Electrical Energy Storage for Buildings in Smart Grids

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. Juli 2019
  • |
  • 398 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-05866-3 (ISBN)
 
Current developments in the renewable energy field, and the trend toward self-production and self-consumption of energy, has led to increased interest in the means of storing electrical energy; a key element of sustainable development.

This book provides an in-depth view of the environmentally responsible energy solutions currently available for use in the building sector. It highlights the importance of storing electrical energy, demonstrates the many services that the storage of electrical energy can bring, and discusses the important socio-economic factors related to the emergence of smart buildings and smart grids. Finally, it presents the methodological tools needed to build a system of storage-based energy management, illustrated by concrete, pedagogic examples.


 

Current developments in the renewable energy field, and the trend toward self-production and self-consumption of energy, has led to increased interest in the means of storing electrical energy; a key element of sustainable development.

This book provides an in-depth view of the environmentally responsible energy solutions currently available for use in the building sector. It highlights the importance of storing electrical energy, demonstrates the many services that the storage of electrical energy can bring, and discusses the important socio-economic factors related to the emergence of smart buildings and smart grids. Finally, it presents the methodological tools needed to build a system of storage-based energy management, illustrated by concrete, pedagogic examples.

1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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978-1-119-05866-3 (9781119058663)

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Benoit Robyns is Research Director at HEI-Yncrea Lille, and Vice President of Energy and Societal Transition at Lille Catholic University. He is the head of the "Power Systems" team at L2EP

Arnaud Davigny is a lecturer at HEI-Yncrea Lille and researcher at L2EP

Herve Barry is a lecturer at Lille Catholic University, Faculty of Management, Economics and Sciences

Sabine Kazmierczak is a lecturer at Lille Catholic University, Faculty of Management, Economics and Sciences

Christophe Saudemont is a Professor at HEI-Yncrea Lille and researcher at L2EP

Dhaker Abbes is a lecturer at HEI-Yncrea Lille and researcher at L2EP

Bruno Francois is a Professor at Ecole Centrale de Lille and researcher at L2EP

Benoit Robyns is Research Director at HEI-Yncrea Lille, and Vice President of Energy and Societal Transition at Lille Catholic University. He is the head of the "Power Systems" team at L2EP

Arnaud Davigny is a lecturer at HEI-Yncrea Lille and researcher at L2EP

Herve Barry is a lecturer at Lille Catholic University, Faculty of Management, Economics and Sciences

Sabine Kazmierczak is a lecturer at Lille Catholic University, Faculty of Management, Economics and Sciences

Christophe Saudemont is a Professor at HEI-Yncrea Lille and researcher at L2EP

Dhaker Abbes is a lecturer at HEI-Yncrea Lille and researcher at L2EP

Bruno Francois is a Professor at Ecole Centrale de Lille and researcher at L2EP

Foreword xi

Introduction xiii

<b>Chapter 1. Storing Electrical Energy in Habitat: Toward "Smart Buildings" and "Smart Cities" </b><b>1</b>

1.1. Toward smarter electrical grids 1

1.1.1. The move to decentralize electrical grids 1

1.1.2. Smart grids 2

1.2. Storage requirements in buildings 4

1.3. Difficulties in storing electrical energy 5

1.4. Electricity supply in buildings 7

1.4.1. Building supply and consumption 7

1.4.2. Self-production and self-consumption 10

1.4.3. Micro-grids 11

1.5. Smart buildings 14

1.6. Smart cities 18

1.7. Socio-economic questions 19

1.7.1. Toward new economic models 19

1.7.2. Social acceptability 20

1.8. Storage management 22

1.9. Methodologies used in developing energy management for storage systems 24

<b>Chapter 2. Energy Storage in a Commercial Building </b><b>27</b>

2.1. Introduction 27

2.2. Managing energy storage in a supermarket 27

2.2.1. Introduction 27

2.2.2. System characteristics 28

2.2.3. Electricity billing 31

2.2.4. Objectives of the energy management strategy 32

2.2.5. Fuzzy logic supervisor 33

2.2.6. Simulation 46

2.2.7. Performance analysis using indicators 49

2.3. Conclusion 51

2.4. Acknowledgments 52

<b>Chapter 3. Energy Storage in a Tertiary Building, Combining Photovoltaic Panels and LED Lighting </b><b>53</b>

3.1. Introduction 53

3.2. DC network architecture 55

3.3. Energy management 56

3.3.1. Specification 56

3.3.2. System inputs/outputs 58

3.3.3. Functional graph 59

3.3.4. Determination of membership functions 61

3.3.5. Operational graph 63

3.3.6. Fuzzy rules 63

3.4. Simulation results 66

3.4.1. Case 1: favorable grid access conditions (GAC) 68

3.4.2. Case 2: unfavorable GACs 69

3.4.3. Case 3: variable GAC 70

3.4.4. Comparison of results 73

3.5. Conclusion 74

3.6. Acknowledgments 75

<b>Chapter 4. Hybrid Storage Associated with Photovoltaic Technology for Buildings in Non-interconnected Zones </b><b>77</b>

4.1. Introduction 77

4.2. Photovoltaic systems in buildings and integration into the grid 78

4.2.1. Context and economic issues 78

4.2.2. Examples of projects 80

4.3. Importance of storage in photovoltaic systems 85

4.3.1. Photovoltaic systems for isolated sites 85

4.3.2. Photovoltaic systems connected to the grid 85

4.3.3. Hybrid storage 86

4.3.4. Electronic conversion structures for hybrid storage 88

4.4. Photovoltaic generator with hybrid storage system 91

4.4.1. Case study 91

4.4.2. Principles and standards for frequency support 93

4.4.3. Calculating battery wear 97

4.5. Energy management 99

4.5.1. Methodology 99

4.5.2. Operating specifications 100

4.5.3. Supervisor structure and determination of input/output 101

4.5.4. Functional graphs 103

4.5.5. Membership functions 105

4.5.6. Operating graphs 108

4.5.7. Fuzzy rules 110

4.5.8. Evaluation indicators 113

4.6. Simulation results 114

4.6.1. Supervisor validation 115

4.6.2. Life expectancy of storage elements 120

4.6.3. Efficiency 123

4.6.4. Levelized cost of energy 126

4.7. Experimental validation of energy management 128

4.7.1. Definition of tests 128

4.7.2. Experimental results 129

4.8. Conclusion 132

4.9. Acknowledgments 134

<b>Chapter 5. Economic and Sociological Implications of Smart Grids </b><b>135</b>

5.1. Introduction 135

5.2. Actor diversity in smart grids 137

5.3. Economic and sociological implications of smart grids 138

5.3.1. Introduction 138

5.3.2. Implications of smart grids for the value chain 141

5.3.3. The "downstream" role of smart grids 150

5.3.4. The "upstream" role of smart grids 160

5.3.5. Demand management programs 166

5.4. Social acceptability 169

5.4.1. Introduction 169

5.4.2. Conceptual frameworks: points of reference 170

5.4.3. Studies of social acceptability 174

5.4.4. Theoretical application of voluntary load reduction within a reference framework 181

5.4.5. Quality of the load reduction contract 191

5.5. Conclusion 195

5.6. Acknowledgments 196

<b>Chapter 6. Energy Mutualization for Tertiary Buildings, Residential Buildings and Producers </b><b>197</b>

6.1. Introduction 197

6.2. Energy mutualization between commercial, tertiary and residential buildings, producers and grid managers 198

6.2.1. Grid actors 198

6.2.2. Energy service aggregator 199

6.2.3. Case study: structure of the micro-grid 201

6.2.4. Consumption and production profiles of actors in the micro-grid 203

6.3. Management of energy mutualization for tertiary buildings, residential buildings and energy producers 205

6.3.1. Objectives and constraints of actors in the micro-grid 206

6.3.2. Supervisor structure: input and output variables 210

6.3.3. Functional graphs 211

6.3.4. Membership functions 212

6.3.5. Operating graphs 217

6.3.6. Fuzzy rules 217

6.3.7. Indicators 221

6.4. Case study 221

6.4.1. Characteristics of the micro-grid 221

6.4.2. Scenarios 222

6.5. Load reduction 228

6.5.1. Load reduction principle 228

6.5.2. Introduction to load reduction and acceptability 229

6.5.3. Simulation of energy management with load reduction 231

6.6. Conclusion 233

6.7. Acknowledgments 233

6.8. Appendix 1 234

<b>Chapter 7. Centralized Management of a Local Energy Community to Maximize Self-consumption of PV Production </b><b>235</b>

7.1. Introduction 235

7.2. Energy management issues in residential neighborhoods 242

7.2.1. Electric grid management: basic principles 242

7.2.2. The move toward smart grids 243

7.2.3. A few applications of micro-grids for managing local energy communities 246

7.3. The active PV generator 249

7.3.1. Current PV production 249

7.3.2. Limits and necessary developments 249

7.3.3. Cascade structure 250

7.3.4. Domestic application 251

7.3.5. Energy management of the DC bus 254

7.3.6. Energy management of ultracapacitors 261

7.4. Micro-grid management 263

7.4.1. Organization of electrical grid management 263

7.4.2. Key functions 264

7.4.3. Characteristics of local controllers for distributed production 268

7.4.4. Fundamentals of power balancing 268

7.4.5. Load management 270

7.5. Application to the context of a residential electrical network 270

7.5.1. From managing domestic demand to managing domestic production 270

7.5.2. Residential grids and application of micro-grid concepts 273

7.5.3. Energy management of a micro-grid 277

7.6. Prediction techniques and data processing 278

7.6.1. Predicting PV production 278

7.6.2. Load prediction 279

7.6.3. Energy estimation 281

7.7. Day ahead operational planning and half-hourly power reference calculations 283

7.7.1. Objectives 283

7.7.2. Constraints 283

7.7.3. Determinist algorithm for generator use 284

7.7.4. Practical application 287

7.8. Medium-term energy management 289

7.8.1. Reducing observed deviations 289

7.8.2. Energy management to minimize the aging of batteries 290

7.9. Short-term energy management 292

7.9.1. Primary frequency regulation 292

7.9.2. Power balancing strategies in the active generator 292

7.10. Experimental testing using real-time simulation 294

7.10.1. Benefits of real-time simulation 294

7.10.2. The Electrical Power Management Lab 295

7.10.3. Experimental implementation 297

7.10.4. Analysis of self-consumption in a house 300

7.10.5. Increasing the proportion of PV use in a residential grid 306

7.11. Review of scientific contributions and methodological summary 312

7.12. Concluding thoughts and research perspectives 313

<b>Chapter 8. Reversible Charging from Electric Vehicles to Grids and Buildings </b><b>317</b>

8.1. Introduction 317

8.2. Reversible charging of electric vehicles 319

8.2.1. Vehicle to Grid 319

8.2.2. Vehicle to Home and to Building 323

8.2.3. Vehicle to Station and energy hubs 324

8.2.4. Energy service aggregator 325

8.3. Potential services and energy management of reversible EV fleets 325

8.3.1. Services supplied by V2G 325

8.3.2. Energy management of a V2G fleet 328

8.4. Vehicle to Station: V2S 340

8.4.1. Impact and contribution of EVs in a railway station carpark 340

8.4.2. V2S: contribution of V2G technology in a station parking lot 344

8.5. V2H 348

8.6. Conclusion 352

8.7. Acknowledgments 353

8.8. Appendix 353

8.8.1. Detailed functional graphs for the V2G application 353

References 355

Index 369

Introduction


In France, in 2016, residential and tertiary sector buildings represented 45% of total final energy use. The proportion of electrical energy continues to increase, currently representing approximately 37% [MIN 17]. There is thus much to be gained by increasing energy efficiency in this area, equipping buildings to produce and store energy and establishing intelligent energy management systems, interacting with the distribution grid.

Current developments in the sphere of renewable energy and the trend toward self-production and self-consumption of electrical energy produced onsite have led to increased interest in the means of storing electrical energy, a key element of sustainable development. Self-consumption provides a stimulus for better mastery of energy consumption and leads to a reduction in electric bills (reducing costs associated with connection to the main distribution grid, subscribed power and, potentially, taxes). Collective self-consumption can result in additional optimizations, grouping together buildings with different consumption profiles in terms of time. Considerable gains may also be made through load management, modulating consumption by adjusting loads or through local production and self-consumption, with or without a storage system. Finally, in addition to these financial aspects, collectives may benefit from using renewable forms of self-consumption (one of the main aims in such cases), as there are several potential sources of production (notably solar panels on roofs). The consumption of locally produced energy also prevents or limits losses associated with the transportation of energy over long distances.

The increase in popularity of electricity as an energy carrier for buildings can be attributed to the flexibility which it offers, as well as to the potential to avoid pollution at the usage site. In the coming years, an increasing proportion of these buildings will be equipped with storage systems, providing emergency backup, compensating for natural variations in renewable energy supplies, and will also be able to provide services for the wider electric system. Storage systems are expensive, and shared usage offers a means of spreading the cost, while contributing to the management of system aging. At the time of writing, studies are being carried out with regard to using the storage capacity of electric vehicles to provide services to the electric distribution grid or to the buildings where they recharge: these solutions are known as Vehicle to Grid (V2G) and Vehicle to Home (V2H). Similar solutions would be possible for integrated storage in commercial and tertiary (with offices) buildings, or, indeed, whole residential neighborhoods.

The aim of this book is to increase awareness of the potential offered by these developing technologies, in the context of buildings, groups of buildings and/or neighborhoods, integrated into large "smart grids" or forming smaller "micro grids", particularly with regard to their management and valorization.

Storage will form an essential element of future smart grids, but these networks will be unable to attain their full "smart" potential without collecting large amounts of data, via connected meters, among other things. The installation of these meters raises ethical questions with regard to the protection of the data which they generate, which should give a precise indication of the energy usage habits of consumers, but is also affected by questions of cybersecurity.

The development of self-consumption of locally produced energy raises other ethical questions of a fundamental nature: energy, particularly electricity, has become essential to maintaining the lifestyles of industrialized societies, for comfort, sanitation, security, education and more. Self-consumption challenges the current electrical supply model, which is highly centralized in terms of both production and management. We are effectively facing an energy revolution. In extreme cases of self-consumption, in which public network management entities are left out of the picture altogether, this could be compared to the "uberization" (an exchange of services between private individuals to the exclusion of larger companies, enabled through the use of Internet applications) recently seen in the contexts of urban automobile transport and short-term lets. However, access to electricity is essential to the operation of our societies, which are highly dependent on this energy supply. Self-consumption could also undermine the French principles of energy solidarity and equal access to energy (in terms of cost). These last points raise further ethical questions, particularly with regard to an increased risk of energy poverty and even energy-based communitarianism. There is a danger that self-consumption may simply benefit those consumers who are already in a strong position - for example wealthier households with the financial capacity to install solar panels on the roofs of their houses.

Furthermore, self-consumption is largely based on the use of "new" renewable energy sources (essentially solar, as well as wind power), which are, by their very nature, variable and weather-dependent, fluctuating significantly with the seasons and from day to night. This being so, climate change is a source of additional uncertainty with regard to the future behavior of these new technological solutions.

For these reasons, we would do well to adopt an ethical rule set out in [GIO 18]: "Do not leave your children to solve problems which you yourself voluntarily created, which are of vital importance for your descendants, and for which you are not sure that a realistic solution exists or will be found in the future. Furthermore, any advances resulting from the scientific discoveries and/or technological developments in question should support the common good and promote the restoration of original ecosystems, if these systems created balance and harmony, wherever possible".

This does not mean that we should limit research into the development of smart grids and self-consumption; instead, these projects should be subject to regular ethical review in connection with the questions set out above (even though the risks seem smaller and of a different nature to those associated with the development of nuclear power). An interdisciplinary approach to these questions is necessary, connecting science and sociology, economics, ethics and even, where applicable, legal considerations. Law-makers have a key part to play in providing an "ethical buttress" [GIO 18] for new methods of energy production and consumption.

In Europe, Germany leads the way in terms of electrical self-consumption, with 500,000 installations in 2018, compared to 20,000 in France, where a regulatory framework has yet to be fully defined. Debate centers on the notion of locality as it relates to self-consumption, a notion that may be defined in various ways. It may be limited to part of the distribution grid (e.g. downstream of a medium-voltage to low-voltage transformer substation [CRE 18] serving part of a residential neighborhood) or to a distance, for example a one-kilometer radius around a production facility [MIN 18] enabling energy exchanges between large-scale service buildings in addition to homes. There are also questions regarding taxation: for example, in France, a tax is levied to support the development of renewable energy, and self-supply installations of under 9 kW [CRE 18] or 1 MW [MIN 18] may be exonerated. Finally, the charges for use of the public distribution grid by collective self-consumption, which only use a small portion of this network, need to be determined; these entities must remain connected to the grid to ensure that supply is maintained even though their renewable systems are not producing electricity and there is no power stored on-site.

The aims of this book are:

  • - to highlight the importance of storing electrical energy in the context of sustainable development, smart buildings, smart grids and smart cities;
  • - to demonstrate the variety of services which electrical energy storage may provide;
  • - to consider the socio-economic questions associated with changes stemming from the emergence of smart buildings and smart grids, providing elements of response;
  • - to present methodological tools for the design of a management system for stored energy, following a generic and pedagogical approach. These tools are based on causal approach, artificial intelligence and explicit optimization techniques. They will be presented throughout the book, in the context of real-world case studies;
  • - to illustrate these methodological approaches through the use of various real-world examples, used as a basis for clearly explaining the integration of renewable energy and electric vehicles into our environment (buildings, energy sharing between residential and tertiary buildings, urban neighborhoods and rail energy hubs).

In Chapter 1, we will describe the issues surrounding electrical energy storage in buildings, blocks and neighborhoods, whether integrated into a large smart grid or forming their own micro grid. We will highlight the storage requirements for these applications, alongside the services which they may provide. The socio-economic aspects of these developments will be touched on briefly; a more detailed discussion of these elements is provided in Chapter 5. We will also introduce a methodology for designing a management system for energy storage systems. This system is particularly suitable for the management of complex systems, featuring elements of uncertainty...

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