Four Centuries of Clinical Chemistry

 
 
Taylor & Francis Ltd. (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 8. Oktober 2018
  • |
  • 580 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB ohne DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-351-44731-7 (ISBN)
 
The origin and early years of any rapidly changing scientific discipline runs the risk of being forgotten unless a record of its past is preserved. In this, the first book-length history of clinical chemistry, those involved or interested in the field will read about who and what went before them and how the profession came to its present state of clinical importance. The narrative reconstructs the origins of clinical chemistry in the seventeenth century and traces its often obscure path of development in the shadow of organic chemistry, physiology and biochemistry until it assumes its own identity at the beginning of the twentieth century. The chronological development of the story reveals the varied roots from which modern clinical chemistry arose.
  • Englisch
  • Boca Raton
  • |
  • USA
  • 7,17 MB
978-1-351-44731-7 (9781351447317)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • I
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy, Disease, and Therapy
  • Transition of Alchemy to Chemistry
  • Paracelsus
  • Uroscopy
  • Van Helmont and Discovery of Gas
  • Sylvius and Iatrochemistry
  • Iatrophysicists (Iatromechanists)
  • II
  • Introduction
  • Robert Boyle
  • Color Test and Chemical Reaction
  • Analysis of Blood
  • The Gaseous State and Pneumatic Chemistry
  • The New Chemistry of Combustion and Respiration
  • Nomenclature
  • III
  • Introduction
  • Urinary Calculi and Discovery of Uric Acid
  • Cystine and Cystinuria
  • Preparation and Analysis of Urea
  • Analysis of Urine
  • Chemistry vs Physiology
  • William Prout Discovers the Acid of Gastric Juice
  • Alexander Marcet, Golding Bird, and Analysis of Calculi
  • IV
  • Introduction
  • Protein and Food Shortage
  • Analysis of Nitrogen: Methods of Dumas and Will-Varrentrapp
  • Kjeldahl Analysis
  • Nessler's Reagent
  • Berzelius: International Authority
  • Vital Force"
  • Wöhler's Synthesis of Urea
  • Organic Synthesis by Berthelot
  • The Analytical Balance
  • Volumetric (Titrimetric) Analysis
  • Karl Mohr
  • V
  • Introduction
  • Library Medicine, Bedside Medicine, and the Stigma of Dissection
  • The Stethoscope and the Changing Patient-Physician Relationship
  • The Changing Role of Therapy
  • Measurement and the Focus on Specific Diseases
  • Bright's Disease, Albuminuria, and Scientific Medicine
  • Body Fluids and the Examination of Blood
  • Chemical Analysis: Voices Pro and Con
  • VI
  • Rees and the Estimation of Urea and Sugar in Blood
  • Bence Jones Protein
  • A Theory of Diabetes
  • Alkaline Tide
  • Medical Education
  • Liebig's Concept of Stone Formation
  • Liebig's Laboratory at Giessen
  • The Impact of "Animal Chemistry"
  • Animal Chemistry Society
  • Chemistry in the Service of Society, Technology, and Medicine
  • Chemistry Separates from Medicine
  • Chemistry and the Apothecaries' Act of 1815
  • Clinical Chemistry-A False Start for a New Identity
  • VII
  • Textbooks on Urine and Blood Analysis (1863-1899)
  • Albuminuria and Insurance Companies
  • Esbach's Method for Urine Protein
  • Detection of Protein by Dipstick
  • VIII
  • Cholera, Acidosis, and Fluid-Electrolyte Therapy in 1832
  • Chemical Studies and Therapeutic Responses When Cholera Returns
  • The Early History of Polyuria, Glycosuria, and Hyperglycemia
  • Sugar Analysis and Alkaline Copper Sulfate
  • Fehling's Solution
  • Fermentation
  • Polariscope-Saccharimeter
  • Claude Bernard Discovers the Glycogenic Function of the Liver
  • Chemical Findings in Diabetic and Other Forms of Acidosis
  • Van Slyke's Apparatus for Measuring Bicarbonate Concentration and Detection of Acidosis
  • Milliequivalents and Cation-Anion Balance
  • Discovery of Insulin
  • IX
  • Respiration and Combustion
  • Early Studies on Blood Gases
  • Hoppe-Seyler Isolates Hemoglobin
  • Physiological Chemistry and Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie
  • Quantitation of Red Cells and Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit, Urine Sediments, and the Centrifuge
  • Hydrogen Electrode
  • Sørensen, pH, and Buffers
  • Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation and New Definitions for Acid and Base
  • Glass Electrode
  • Beckman pH Meter
  • X
  • Early Development and Use of the Microscope
  • Clinical Microscopy and the Evolution of Clinical Laboratories in Great Britain
  • Emergence of Clinical Laboratories in the United States
  • Medicine and the Scientific Method
  • The $300 Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Testing (1900-1920)
  • Medical Technologists, Commercial Laboratories, and World War I
  • Laboratory Supplies and Suppliers
  • Origins of the Chemical Glassware Industry in America
  • Bausch & Lomb Optical Co.
  • XI
  • Introduction to Physiological Chemistry
  • Chittenden and the Sheffield Scientific School
  • Societies, Journals, and the Diversity of Biochemistry
  • Analysis by Color Comparison
  • The Duboscq Colorimeter and Its Early Uses
  • Modern Colorimeter
  • The Optical Laws of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer
  • Duboscq's Optical Instruments
  • XII
  • Introduction
  • The Flexner Report and Medical School Reform
  • Medical Chemistry, Physiological Chemistry, and Biological Chemistry
  • Otto Folin
  • Metabolic Studies at McLean Hospital
  • Colorimetric Methods for Blood Analysis
  • Nonprotein Nitrogen (NPN)
  • Folin Joins Harvard Medical School
  • The Folin-Wu Protein-Free Filtrate and Other Protein Precipitants
  • Stanley Benedict
  • The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
  • Donald Dexter Van Slyke and the Rockefeller Hospital
  • Ivar Bang and Micromethods
  • Venipuncture and Blood Analysis
  • Evolution of the Hypodermic Syringe
  • Becton Dickinson and Company (1897-1997) and the Vacutainer Tube
  • XIII
  • Introduction
  • Benedict's Reagent for Urine Glucose
  • Analysis of Blood Glucose
  • Method Modifications by Folin and Benedict
  • A New Glucose Reagent-Alkaline Ferricyanide
  • Somogyi Protein-Free Filtrate
  • Tablets, Powders, and Dipsticks
  • Another New Glucose Reagent-Ortho-Toluidine
  • Enzymatic Methods for "True" Glucose
  • Creatine, Creatinine, and Creatinine Clearance
  • Uric Acid
  • Urea and Urease
  • Urea Clearance
  • Phenolsulphonephthalein Excretion
  • Bromsulphalein Retention
  • Blood Volume
  • XIV
  • Chloride
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Sodium and Potassium: Introduction
  • Gravimetric, Titrimetric, and Colorimetric Methods
  • Spectroscopy
  • Bunsen and Kirchhoff Apply Spectral Analysis
  • Arc and Spark Analysis
  • Flame Photometry
  • Ion-Selective Electrodes
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
  • XV
  • Cholesterol: Introduction
  • Color Reactions
  • Reaction With Digitonin
  • Blood Analysis: Esterified and Free Cholesterol
  • Reference Methods
  • Enzymatic Methods
  • Atherosclerosis, Coronary Heart Disease, and the National Cholesterol Education Program
  • Bilirubin: Introduction
  • Icterus Index
  • Diazo, Direct, and Indirect Reaction
  • Standards: Artificial and CertiBed
  • Urine Analysis and Tablet Test
  • Kemicterus in the Newborn
  • Direct Spectrophotometric Assay
  • XVI
  • Enzymes: Introduction
  • The Catalytic Force
  • Ferments: Organized and Unorganized
  • Chemical vs Vitalist Fermentation
  • Zymase and the Cell-Free Extract of Yeast
  • Enzyme Theory of Life
  • Protein Identity of Enzymes
  • Amylase
  • Lipase
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • Aspartate Aminotransferase and Other Enzymes
  • SI Units
  • XVII
  • Proteins: Introduction
  • Classical Separation of Albumin and Globulin
  • Salt Precipitation
  • Sodium Sulfate Fractionation: Euglobulin and Pseudoglobulin I and II
  • Improved Salt Precipitation Methods
  • Albumin Binding Reagents
  • Biuret Color Reaction
  • Moving Boundary Electrophoresis
  • Separation on Filter Paper
  • Visualization of Discrete Bands
  • Other Support Media
  • Refractive Index
  • Specific Gravity
  • Clot Formation: Introduction
  • Separation and Quantitation of Fibrinogen (Fibrin)
  • XVIII
  • Victor Myers and the New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital
  • Practical Chemical Analysis of Blood
  • St. Luke's and St. Thomas's
  • Hawk's Practical Physiological Chemistry
  • Peters and Van Slyke: Qucmtitative Clinical Chemistry
  • Photometry: Introduction
  • The Photoelectric Effect
  • Photoelectric Colorimeters (Photometers)
  • Hoffman's Photoelectric Clinical Chemistry
  • Spectrophotometry: Visible and Ultraviolet
  • XIX
  • Clinical Chemistry Laboratory (1925-1960)
  • Proficiency Testing
  • Biochemistry Sheds Its Clinical Connection
  • American Association of Clinical Chemists
  • Foreign Societies and the International Federation
  • Bio-Science: The Era of Referral Chemistry
  • Sigma and Kit Methods
  • Berson, Yalow, and Radioimmunoassay
  • Tool-Instrument-Machine-Automation
  • Skeggs and the AutoAnalyzer
  • Factory Teaching Facility
  • Analyzers: Discrete Sample and Random Access
  • XX
  • Pitfalls of Publication
  • Dangers of Laboratory Diagnosis
  • The Laboratory: Possibilities and an Image Problem
  • Scientific Medicine and Overuse of the Laboratory
  • A New Partnership-A New Vocabulary
  • Looking to the Future-Cost Containment and Managed Care
  • New Career Opportunities for the Clinical Chemist
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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