The Politics of Mass Violence in the Middle East

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 17. September 2020
  • |
  • 240 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-255858-9 (ISBN)
 
The Middle East today is characterized by an astonishingly bloody civil war in Syria, an ever more highly racialized and militarized approach to the concept of a Jewish state in Israel and the Palestinian territories, an Iraqi state paralyzed by the emergence of class- and region-inflected sectarian identifications, a Lebanon teetering on the edge of collapse from the pressures of its huge numbers of refugees and its sect-bound political system, and the rise of a wide variety of Islamist paramilitary organizations seeking to operate outside all these states. The region's emergence as a 'zone of violence', characterized by a viciously dystopian politics of identity, is a relatively recent phenomenon, developing only over the past century; but despite these shallow historical roots, the mass violence and dispossession now characterizing Syria, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, and Iraq have emerged as some of the twenty-first century's most intractable problems. In this study, Laura Robson uses a framework of mass violence - encompassing the concepts of genocide, ethnic cleansing, forced migration, appropriation of resources, mass deportation, and forcible denationalization - to explain the emergence of a dystopian politics of identity across the Eastern Mediterranean in the modern era and to illuminate the contemporary breakdown of the state from Syria to Iraq to Israel.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • 4,94 MB
978-0-19-255858-9 (9780192558589)
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Laura Robson is the Oliver McCourtney Professor of History at Penn State University, focusing on histories of forced migration, the construction of refugee and asylum policies, and decolonization and mass violence. She has written and edited several books, including States of Separation: Transfer, Partition, and the Making of the Modern Middle East; Colonialism and Christianity in Mandate Palestine; Minorities and the Modern Arab World: New Perspectives, and, most recently, Partitions: A Transnational History of 20th Century Territorial Separatism, co-edited with Arie Dubnov.
  • Cover
  • The Politics of Mass Violence in the Middle East
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Map
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction: The "Mashriq" as a Zone of Violence
  • 1: The Late Ottoman Practice of Violence, 1878-1914
  • Communal relations in the late Ottoman state
  • Territory, ethnicity, and the Balkan remaking of Ottoman politics
  • The tanzimat and communal relations in the late Ottoman Mashriq
  • Constitutional revolution? Violence and the rise of the CUP
  • Mashriqi reactions to Ottoman revolution
  • 2: The Violence of World War, 1914-1920
  • Wartime violence and the production of famine
  • Conscription, violence, and communal consciousness
  • The Armenian genocide, Ottoman repression, and popular opinion in the Syrian provinces
  • The invasions: establishing colonial rule
  • Zionism: the Balfour declaration and its reception
  • 3: Liberal Rhetoric and Colonial Violence, 1920-1939
  • Partition and occupation
  • The mandate system and the racialization of international diplomacy
  • The first wave: colonial violence and anticolonial resistance in Iraq and Syria, 1920
  • Divide et impera: destroying institutions and imposing sectarianism
  • Refugees and minorities
  • The second wave: the Great Syrian Revolt, 1925-27
  • Mandatory development: oil, money, and the political economy of colonial rule
  • The third wave: revolt in Palestine
  • Anti-liberal responses to colonial violence
  • 4: Violence and the Ethnic Nation-State, 1939-1949
  • 1939: the end of an era
  • The war before the war: militarizing the Yishuv in Palestine
  • Iraq: war, territoriality, and oil
  • Syria and Lebanon: violence and the end of empire
  • State-building and ethnic cleansing in Palestine
  • 5: Militarization and Violence in the Postcolonial State, 1949-1967
  • Imperial violence redux
  • Strongman violence: neo-imperial intervention in Syria
  • Building a state on violence: Israel in the early years
  • The violence of invasion: Gazan civilians and the Suez crisis
  • Revolutionary violence, counterrevolutionary violence: Iraq and Lebanon in 1958
  • The politics of arms in the early Cold War
  • 1967: the violence of occupation
  • 6: Money, Arms, and the New Sectarian Violence, 1967-1988
  • Ba'thist violence: secularism and sectarianism in Syria and Iraq
  • Lebanon as a vector of violence
  • Mass violence across borders: Syria and Israel
  • Erasing inconvenient communities, within and across borders
  • Erasing inconvenient communities: Syria
  • Inconvenient communities: Iraq and the Anfal
  • 7: Violence and the New Internationalism, 1988-2003
  • The intifada and the failure of nonviolent protest
  • Political Islam, religious Zionism: the late emergence of fundamentalist politics in the Mashriq
  • The neocolonial bargain: the end of the Cold War and therise of "humanita rian" violence
  • The American invasion of Iraq and the reinvention of empire
  • Epilogue: The Triumph of Violence in the Middle East
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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