3 Closure
  • 12.4 Glossary
  • 12.5 Solutions
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

Case 1
Steam Turbine Performance Degradation

A private investor-owned power company owns 15 GW of capacity including conventional fossil-fired generation and natural-gas fired combined cycle gas turbine power plants spread throughout the United States. The company competes in several unregulated power markets and takes seriously its ability to provide safe, reliable, low-cost power compared to its competitors while meeting all environmental permit requirements. Quarterly senior management reviews include reports on worker and contractor safety performance, the reliability and efficiency of the facilities, as well as any exceedances of environmental permits. The company spent time and resources establishing guidelines and procedures for regular performance monitoring at its generating facilities, including results analysis. These guidelines are routinely reinforced at every level of the organization with training for new recruits and refresher courses for midlevel management.

The performance-monitoring procedures and guidelines include techniques to analyze the test data based on industry guidelines, particularly ASME PTC Committee (2010) and technical papers from noted industry experts such as Cotton and Schofield (1970). For the company's steam turbines, the condition of the various stages is related to changes in stage pressures at standard conditions knowing how the throttle flow to the machine has changed. The methods are based on the fact that, for a large multistage condensing turbine, all stages, except the first and last, operate with a constant pressure ratio (p2/p1.) This allows the general flow equation for flow through a converging-diverging nozzle for stages beyond the first stage to be simplified to equation (1.1)



  • , P and ? are the flow rate, absolute pressure and specific volume to the following stage;
  • F is a constant flow function (area).

The flow function F includes unit conversions, constants of proportionality, the area of flow, and the coefficient of discharge for the nozzle and blade path. Except for unit conversions it has units of area.

A production engineer at one of the company's coal-fired power plants with three 600 MW subcritical single reheat units has been monitoring the units' performance according to company procedures. In just over 7 months since the last major overhaul one unit has lost 3.4% of its output, and the cycle heat rate has increased 0.6%. Using the guidelines, most of degradation in performance can be explained by changes in the flow-passing capability of the steam turbine and losses in the high-pressure (HP) turbine efficiency.

However, there are changes to characteristics that are not discussed in the corporate standards or the technical papers available in the office. In particular, the intermediate pressure (IP) turbine's extraction temperature has risen noticeably from the expected value. Efforts to explain the symptoms as instrumentation issues have failed. Rather than dismiss or ignore the findings, you, the engineer, are determined to find the cause, its economic value, and to recommend a course of action to address the issue.

1.1 Steam Turbine Types

The variety and application of steam turbines is enormous. It includes the utility tandem compound unit pictured in Figure 1.1, mechanical drives for onshore or marine applications, combined-cycle and single Rankine-cycle units, super critical, single or double reheat units, and nuclear power-plant applications. One way to categorize the various models is by size. Very basically, smaller installations typically serve as variable speed mechanical drives for pumps and compressors. These may be as large as 50 to 75 MW and have inlet conditions up to 750 psi (5.2 MPa) and 700 °F (644 K). Many are located within chemical processing plants or refineries and exhaust into a lower pressure steam header that provides steam for heating, or to drive smaller steam turbines that may exhaust into a surface condenser. The larger varieties will be multistage units with an axial flow exhaust.

Figure 1.1 Alstom steam turbine.

Source: Reproduced by permission of Alstom.

Up to about 150 MW, steam turbines typically have an axial flow exhaust with throttle conditions as high as 1500 psi (10 MPa) and 900 °F to 1000 °F (755 K to 810 K). Figure 1.2 shows a drawing of a Siemens axial flow machine. Such turbines may be used in a chemical process plant and have a controlled extraction for process heat or other uses. This size is also common in combined cycle power plants with uncontrolled expansion to the condenser. Occasionally, an axial flow machine will have single reheat as part of the cycle. If it is a condensing cycle, the condenser can be placed on the same elevation as the turbine. Combined cycle units utilize waste heat from a gas turbine to generate steam; thus, steam-turbine extractions for regenerative heating are not employed in a combined cycle. A single Rankine cycle would employ uncontrolled extractions for feedwater heating.

Figure 1.2 Typical axial flow exhaust steam turbine.

Source: Reproduced by permission of Siemens Energy.

Above approximately 150 MW, the last stage blade (L-0) becomes too long to manufacture and operate reliably. The low pressure (LP) turbine becomes a dual flow design with steam entering the center section and steam traveling in opposing directions to exhaust downward into the condenser. For these machines, the steam turbine must be raised above the condenser, which increases construction costs to include foundations for an elevated turbine. Figure 1.3 is a photograph of the 700 MW ST Hekinan Unit 3, Chubu Electric Power Co. steam turbine. The tandem compound machine has dual flow HP and IP sections in the foreground with two dual-flow LP sections in the background.

Figure 1.3 700 MW ST Hekinan Unit 3, Chubu Electric Power Co.

Source: Reproduced by permission of Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems America, Inc.

Machines as large as 650 to 750 MW usually operate with subcritical steam pressures with a single reheat. Throttle conditions may be as high as 2800 psi (19 MPa) and 1050 °F (840 K) with the reheat temperature matching the throttle temperature. Units in this size range are generally uncontrolled expansion, condensing units used for power generation either in combined cycles or single Rankine cycle units with regenerative heating. The larger single Rankine-cycle units may have two or three dual-flow, down-exhaust LP sections. Combined-cycle steam turbines are limited in size by the gas turbine portion of the combined cycle. As a rule of thumb, the steam portion of the combined cycle plant is about one-third of the plant total electrical output. Most of the single Rankine-cycle units are fossil fired although some may be in nuclear facilities. Combined cycle and fossil-fired units operate at synchronous speed with a two-pole generator. Nuclear units typically have four-pole generators and operate at half synchronous speed.

Above about 650 MW, fossil-fired units begin using supercritical pressures and may include double reheat Rankine cycles with regenerative feedwater heating. Throttle conditions may be above 4000 psi (28 MPa) and 1150 °F (895 K). Reheat temperatures usually match the throttle conditions but cost optimizations may result in the reheat temperatures somewhat above the throttle. Nuclear steam cycle conditions generally do not change much with size. The largest steam turbine at the time of this writing was in the neighborhood of 1800 MW.

1.1.1 Steam Turbine Components

The active components of steam turbines are the rotating and stationary blades. Rotating blades are sometimes referred to as buckets, from their shape. Steam to the machine is controlled by multiple throttle valves. In large modern machines there are four hydraulically controlled valves that can close very quickly in the event of an upset. From the control valves, the steam is directed to the first control stage through sets of nozzles. Each set of nozzles accepts steam from one of the inlet throttle valves. The first control or governing stage has impulse or Curtis blading. Beyond the governing stage, the blades take on an increasing amount of reaction, as the pressure diminishes and the pressure ratio increases across each rotating stage.

The rotating blades are mounted on wheels or disks that are fixed to the shaft, or the shaft is machined with integral wheels to accept the blades - see Figure 1.4. The wheels provide increased torque on the shaft. The blades are secured in the wheel by a dovetail or fir tree shaped slot. Each blade is weighted and moment balanced, then ordered so that the assembled rotor is nearly balanced. During assembly of the rotor, the blades are slid into the dovetail slots until the ring is full. The blades are locked in place and the locking mechanism is frequently peened to ensure the security of the blades during operation.

Figure 1.4 An LP section of a large nuclear steam turbine.

Source: Reproduced by permission of Alstom.

A large steam-turbine generator in a reheat cycle will have a high pressure (HP) rotor, one or more intermediate pressure (IP) rotors, and one or several low pressure (LP) rotors....

Dateiformat: ePUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)


  • Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).
  • Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions oder die App PocketBook (siehe E-Book Hilfe).
  • E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat ePUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet – also für „fließenden” Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an.
Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein „harter” Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Bitte beachten Sie: Wir empfehlen Ihnen unbedingt nach Installation der Lese-Software diese mit Ihrer persönlichen Adobe-ID zu autorisieren!

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer  E-Book Hilfe.