Core Concepts in Sociology

Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. September 2018
  • |
  • 376 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-16863-8 (ISBN)
An essential guide to the basic concepts that comprise the study of sociology with contributions from an international range of leading experts

Core Concepts in Sociology is a comprehensive guide to the essential concepts relevant to the current study of the discipline and wider social science. The contributing authors cover a wide range of concepts that remain at the heart of sociology including those from its academic founding and others much more recent in their development. The text contains contributions from an international panel of leading figures in the field, utilizing their expertise on core concepts and presenting an accessible introduction for students.

Drawing on the widest range of ideas, research, current literature and expert assessment, Core Concepts in Sociology contains over 90 concepts that represent the discipline. Coverage includes concepts ranging from aging to capitalism, democracy to economic sociology, epistemology to everyday life, media to risk, stigma and much more. This vital resource:

Sets out the concepts that underpin the study of sociology and wider social science
Contains contributions from an international panel of leading figures in the field
Includes a comprehensive review of the basic concepts that comprise the foundation and essential development of the discipline
Designed as a concise and accessible resource

Written for students, researchers and wider professionals with an interest in the field of sociology, Core Concepts in Sociology offers a concise, affordable and accessible resource for studying the underpinnings of sociology and social science.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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978-1-119-16863-8 (9781119168638)

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J. MICHAEL RYAN, PhD, is currently a researcher for the TRANSRIGHTS Project at the Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal) funded by the European Research Council.
List of Contributors xi

Introduction 1

Aging, Sociology of 3
Susan A. McDaniel

Alienation 6
Chris Yuill

Anomie 8
Mathieu Deflem

Body, the 10
Chris Shilling

Capital: Cultural, Social, and Economic 14
William Haller

Capitalism 17
Rob Beamish

Citizenship 23
Charles Lee

City, the 27
Leonard Nevarez

Class 30
Rob Beamish

Class, Capitalist 34
Leslie Sklair

Colonialism and Postcolonialism 37
Gurminder K. Bhambra

Community 40
Graham Day

Constructionism vs. Essentialism 43
Kenneth J. Gergen

Consumption 46
Juliet B. Schor

Crime and Juvenile Delinquency, Sociology of 50
Joseph Asomah and Hongming Cheng

Culture, Sociology of 55
Lisa McCormick

Democracy 60
Kathleen C. Schwartzman

Demography and Population Studies 63
Sangeeta Parashar

Development, Sociology of 67
Peter Evans and Patrick Heller

Deviance 70
Erich Goode

Disability, Sociology of 76
Valerie Leiter

Dramaturgy 79
Robert D. Benford

Economic Sociology 81
Milan Zafirovski

Education, Sociology of 86
Annette Lareau and Sherelle Ferguson

Emotion, Sociology of 90
Marci D. Cottingham

Environment, Sociology of the 93
Riley E. Dunlap

Epistemology 96
Liz Stanley

Ethnography 98
Richard Ocejo

Ethnomethodology 100
Andrew P. Carlin

Everyday Life 103
Arthur McLuhan

Family and Kinship, Sociology of 105
Linda L. Semu

Feminist Theory 110
Nancy Naples

Frames, Narratives, and Ideology 114
Rens Vliegenthart

Gender 118
Michael Kimmel and Katie M. Gordon

Globalization 123
George Ritzer

Homelessness 126
James D. Wright

Homophobia and Heterosexism 129
Damien W. Riggs

Human Rights, Sociology of 131
Patricia Hynes

Identity 133
James E. Cote

Immigration, Migration, and Refugees 137
Alexandra Parrs

Inequality, Gender 141
Robert Max Jackson

Inequality, Global 145
Roberto Patricio Korzeniewicz

Inequality, Racial and Ethnic 149
Rutledge M. Dennis

Internet, the 155
Charalambos Tsekeris

Intersectionality 158
Kylan Mattias de Vries

Knowledge, Sociology of 161
E. Doyle McCarthy

Life Course 166
Jeylan T. Mortimer

Marxism 169
Alan Spector

Masculinities 175
Sebastian Madrid

Media, Sociology of the 178
Michele Sorice

Medical Sociology 182
William C. Cockerham

Medicalization 187
Peter Conrad

Mental Health and Illness 190
Emily Allen Paine and Tetyana Pudrovska

Military Sociology 194
Ryan Kelty and David R. Segal

Modernity 197
Gerard Delanty and Aurea Mota

Nationalism 200
Helen Rizzo

Organizations, Sociology of 203
Stewart Clegg

Patriarchy 206
Bronwyn Winter

Political Sociology 208
Alan Scott

Popular Culture 212
Beryl Langer

Postmodernism and Poststructuralism 215
Julie M. Albright

Poverty 219
Tracy Shildrick

Power and Authority 222
Ashley Harrell and Shane Thye

Public Sociology 225
Esther Oliver

Qualitative Methods 229
Amir Marvasti

Quantitative Methods 235
Guillermina Jasso

Race and Ethnicity 242
John Stone

Rationalization, Bureaucratization, and McDonaldization 247
George Ritzer

Religion, Sociology of 250
Ryan T. Cragun

Risk 254
Rolf Lidskog

Science and Technology, Sociology of 257
Gary Bowden

Self, the 261
Peter L. Callero

Sexualities 265
Barry D. Adam

Social Justice 271
Valerie Chepp

Social Media and Virtual Communities 274
Gaspar Brandle

Social Movements and Social Change 276
Colin Bernatzky and David A. Snow

Social Network Analysis 281
Christina Prell

Social Psychology 284
Maria C. Ramos and Lynn Smith-Lovin

Socialization 290
Jeremiah C. Morelock and John B. Williamson

Sociological Imagination 293
Christopher Andrews

Sociological Theory 295
Jeffrey Stepnisky

Sociology 302
Elizabeth Hartung and Peter Kivisto

Space and Place 309
John R. Logan

Sport, Sociology of 312
Jay Coakley

Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 316
Michael Pickering

Stigma 318
Matthew Clair

Stratification and Inequality 322
Nico Wilterdink

Structure and Agency 326
Piotr Sztompka

Symbolic Interactionism 329
Robert Dingwall

Urban Sociology 333
Cate Irvin and Kevin Fox Gotham

Work, Occupations, and Professions, Sociology of 338
Rudi Volti

Index 342

Body, the

Chris Shilling

University of Kent, UK

Body matters have long been viewed as the province of the natural rather than the social sciences, as evident in Durkheim's insistence that sociology involves studying "social facts" that are qualitatively different from the subject matter of biology. Yet sociology has, since the early 1980s, focused increasingly on the physical constitution, the senses and affects of human being. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to say that the "rise of embodiment" has been one of the most influential sociological developments over the last thirty years, culminating in the establishment of an interdisciplinary field of "body studies." It is not just the social sciences, moreover, that have recognized the societal importance of bodies. Epigenetics has acknowledged that social factors can determine the expression of genes, for example, while bioarchaeology has revealed how human bones can illuminate patterns of migration and gender differences in diet. Perspectives from outside as well as inside the discipline have thus recognized the importance of studying the body as a social as well as an organic phenomenon.

It is social developments themselves, however, that have highlighted most visibly the importance of the body for understanding modern societies. The rise of consumer culture from the 1950s was associated with a proliferation of "slim, sexy and youthful" body images in advertising and social media. Relatedly, people's pursuit of the "body beautiful" has intensified recently, with 15.6 million cosmetic procedures performed in the United States alone during 2014. This obsession with bodily perfection has also been associated with social problems, including eating disorders, and the invention of new terms such as "muscle dysmorphia" and "tanorexia" to denote obsessions with physical appearance. The prominence of such issues helps account for why sociologists, interested in an array of contemporary developments, have felt compelled to incorporate body matters into their research.

Classical Foundations

Sociology has also become interested in the body as a means of reinterpreting its heritage in order to enhance the discipline's explanatory power. In this context, while the status of the body may have been submerged within classical sociology, analysts have unearthed a "secret history" of relevant writings. These include Spinoza's monism, Marx's materialism, and Nietzsche's analyses of Apollonian rationality and Dionysian sensuality. Within sociology itself, Comte linked morally harmonious societies with actions informed by mind and heart, while Tönnies understood the shift from medieval to modern societies as the outcome of contrasting embodied wills. It was the writings of Durkheim, Weber, and Elias, however, that have arguably proven of most enduring worth to sociological studies of the body.

Despite associating sociology with the study of institutions, Durkheim developed a theory of religion and society based on a concern with the body's social potential. While bodies generate egoistic appetites, they conceal "a sacred principle that erupts onto the surface" via markings or adornments that facilitate the circulation in social assemblies of a collective effervescence enabling individuals to become attached to and emboldened by entities greater than themselves (Durkheim [1912] 1995: 138, 233). These themes continue to resonate in studies of forms of embodiment, forms of sociality, and diverse manifestations of the sacred.

Emanating from the contrasting methodologically individualist tradition of German thought, Weber also recruited the body to his writings on the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Weber analyzed how religious beliefs shaped bodily identities and behavior. Eschewing sinful pleasure, and immersing themselves in labor while searching for worldly signs of election, the physical habits stimulated by the Reformers provided a corporeal basis for rational capitalism. Weber's writings continue to influence body studies of rationalization, diet, frailty, and religion.

Norbert Elias's writings on long-term civilizing processes (recognized increasingly as an essential contribution to the foundations of the discipline) have inspired contemporary analyses of the intercorporeal interdependences that drive social developments. Elias explored how codes of body management gained increasing importance in almost every European country from the Renaissance onwards, promoting a heightened tendency among people to monitor and mold themselves in relation to these criteria. These developments were assisted by wider social contexts: in contrast to earlier periods, survival depended less on physical battles and more on skills of impression management in which the body became a location for social codes.

Embodying Structure and Agency

Classical sociological resources continue to influence contemporary studies, but two areas in which considerations of the body have exerted a particular effect across sociology concern conceptions of social structures and human agency. Social structures have often been conceived of as operating via ideological forces, while people's capacities to act have been linked to status or class-based capacities for cognitive thought. Yet this focus on the mind ignores the corporeal correlates of constraint and enablement, as evident in the work of two of the most important figures within the sociology of the body: Michel Foucault and Marcel Mauss.

Foucault (1975) wrote extensively on the operation of disciplinary structures. In the European penal system, for example, medieval displays of monarchical power focused upon destroying the bodies of offenders. In the late early modern era, however, there emerged a new "art of penal government" in which disciplining the body became more important than destroying it. Focused upon improving the population's human capital, this "art" was exemplified by the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham's design for a "panopticon" conducive to rehabilitation. Evident in developments across hospitals, asylums, prisons, and schools, the recent culmination of these more "positive" means of control is exemplified by a consumer culture that eschews "control by repression" in favor of control by stimulation.

In relation to human agency, in contrast, Marcel Mauss's ([1934] 1973) writings on "techniques of the body" have been central to analyses of culture and action. Mauss identifies social, psychological, and biological dimensions to body techniques, and emphasizes that our knowledge is intimately related to how we sense and move within our environment. In contrast to conventional Western philosophical conceptions of a "brain-bound mind" trapped within an irrational body, learning involves transactions with our environment; taking our surroundings into our bodies through breath, sight, hearing, etc., while also transforming them through our actions. This approach towards the embodied basis of human agency has been complemented by studies of "body pedagogics" that draw on the writings of the pragmatists Dewey, Mead, Peirce, and James - and also on the phenomenologist Merleau-Ponty - in suggesting that action passes through cycles of habit, crisis and creativity as individuals experience equilibrium or disturbance within their environment.

If body matters are key to understanding structures and agency, so too they are for comprehending related social processes. Social divisions and power relations are articulated through various features of the body. Racism is a prominent example, with the history of plastic surgery highlighting how discrimination and persecution operate through the medium of the body. Social solidarities also emerge through the body. Tattooing and scarification have long been used to signify tribal and communal membership, while the food incorporated into or excluded from bodies during periods of religious observance including Ramadan has traditionally been associated with the promotion of collective experiences of belonging. Such examples suggest the body is our most natural symbol (Douglas 1970). It is often experienced intensely as a sign and vehicle of identity and belonging that can also signal deep differences between peoples.

Contested Bodies

Having outlined the background to and foundations of body studies, it is important to highlight the diverse trajectories associated with the subject as well as the contemporary conflicts with which it is associated. The distinctive factors that have shaped current writings on embodiment include "second wave" feminism's focus on gendered bodies, and ecological concerns about "one-dimensional" consumption-oriented lifestyles. Elsewhere, there has been a focus on commodification processes and the body, ranging from the brutal selling of women and children into the sex industry, to the global problem of organ trafficking and the pervasive standing of appearance as a form of physical capital. The significance of the body as a commodity has also added to the valuation placed upon youth, and the stigma associated with ageing and dependence.

From a different perspective, current sociological trajectories involving the body have also been influenced by the rise of embodied artificial intelligence...

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