Chartist Movement

in its Social and Economic Aspects
 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. November 2013
  • |
  • 256 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-136-60806-3 (ISBN)
 
Professor Rosenblatt's The Chartist Movement was the first serious study of Chartism, using the techniques of modern scholarship, to appear in English. The book comprises a detailed account of the history of the movement, dealing mainly with the period from 1837 until the Chartist riots at Newport, South Wales, in November 1839.

As well as describing the political, industrial and social conditions that gave birth to the Chartist movement, this work contains extremely useful statistical tables of the 543 persons who were convicted for offences committed in the furtherance of Chartism between January 1839 and June 1840.

"This is a particularly satisfactory piece of work as regards sketches of the leaders of the movement and of the spirit in which they preached the gospel of revolt."

- American Historical Review, 1916.
  • Englisch
  • London
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  • Großbritannien
Taylor & Francis Ltd
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978-1-136-60806-3 (9781136608063)
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Preface . 7-9

CHAPTER I

Prototypes of Chartism

Chartism and the "six points". 21

Distinct labor movement. 21

Expression of class consciousness. 21

The Levellers and Cromwell. 22

Society of the Supporters of the Bill of Rights. 22

Pitt, the Earl of Chatham. 22

Reform bills introduced by William Pitt. 22

Stanhope and Major Cartwright. 23

The Whigs and aristocratic clubs. 23

Reform bills introduced by the Duke of Richmond and Fox. 23-4

Society for Constitutional Information. 24

Government coalition in 1783. 24

Metamorphosis caused by the French Revolution. 24

The Duke of Richmond's letter on equality. 25

Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution. 25

Thomas Paine's Rights of Man. 26

The London Corresponding Society. 26

Government policy of oppression. 27

Suspension of Habeas Corpus act. 27

Radicalism revived after the Napoleonic war. 27

The Corn Laws of 1815. 27

William Cobbett and the Hampden Clubs. 28-30

Society of Spencean Philanthropists. 31

Riots and new suspension of Habeas Corpus act. 31

Benefit Societies and Botanical Meetings. 32

The Manchester Massacre. 32

The struggle for freedom. 33

The Reform Bill and the National Political Union. 33

CHAPTER II

The Whig Rule

Hopes inspired by the Reform Bill of 1832. 34

Ricardo's theory of rent. 34

Burden of taxes. 34-5

Selfish motives of manufacturers. 34

Reform Bill condemned by "Orator" Hunt and others. 35

Lord John Russell, the hero of the Reform Bill. 36

Thomas Attwood and the Birmingham Political Union. 36-7

Political corruption and inactivity. 37-9

Notorious Bedchamber Plot. 40

Old Poor Laws. 40

Competition between workingmen and paupers. 41-2

New Poor Law of 1834. 41-2

The "workhouse test". 42

Poor Law Bastiles. 42

Opposition to the New Poor Law. 43-5

Bill passed under protest. 45

Stringency of administration. 45-6

CHAPTER III.

The New Poor Law

Philosophy of the new law. 47

Negligence of children on the part of officers. 48 Cruelties perpetrated in workhouses. 49

Lord Brougham's frankness. 50

Cobbett's opinion of the new law. 50

Bronterre's tribute to the "Money-monsters". 50-1

Feargus O'Connor on excessive use of machinery. 51

Brougham's hatred of charity . 52-3

"Stepping stone" to total abolition of relief. 53

Carlyle's comments. 54-5

Effects disguised for some time. 55

The Irish famine. 55

Distress in the Highlands and Islands. 55

Emigration to industrial centres. 56

Dwelling conditions in cities. 57-8

CHAPTER IV

The Universal Distress

General unemployment. 59-60

Weavers first victims. 60

Birmingham deputation. 61

Laissez faire policy. 61

Condition in agricultural districts. 61-2

"Not the time" plea against repeal of Corn Laws. 63

Rise of prices of wheat. 63

Distress among the workingmen. 64

Scourge of industrial cities. 65

Variation of mortality. 65

Progress of crime. 66-7

Proportion of commitments to population. 67

Persons in receipt of outdoor relief. 68

Workhouse inmates. 68

Petitions for repeal disregarded. 69

CHAPTER V

Labor Legislation and Trade Unionism

Whigs hostile towards labor legislation. 70

Campaign against evils of factory system led by ultra-Tories. 70-1

Freedom of contract and laissez faire doctrine. 71

Ten Hour Movement . 71

Nassau Senior's "last hour" argument. 72

Government reports. 72

Ashley and his followers . 73

Employment of women and children. 73-4

Attempts at trade unionism in the beginning of factory system. 75

The Six Acts of 1819. 75

Francis Place and his victory. 76-7

New stratagem of labor leaders. 77

Influence of Ricardian socialists. 77

Owenism and Trade Unionism. 78

The manufacturers and the Government. 79

Nassau Senior's view on combinations and strikes. 79

Grand National Consolidated Trades' Union crushed. 80

New fight for freedom. 81

Apotheosis of political power . 81

Bronterre's call for a grand national movement. 82

CHAPTER VI

The People's Charter

The London Working Men's Association and its objects. 84-5

Exclusiveness of the Association. 86

Source of social evil. 87

"The Rotten House of Commons". 88-9

Missionaries on tour. 89

The "Six Points". 90

Crown and Anchor meeting. 90

Roebuck and other radical members of Parliament. 90-1

Committee of twelve. 91

Prorogation of Parliament. 91

Birmingham Political Union enters campaign. 92

Correspondence between William Lovett and Lord John Russell. 92

Address to Queen Victoria. 93

Address to American workingmen. 94

Preparation of bill by Lovett and Roebuck. 95

Publication of "People's Charter". 95

Address on principles of Charter. 95-7

CHAPTER VII

The Leaders

Most auspicious period. 98

Two parties in Chartist ranks. 98

Policy of moral force. 99

Advocates of physical force welcomed. 100

Class legislation condemned. 100

Discord suppressed for a time. 101

William Lovett and his early career. 102

First London Cooperative Trading Association. 102

Follower of Robert Owen. 103

Metropolitan Political Union. 103

National Union of the working classes. 103-4

Founder of London Working Men's Association. 104

Personal characteristics. 104-5

Feargus O'Connor's early career. 105

Quarrel with Daniel O'Connell. 106

Personal characteristics. 107-8

Opposed to Communism. 109

Machinery the source of all evil. 110

Inclined towards revolutionary policy. 110

Founder of London Democratic Association. 110-111

Repudiated terrorists. 111

Bronterre's early career. 112

His account of himself. 112-13

Literary activities . 113

Admirer of Robespierre and Babeuf. 113

Personal characteristics. 114

Appointed borough magistrate. 137

Poor Law Guardian. 137

Member of Newport Workingmen's Association. 137

Chartist leader. 137

His relations with people. 137

CHAPTER IX

The People

State of ominous excitement. 138

Underground societies. 138

"Foreign Affairs Committee" at Birmingham. 138

Demonstration at Glasgow. 139

Thomas Attwood. 139

Suggestion of a "sacred strike". 139

Provincial Scotch merchants and manufacturers. 139

Newcastle manifestation. 140

Defiant speeches. 140

Feargus O'Connor. 14

Reference to Brougham. 141

Appearance of troops causes indignation. 141

Meetings at Sunderland and Northampton . 142

Addresses by Vincent and others Birmingham demonstration. 142

O'Connor and Attwood. 142

Physical force notions introduced. 142

Resolutions for National Petition and General Convention. 143

Anxiety among leaders of the London Working Men's Association. 143

Palace Yard demonstration in London. 143

Allusions to physical forcce. 144

Birmingham call endorsed. 145

Address of the London Working Men's Association to the Irish people. 145

Manchester demonstration. 146

Threats of vengeance. 146

O'Connor, Stephens and Fielden. 146-7

Peep Green demonstration. 147

Henry Vincent in the West. 147

His supremacy in Welsh territory. 147

Torch-light processions. 148

O'Connor, Stephens and Harney chief speakers. 148

People making arms. 149

Stephens at the Hyde meeting. 149

Lord John Russell's letter declaring torch-light meetings illegal. 149

His address at Liverpool. 149

Royal proclamation trampled under foot. 150

Chasm between workingmen and middle class. 150

Vincent and female organizations. 150

People invoked to prepare arms. 151

Military instructions. 151

"Science of killing" extolled. 151

Agitation among soldiers. 152

CHAPTER X

The Petition, The Convention and the Government

Proposals emanated from the moral force group. 153

Equal representation omitted. 153

Petition lacking in vigor of expression and definiteness. 153

Influence of Thomas Attwood. 153

Generous response of men and women. 154

Opening of Convention 154 Objects of Convention 154-5

Presentation of National Petition postponed. 155

Variety of problems discussed. 156

Addresses on the general distress distributed broadcast. 156

First collision between opposing factions. 156

Lovett elected secretary. 156

Missionaries of the Convention. 157

The London Democratic Association and Harney. 157

Resolutions submitted to Convention. 157

"Crown and Anchor" meeting cause of hostile criticism. 158

Resignation of three Birmingham delegates. 158-9

The "million of men" idea. 160

Vincent's exhortations to be prepared. 160

Resolution of Convention on the right to use arms. 161

Government spies Lord Russell and John Frost. 162

Frost's defiant letter. 162-4

Open hostility between the Government and the Chartists. 164

Frost's name struck from the roll of magistrates. 165

Indictment of Stephens. 165

Convention declared an illegal body. 165

Arrest of Vincent. 165

National Petition and Attwood Convention adjourned to Birmingham. 166

Lord Russell's letter to magistrates. 166

The Manifesto of the Convention. 166-8

Simultaneous meetings and "ulterior measures". 168-9

Advocacy of terror and insurrection. 170

London police in Birmingham. 171

Recommendations of the Convention to the simultaneous meetings. 172

Success of the simultaneous meetings. 172

Reasons for the removal of the Convention to London. 173

Resolutions on the sacred month and other measures adopted. 173-4

CHAPTER XI

The Wrestling Forces

The Bull Ring attack in Birmingham. 175

The spirit of vengeance and terror. 176

The resolutions of the General Convention. 177

The arrest of Lovett and Collins. 177

Prisoners subjected to indignities. 178

Proclamation of martial law and wholesale arrests. 178

The daily meetings at Holloway Head and other places. 178

The Bull Ring riot. 178

Public meetings and resolutions. 179

The National Petition in Parliament. 179

Attwood's speech. 180

Lord Russell's reply. 180-2

Disraeli's interpretation of the Chartist movement. 182

The division on Attwood's motion. 183

The effect of the defeat on the Convention. 183

The sacred month resolution passed and rescinded. 183

Bronterre's resolution on the sacred month . 184

The recommendation of the committee of five. 185

The national holiday a complete failure. 186

The dissolution of the Convention. 186

Arrests and trials for sedition. 186

The theory of the Attorney-General. 186

The trial of Lovett and Collins. 186

The resolution of the Birmingham Town Council. 186

The jury 187 Sergeant Goulburn's "opportunity" 187

Lovett's address to the jury. 187

Comments of the Morning Chronicle on the defence. 188

Conviction of Lovett and Collins. 188

Convictions of Stephens and other Chartists. 189

Public meetings and demonstrations. 189

Lovett and Collins subjected to rigorous discipline . 189

Petitions in their favor. 189

Henry Vincent and his imprisonment. 190

The jury. 190

Remonstrances and protests by Welsh Chartists. 190

The Newport Riot. 190

CHAPTER XII

The Newport Riot

The role of Frost. 191

The plot to release Vincent by force. 191

The plan of a rising in Yorkshire and Lancashire. 191

O'Connor's late warning. 192

Frost's last public letter. 192-4

The plan of the Welsh Chartists Frost, Williams and Jones the chief commanders. 195-6

Steps taken by the mayor. 197

The progress of the rebels impeded by bad weather. 197

The fight at the Westgate Hotel. 197-8

George Shell's letter to his parents. 199

The arrests of the rebel leaders. 199

The mayor and constables rewarded. 200

The Chartist Convention in London and the defence committees. 200

The Special Commission. 200

The trials of Frost, Williams, Jones and others. 201

The sentence 201 The decision of the Court of Exchequer. 202

The anguish of the Attorney General. 203

Death sentence commuted to transportation for life. 204

Decoration of the graves of the Westgate victims. 204

Imprisonment of Bronterre, O'Connor, and others. 205

The distribution of Chartist prisoners. 205-6

The government victory 206

The new recruits. 207

Appendix A

Petition agreed to at the "Crown and Anchor" meeting, February 28, 1837. 208

Appendix B

The People's Charter. 213

Appendix C

The National Petition. 234

Appendix D

Dialogue on war, between a moral force Whig and a Chartist, by Bronterre. 239

Index. 245

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