Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. November 2017
  • |
  • 1552 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-85577-5 (ISBN)
 

Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Tenth Edition is a fully updated and revised version of the gold-standard reference on the use of drug therapy in all major veterinary species.

  • Provides current, detailed information on using drug therapies in all major domestic animal species
  • Organized logically by drug class and treatment indication, with exhaustive information on the rational use of drugs in veterinary medicine
  • Includes extensive tables of pharmacokinetic data, products available, and dosage regimens
  • Adds new chapters on pharmaceutics, ophthalmic pharmacology, food animal pharmacology, and aquatic animal pharmacology
  • Includes access to a companion website with the figures from the book in PowerPoint



Jim E. Riviere, DVM, PhD, DSc (hon), ATS, is The MacDonald Chair in Veterinary Medicine, University Distinguished Professor, Kansas Bioscience Eminent Scholar, and Director, Institute of Computational Comparative Medicine at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas, USA. He is also a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

Mark G. Papich, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVCP, has the Burroughs Wellcome Professorship in Veterinary Pharmacology and is a Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

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  • Intro
  • Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • About the Companion Website
  • Section 1 Principles of Pharmacology
  • 1 Veterinary Pharmacology: An Introduction to the Discipline
  • History of Pharmacology
  • Veterinary Pharmacology
  • Regulations and Standards
  • What is Veterinary Pharmacology?
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 2 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
  • An Overview of Drug Disposition
  • Drug Passage Across Membranes
  • Absorption
  • Gastrointestinal Absorption
  • Topical and Percutaneous Absorption
  • Respiratory Absorption
  • Other Routes of Administration
  • Bioavailability
  • Distribution
  • Physiological Determinants of Distribution
  • Tissue Barriers to Distribution
  • Plasma Protein Binding
  • Other Factors Affecting Distribution
  • Renal Elimination
  • Renal Physiology Relevant to Clearance of Drugs
  • Mechanisms of Renal Drug Excretion
  • The Concept of Clearance and its Calculation
  • Nonlinearity of Tubular Secretion and Reabsorption
  • Hepatic Biotransformation and Biliary Excretion
  • Phase I and Phase II Reactions
  • Impact of Metabolism
  • Hepatic Clearance
  • Metabolism Induction and Inhibition
  • Conclusion
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 3 Pharmacokinetics
  • A Primer on the Language of Pharmacokinetics
  • The Concept of Half-Life
  • One-Compartment Open Model
  • Clearance
  • Interpretation of Pharmacokinetic Parameters
  • Absorption in a One-Compartment Open Model
  • Two-Compartment Models
  • Volumes of Distribution
  • Clearance
  • Absorption in a Two-Compartment Model
  • Data Analysis and its Limitations
  • Multicompartmental Models
  • Noncompartmental Models
  • Nonlinear Models
  • Summary of Modeling Approaches
  • Population Pharmacokinetics
  • Physiological-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling
  • Dosage Regimens
  • Comments on Efficacy and Safety
  • Adjusting for Disease
  • Interspecies Extrapolations
  • Conclusion
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 4 Mechanism of Drug Action and Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics Integration in Dosage Regimen Optimization for Veterinary Medicine
  • Introduction
  • Types of Drug Targets
  • Drug Receptor and Ligand as Agonist or Antagonist
  • Drug Affinity, Efficacy and Potency
  • Drug Specificity and Selectivity
  • Chemical Forces and Drug Binding
  • Macromolecular Nature of Drug Receptors
  • Receptor Types and Subtypes
  • Drug Receptor Theories: from the Occupancy Theories to the Two-State Model
  • Down- and Up-Regulation
  • From the Pharmacological Target to the Animal and Population Pharmacodynamics
  • An Overview on the Determination of an Effective and Safe Dosage Regimen
  • Designs for Dose Titration and the Determination of an Effective Dose
  • The Difference Between Dose Titration and the PK/PD Modeling Approach in Determining a Dose
  • Building PK/PD Models
  • Selection of the Dose and Dosage Regimen
  • Population PK/PD
  • Limits of the PK/PD Modeling Approach for a Dose Determination: Clinical Response versus Surrogate
  • Conclusion
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 5 Principles of Pharmaceutics and Veterinary Dosage Forms
  • Introduction
  • Understanding the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Properties
  • Formulation Elements
  • Excipients Typically Used in Veterinary Dosage Forms
  • Dosage Form Considerations
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Liquids and Semisolids
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Solids
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Medicated Feed
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Biomass Products
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Controlled Internal Drug Release System
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Liquid or Semisolid Dosage Forms
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Topical Dosage Forms
  • Types of Dosage Forms: Transdermal Drug Delivery
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Factors Influencing Product Dissolution
  • Putting it All Together: Product Quality Control
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References and Additional Reading
  • Section 2 Drugs Acting on the Autonomic Nervous System
  • 6 Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System and Autonomic Pharmacology
  • Introduction
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  • Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System: Overview
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  • Nonadrenergic-Noncholinergic Neurons
  • Enteric Nervous System
  • Integrated Steps in SNS and PSNS Neurotransmission
  • Peripheral Nerve Activity and Transmission of Action Potentials
  • Neurotransmitter Synthesis, Storage, Release, and Inactivation
  • Autonomic Receptors
  • Cholinergic Receptors
  • Adrenergic Receptors
  • References
  • 7 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists
  • Classification of Adrenergic Agonists
  • Sympathomimetic Amines and Structure-Activity Relationships
  • Activation of Adrenergic Receptors and Cell Signaling
  • Adrenergic Receptor Selectivity and Tissue Distribution
  • Overview
  • Cardiovascular Responses to Adrenergic Receptor Agonists: Effects of Adrenergic Receptor Selectivity and Distribution
  • Clinical Applications of Adrenergic Receptor Agonists
  • Adrenoceptor Agonists and Respiratory Physiology
  • Arterial Blood Pressure Regulation and Sympathomimetics
  • Adrenergic Drugs and Urinary Incontinence
  • Clinical Applications of Sympathomimetic-Induced Vasoconstriction
  • Peripheral and Central Sites Mediate Cardiovascular Responses to a2-Receptor Activation
  • Ophthalmology and Adrenergic Agonists
  • Use of b-Adrenergic Agonists in Food Production
  • Adrenergic-Receptor Antagonists
  • Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists
  • Beta Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists
  • References
  • 8 Cholinergic Pharmacology: Autonomic Drugs
  • Parasympathomimetic Agents
  • Cholinergic Receptors
  • Direct-acting Parasympathomimetic Agonists
  • General Characteristics
  • Structure-Activity Relationships
  • Acetylcholine: Prototypical Cholinergic Agonist
  • Choline Esters: Methacholine, Carbachol, and Bethanecol
  • Cholinomimetic Alkaloids: Pilocarpine, Muscarine, and Arecoline
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors
  • Pharmacological Mechanisms and Effects
  • Structure-Activity Relationships
  • Reversible Inhibitors: Physostigmine, Neostigmine, Edrophonium, Pyridostigmine
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Glycopyrrolate
  • N-butylscopolamine bromide
  • Methantheline, Propantheline, and Methylatropine
  • Autonomic Ganglionic Blocking Drugs
  • References
  • Section 3 Anesthetics and Analgesics, and Drugs Acting on the Central Nervous System
  • 9 Introduction to Drugs Acting on the Central Nervous System and Principles of Anesthesiology
  • Introduction to CNS Drugs
  • Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology
  • Transduction
  • Presynaptic Processes
  • Postsynaptic Processes
  • The Neurotransmitters and their Receptors
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Epidural Barrier
  • Principles of Anesthesiology
  • Anesthetic Use
  • Anesthesia Classified
  • Basics of Clinical Anesthesia
  • Evaluation of the Response to Anesthesia
  • References
  • 10 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
  • Development
  • Impulse Transmission at the Somatic Neuromuscular Junction
  • Physiological and Anatomic Considerations
  • The Nicotinic Receptor and Structure-Activity Relationships
  • Pharmacological Considerations
  • Postjunctional Mechanisms of Neuromuscular Blockade
  • Competitive Nondepolarizing Agents
  • Depolarizing Agents
  • Pharmacological Effects of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Autonomic Effects
  • Histamine Release
  • Central Nervous System
  • Cardiovascular Effects
  • Ocular Effects
  • Serum Potassium
  • Drug Interactions
  • Clinical Use
  • Margin of Safety of Neuromuscular Transmission
  • Clinical Reversal of Neuromuscular Paralysis
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 11 Inhalation Anesthetics
  • Physiochemical Characteristics
  • Chemical Characteristics
  • Physical Characteristics
  • Gas versus Vapor
  • Methods of Description
  • Vapor Pressure
  • Properties Influencing Drug Kinetics: Solubility
  • Blood/Gas Partition Coefficient
  • Oil/Gas Partition Coefficient
  • Other Partition Coefficients
  • Pharmacokinetics: Uptake and Elimination of Inhalation Anesthetics
  • Delivery to the Alveoli
  • Removal from Alveoli: Uptake by Blood
  • Anesthetic Recovery
  • Anesthetic Dose: The Minimum Alveolar Concentration
  • Pharmacodynamics: Actions and Toxicity of the Inhalation Anesthetics
  • Central Nervous System
  • Respiratory System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Liver
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Kidneys
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Actions by Agent
  • Trace Concentrations of Inhalation Anesthetics: Occupational Exposure
  • References
  • 12 Injectable Anesthetic Agents
  • Indications for Injectable Anesthesia
  • Disadvantages of Injectable Anesthesia
  • Properties of an Ideal Injectable Anesthetic Drug
  • Ideal Physiological Properties
  • Ideal Pharmacological Properties
  • Barbiturate Anesthetics
  • History
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Specific Barbiturates (Box 12.1)
  • Physiological Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Metabolism
  • Adverse Effects/ Contraindications
  • Dose
  • Duration of action
  • Species Differences
  • Drug Interactions
  • Overdosage/Acute Toxicity
  • Propofol
  • History
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Physiological Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Metabolism
  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications
  • Species Differences
  • Dose
  • Drug Interactions, Compatibilities, and Incompatibilities
  • Regulatory Information
  • Drug Availability
  • Dissociative Anesthetics
  • History
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Physiological/Pharmacodynamic Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Metabolism
  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications
  • Dose
  • Species Differences
  • Drug Interactions
  • Overdosage/Acute Toxicity
  • Regulatory Information
  • Drug Availability
  • Etomidate
  • History
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Physiological Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Metabolism
  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications
  • Dose (Box 12.2)
  • Species Differences
  • Drug Interactions
  • Overdosage/Acute Toxicity
  • Storage/Stability/Compatibility
  • Regulatory Information
  • Drug Availability
  • Neurosteroid Anesthetics
  • History
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Physiological/Pharmacodynamic Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Metabolism
  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications
  • Administration
  • Species Differences
  • Overdosage/Acute Toxicity
  • Regulatory Information
  • Drug Availability
  • Miscellaneous Anesthetics
  • Alpha-Chloralose
  • Urethane
  • Metomidate
  • Tribromoethanol
  • Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222)
  • References
  • 13 Opioid Analgesic Drugs
  • Introduction
  • Background on Opioids
  • Opioid Role in Analgesia
  • History of Opioids
  • Physiology of Opioids
  • Opioid Pharmacodynamics
  • Analgesia
  • Respiratory Depression
  • Central Nervous System Excitation
  • Cardiovascular Effects
  • Antitussive Effect
  • Gastrointestinal Effects
  • Urinary Tract
  • Immune System Effects
  • Tolerance and Dependence
  • Opioid Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Pharmacology
  • Analgesia
  • Antitussive
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Antidiarrheal
  • Sedation Anesthesia
  • Contraindications, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
  • Uses In Food-Producing Animals
  • Opioid Agonists
  • Morphine
  • Hydromorphone
  • Oxymorphone
  • Hydrocodone
  • Codeine
  • Oxycodone
  • Heroin
  • Methadone
  • Meperidine (Pethidine)
  • Fentanyl
  • Sufentanil, Alfentanil, Remifentanil
  • Carfentanil and Etorphine
  • Propoxyphene
  • Apomorphine
  • Partial and Mixed Receptor Opioids
  • Buprenorphine
  • Butorphanol
  • Nalbuphine
  • Pentazocine
  • Nalorphine
  • Opioid Antagonists
  • Naloxone
  • Naltrexone
  • Nalmefene
  • Diprenorphine
  • Newer Agents
  • Other Central Analgesic Drugs
  • Tramadol
  • Other Routes of Administration
  • Epidural
  • Peripheral
  • The Use of Opioids in Nonmammalian Vertebrates
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 14 Sedatives and Tranquilizers
  • Introduction
  • Phenothiazine Derivatives
  • Introduction
  • Chemistry
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Physiological Effects
  • Specific Drugs
  • Species Differences
  • Drug Interactions
  • Overdose/Acute Toxicity
  • Contraindications
  • Regulatory Information
  • Veterinary Approved Products (Representative)
  • Butyrophenone Derivatives
  • Introduction
  • Chemistry
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Azaperone
  • Benzodiazepine Derivatives
  • General Pharmacological Considerations
  • Specific Drugs
  • Species Differences
  • Metabolism
  • Adverse Effects/ Contraindications
  • Drug Interactions
  • Overdose/Acute Toxicity
  • Benzodiazepine Antagonists
  • General Pharmacological Considerations
  • Specific Drugs
  • Alpha-2-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists
  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Chemistry
  • How Supplied
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Physiological Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics Properties
  • Specific Veterinary Drugs
  • Species Differences
  • Adverse effects/contraindications
  • Drug Interactions
  • Overdose/Acute Toxicity
  • Alpha-2-Adrenergic Antagonists
  • History/Introduction
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Specific drugs
  • Pharmacodynamic Effects
  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications
  • Species Differences
  • Overdose/Acute Toxicity
  • Drug Interactions
  • Guaifenesin
  • History
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Physiological Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Metabolism
  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications
  • Dose
  • Species Differences
  • Triple Drip
  • Drug Interactions
  • Overdosage/Acute Toxicity
  • Regulatory Information
  • Veterinary Products
  • Chloral Hydrate
  • History
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Indications
  • Dose
  • Regulatory Information
  • Veterinary Products
  • References
  • 15 Local Anesthetics
  • Introduction
  • Clinical Uses in Veterinary Medicine
  • Mechanisms for Local Anesthetic Action
  • Activity-Dependent Blockade
  • Differential Effects on Nerve Fibers
  • Chemical Properties
  • Amino-Ester versus Amino-Amide Classes
  • Effect of Local pH
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Stability and Formulations
  • General Pharmacological Considerations
  • Onset and Duration of Action
  • General ADME Considerations
  • Drug Interactions
  • Organ Toxicities
  • Central Nervous System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Regulatory Considerations
  • Lidocaine
  • Bupivacaine
  • Levobupivacaine
  • Other Selected Agents
  • Mepivacaine
  • Ropivacaine
  • Proparacaine
  • Procaine
  • Tetracaine
  • Benzocaine
  • Future Outlook
  • References
  • 16 Euthanizing Agents
  • Introduction
  • Inhaled Agents
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Argon
  • Nitrogen
  • Inhalant Anesthetic Overdose
  • Injected Agents
  • Barbiturate (Pentobarbital)
  • Tributame
  • T-61 (Embutramide, Mebozonium Iodine, and Tetracaine Hydrochloride)
  • Other Injectable Anesthetics and Sedatives
  • Potassium Chloride
  • Immersion Agents
  • General
  • Tricaine Methane Sulfonate (MS-222)
  • Benzocaine Hydrochloride
  • 2-Phenoxyethanol
  • Quinaldine Sulfate
  • Other Anesthetic Solutions
  • Miscellaneous Considerations
  • Topical Benzocaine Gel
  • Sodium Hypochlorite
  • Invertebrates
  • References
  • 17 Anticonvulsant Drugs
  • Introduction
  • Phenobarbital
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Interactions
  • Side Effects, Adverse Effects, and Tolerance
  • Clinical Use
  • Clinical Monitoring
  • Primidone
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Efficacy
  • Adverse Effects
  • Clinical Use
  • Therapeutic Monitoring
  • Phenytoin
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use
  • Therapeutic Monitoring
  • Valproic Acid (Valproate)
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use
  • Imepitoin
  • Clinical Use in Dogs
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Adverse Effects
  • Drug Interactions
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Diazepam
  • Midazolam
  • Clonazepam
  • Clorazepate
  • Felbamate
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use
  • Adverse Effects
  • Gabapentin
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use
  • Adverse Effects
  • Pregabalin
  • Levetiracetam
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use
  • Adverse Effects and Interactions
  • Zonisamide
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use
  • Adverse Effects
  • Bromide (Potassium and Sodium Bromide)
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use in Dogs
  • Effect of Diet
  • Clinical Use in Cats
  • Therapeutic Monitoring
  • Side Effects and Adverse Effects
  • Drug Interactions
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 18 Drugs Affecting Animal Behavior
  • Introduction
  • Pharmacokinetic Issues for Behavior Drugs
  • Absorption, Metabolism, Clearance, and Distribution
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Norepinephrine
  • Dopamine
  • Serotonin
  • Acetylcholine
  • Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Major Drug Classes
  • Antipsychotics
  • Anxiolytics
  • Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics
  • Antidepressants
  • Miscellaneous Drugs
  • Drug Combinations
  • Combined Use of Behavioral Drugs
  • Treatment Success
  • Summary
  • References and Additional Reading
  • Section 4 Autacoids and Antiinflammatory Drugs
  • 19 Histamine, Serotonin, and their Antagonists
  • Histamine
  • Sources, Synthesis, and Metabolism of Histamine
  • Histamine Release
  • Histamine Receptors
  • Pharmacological Effects
  • Antihistamines
  • Development
  • H1 Receptor Antagonists
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacological Effects
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Side Effects and Interactions
  • H2 Receptor Antagonists
  • Serotonin
  • Sources, Synthesis, and Metabolism of Serotonin
  • Neuronal Uptake of 5-HT
  • Subtypes of 5-HT Receptors
  • Pharmacological Effects
  • Role in Physiological and Pathological Processes
  • 5-HT Agonists and Antagonists
  • Side Effects and Interactions
  • References
  • 20 Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, Antipyretic Drugs
  • Scientific Literature
  • The Role of Eicosanoids in Inflammation and Mechanisms of Action of NSAIDs
  • Isoforms of Cyclooxygenase: Characteristics, Locations, and Roles
  • Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)
  • History of NSAIDs
  • Classification of NSAIDs, Chemical Structures, and Physicochemical Properties
  • Novel SAID Classes
  • Pharmacology of NSAIDs
  • NSAID Pharmacokinetics
  • NSAID Pharmacodynamics
  • Additional Actions of NSAIDs
  • Toxicity of NSAIDs
  • General Considerations
  • Gastrointestinal Toxicity
  • Local Irritancy
  • Renal toxicity
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Cardiovascular System and Blood Cells
  • Bone, Tendon, and Ligament Healing
  • Soft Tissue Healing and Repair
  • Respiration
  • Skin
  • Reproductive System
  • Nervous System
  • Therapeutic Uses of NSAIDs
  • Acute Pain and Inflammation
  • Chronic Pain
  • Antipyresis
  • Antihemostatic Actions of Aspirin
  • Cancer
  • Mastitis, Metritis, and Endotoxemia
  • Respiratory Diseases
  • Calf and Piglet Scours
  • Ophthalmic Uses
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • References
  • Section 5 Drugs Acting on the Cardiovascular System
  • 21 Digitalis, Positive Inotropes, and Vasodilators
  • Basic Aspects of Cardiac Function
  • Intrinsic Regulation
  • Regulation by the Nervous System
  • Cellular Concepts
  • Positive Inotropes and Inodilators
  • Digitalis and Related Cardiac Glycosides
  • Sympathomimetic Agents: Dobutamine and Dopamine
  • Inodilators: Pimobendan
  • Inotropic Agents: Inamrinone and Milrinone
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Enalapril Maleate and Benazepril, and Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockers, Spironolactone
  • Mechanisms of Action
  • Adverse Effects
  • Efficacy
  • Drug Interactions
  • Use of ACE Inhibitors in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • ACE Inhibitors Currently in Use
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockers
  • Other Vasodilators: Prazosin, Hydralazine, Calcium Channel Blockers, Nitrovasodilators, Sildenafil, and Carvedilol
  • Prazosin
  • Hydralazine Hydrochloride
  • Calcium Channel Blocking Drugs
  • Nitrovasodilators: Nitroglycerin, Isosorbide Dinitrate, and Nitroprusside
  • Phosphodiesterase V Inhibitors: Sildenafil
  • Carvedilol
  • Ancillary Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure
  • Diuretics
  • Overview of the Management of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Type of Heart Disease and Related Hemodynamic Abnormalities
  • Severity of Heart Disease
  • Choice of Pharmacological Agents, Based on Signs
  • References
  • 22 Antiarrhythmic Agents
  • Rhythmicity of the Heart
  • Electrophysiological Properties of Cardiac Cells
  • Classification of Arrhythmogenic Mechanisms
  • Antiarrhythmic Drugs
  • Bradyarrhythmias
  • Propantheline Bromide
  • Isoproterenol
  • Tachyarrhythmias
  • Sinus Tachycardia
  • Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias
  • Ventricular Tachycardia
  • Conclusion
  • References and Additional Reading
  • Section 6 Drugs Affecting Renal Function and Fluid-Electrolyte Balance
  • 23 Principles of Acid-Base Balance: Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy, Blood Substitutes
  • Composition and Distribution of Body Fluids
  • Units of Measure
  • Body Fluid Compartments
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Distribution
  • Water, Sodium, and Chloride
  • Homeostasis
  • Renal Regulation of Sodium, Chloride, and Water Excretion
  • Disorders of Water, Sodium, and Chloride Balance
  • Potassium
  • Homeostasis
  • Renal Regulation of Potassium Excretion
  • Disorders of Potassium Balance
  • Principles of Acid-Base Metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Regulation of Hydrogen Ion, Carbon Dioxide, and Bicarbonate
  • Assessment of Acid-Base Disturbances
  • Anion Gap
  • Nontraditional (Stewarts) Acid-Base Analysis
  • Disorders of Acid-Base Metabolism
  • Metabolic (Nonrespiratory) Acidosis
  • Metabolic (Nonrespiratory) Alkalosis
  • Respiratory Acidosis
  • Respiratory Alkalosis
  • Mixed Acid-Base Disturbances
  • Practical Aspects of Fluid Therapy
  • Diagnosis and Monitoring
  • Fluid Volume and Type
  • Rates and Routes of Administration
  • Products for Fluid Therapy
  • Crystalloids
  • Colloids
  • Hypertonic Solutions
  • Blood Substitutes
  • Special Topics
  • Horses
  • Cattle
  • Anesthetic and Surgical Effects
  • Acknowledgment
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 24 Diuretics and Renal Pharmacology
  • Renal Physiology
  • Nephron Function
  • Factors Regulating Renal Function
  • Renal Epithelial Transport
  • Principles of Diuretic Use
  • Overview
  • Edema Formation
  • Inhibitors of Carbonic Anhydrase
  • Chemistry/Formulations
  • Mechanisms and Sites of Action
  • Absorption and Elimination
  • Toxicity, Adverse Effects, Contraindications, and Drug Interactions
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Osmotic Diuretics
  • Chemistry/Formulations
  • Mechanisms and Sites of Action
  • Absorption and Elimination
  • Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions
  • Contraindications
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Inhibitors of Na+/K+/2Cl- Symport (Loop or High-Ceiling Diuretics)
  • Chemistry/Formulations
  • Mechanisms and Sites of Action
  • Absorption and Elimination
  • Toxicity, Adverse Effects, Contraindications, and Drug Interactions
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Inhibitors of Na+/Cl- Symport (Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics)
  • Chemistry/Formulations
  • Mechanisms and Sites of Action
  • Absorption and Elimination
  • Toxicity, Adverse Effects, Contraindications, and Drug Interactions
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Inhibitors of Renal Epithelial Sodium Channels (K+-Sparing Diuretics)
  • Chemistry/Formulations
  • Mechanisms and Sites of Action
  • Absorption and Elimination
  • Toxicity, Adverse Effects, Contraindications, and Drug Interactions
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Antagonists of Mineralocorticoid Receptors (Aldosterone Antagonists and K+-Sparing Diuretics)
  • Chemistry/Formulations
  • Mechanisms and Sites of Action
  • Absorption and Elimination
  • Toxicity, Adverse Effects, Contraindications, and Drug Interactions
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Methylxanthines
  • Overview
  • New and Experimental Agents
  • Aquaretics
  • Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors
  • Dopamine Receptor Agonists
  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Chemistry/Formulations
  • Mechanisms and Sites of Action
  • Absorption and Elimination
  • Toxicity, Adverse Effects, Contraindications, and Drug Interactions
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • References and Additional Reading
  • Section 7 Drugs Acting on Blood and Blood Elements
  • 25 Anticoagulant, Antiplatelet, and Hemostatic Drugs
  • Hemostasis
  • Vascular and Platelet Phases
  • Coagulation Phase
  • Fibrinolysis Phase
  • Natural Anticoagulants
  • In Vitro Anticoagulants and Clotting Tests
  • Heparin
  • Indications and Clinical Uses
  • Adverse Effects
  • Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins
  • Reversing Agent for Heparin: Protamine Sulfate
  • Warfarin and Coumarin Derivatives
  • Mechanism Of Action
  • Pharmacokinetic Properties
  • Clinical Use, Administration, and Monitoring
  • Adverse Effects and Precautions
  • Thrombin Inhibitors
  • Factor Xa Inhibitors
  • Agents to Reverse Warfarin/Coumarin
  • Agents for Treating Coagulopathies
  • Desmopressin Acetate
  • Antiplatelet Drugs
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Antifibrinolytic Drugs
  • References
  • Section 8 Endocrine Pharmacology
  • 26 Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones
  • Introduction
  • Anterior Pituitary and Associated Regulatory Hormones
  • Corticotropin and Related Peptides
  • Melatonin
  • Glycoprotein Hormones and Associated Releasing Hormones
  • Somatomammotropins and Regulatory Hormones
  • Posterior Pituitary Hormones
  • Antidiuretic Hormone
  • Oxytocin
  • References
  • 27 Hormones Affecting Reproduction
  • Introduction
  • Estrous Cycle
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, Gonadorelin, and Gonadotropins
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Gonadorelin
  • Gonadotropins
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Prolactin
  • Oxytocin
  • Prostaglandin Analogs
  • Reproductive Steroid Hormones (Estrogens, Progesterone, Androgens)
  • Mechanism of Steroid Action
  • Estrogens
  • Progestins
  • Androgens and Finasteride
  • Anabolic Steroids
  • Finasteride
  • Specific Uses of Reproductive Hormonal Drugs
  • Superovulation
  • Pseudopregnancy
  • Parturition
  • Termination of Pregnancy (Abortion)
  • Cryptorchidism
  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • References
  • 28 Thyroid Hormone and Antithyroid Drugs
  • Introduction
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Thyroid Physiology
  • Iodine Metabolism
  • Thyroid Hormone Synthesis
  • Thyroid Hormone Secretion
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Extrathyroid Axis
  • Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone
  • Plasma Hormone Binding of Thyroid Hormone
  • Tissue Thyroid Hormone Uptake: the "Free Hormone" Hypothesis
  • Metabolic Clearance Rates
  • Extrathyroidal Factors Altering Thyroid Hormone Metabolism
  • Effect of Illness and Malnutrition in Humans
  • Effect of Drugs on Thyroid Function
  • Mechanisms of Thyroid Hormone Action
  • Correlation of Clinical Effects with Cellular Actions
  • Plasma Membrane Transporters and Cytosolic Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Thyroid Hormone Receptors
  • Extranuclear Actions of Thyroid Hormone
  • Physiological and Pharmacological Effects of Thyroid Hormone
  • Thyroid Hormone Preparations
  • Crude Thyroid Products
  • Synthetic l-Thyroxine
  • Synthetic l-Triiodothyronine
  • Effects of Thyroid Hormone Overdose (Iatrogenic Thyrotoxicosis)
  • Therapeutic Trial for Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism
  • Monitoring Therapy
  • Therapeutic Failure
  • Treatment of Myxedema Coma
  • Antithyroid Drugs
  • Goitrogens
  • Thioureylenes or Thionamides
  • Medical Options to Thionamide Drugs
  • Thyroid Imaging
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 29 Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, and Adrenolytic Drugs
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Management Of Hypoadrenocorticism
  • Management of Nonadrenal Disorders: Inflammatory, Allergic, and Autoimmune Disorders
  • Review Of Physiology
  • Physiological Effects of Glucocorticoids
  • Pharmacological Effects
  • Chemistry
  • Toxicity
  • Principles of Rational Glucocorticoid Therapy
  • Classes of Glucocorticoid Usage
  • Mineralocorticoids
  • History
  • Secretion and Mechanism of Action
  • Preparations and Properties
  • Therapeutic Use
  • Side Effects
  • Adrenolytic Drugs and Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors
  • Therapy for Hyperadrenocorticism
  • Mitotane
  • Trilostane
  • Ketoconazole
  • l-Deprenyl
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 30 Drugs Influencing Glucose Metabolism
  • Insulin
  • History
  • Chemistry and Biosynthesis
  • Secretion
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Metabolism
  • Preparations and Properties
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Oral Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sulfonylureas
  • Metformin
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Acarbose
  • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Glucagon
  • History
  • Chemistry and Biosynthesis
  • Secretion
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Metabolism
  • Preparations and Dosage
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Adverse Effects
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors
  • Somatostatin
  • History
  • Chemistry and Biosynthesis
  • Secretion
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Metabolism
  • Preparations and Dosage
  • Therapeutic Uses
  • Adverse Effects
  • Miscellaneous
  • References
  • Section 9 Chemotherapy of Microbial Diseases
  • 31 Antiseptics and Disinfectants
  • Introduction
  • Cleansers
  • Antiseptics
  • Disinfectants
  • Popular Antiseptic and Disinfecting Agents
  • Alcohol
  • Halogens
  • Biguanides
  • Aldehydes
  • Oxidizing Compounds
  • Phenols
  • Gases
  • Factors Affecting Efficacy of Antiseptics and Disinfectants
  • Concentration
  • Exposure Time
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Contamination
  • Organism Type
  • Formation of Biofilms
  • Resistance to Antiseptics and Disinfectants
  • Examples of Antiseptic Use in Veterinary Medicine
  • Presurgical Skin Cleansers
  • Treatment of Open Wounds
  • Examples of Disinfectant Use in Veterinary Medicine
  • Salmonella
  • Avian Influenza
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 32 Sulfonamides and Potentiated Sulfonamides
  • Pharmacology of Sulfonamides
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Uses and Microbial Susceptibility
  • Interactions Affecting Antimicrobial Activity
  • Susceptibility Testing
  • Drug Resistance
  • Pharmacokinetics of Sulfonamides
  • Oral Absorption
  • Distribution
  • Metabolism
  • Excretion
  • Adverse Effects Caused by Sulfonamides
  • Crystalluria
  • Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Hepatic Necrosis
  • Blood Clotting Disorders
  • Blood Dyscrasias
  • Thyroid Metabolism Disorders
  • Skin Reactions
  • Effect of Acetylator Status on Adverse Reactions
  • Diarrhea
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Potassium Regulation
  • Sulfonamides in Veterinary Medicine
  • Sulfadimethoxine
  • Sulfamethazine (Sulfadimidine)
  • Sulfaquinoxaline
  • Sulfamerazine
  • Sulfathiazole
  • Sulfasalazine (Salicylazosulfapyridine)
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfabromomethazine
  • Sulfaethoxypyridazine
  • Sulfisoxazole
  • Sulfachlorpyridazine
  • Other Sulfonamides
  • Potentiated Sulfonamides
  • Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine
  • Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
  • Trimethoprim-Sulfachlorpyridazine
  • Sulfadimethoxine-Ormetoprim
  • Residues in Food Animals
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 33 -Lactam Antibiotics: Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Related Drugs
  • Mechanism of Action of -Lactam Antibiotics
  • Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) Properties
  • Microbial Resistance to -Lactam Antibiotics
  • -Lactamase Enzymes
  • Resistance Caused by Reduced Access to Binding Sites
  • Penicillins
  • General Pharmacology
  • Antimicrobial Activity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Summary of Penicillins and Derivatives
  • Adverse Effects
  • Special Species Considerations
  • -Lactamase Inhibitors
  • Cephalosporins
  • General Pharmacology
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Features and Specific Drugs Used in Veterinary Medicine
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Special Species Considerations
  • Carbapenems (Penems)
  • Imipenem (Primaxin®)
  • Meropenem (Merrem®)
  • Ertapenem (Invanz)
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 34 Tetracycline Antibiotics
  • General Pharmacology of Tetracyclines
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Properties
  • Antimicrobial Spectrum and Clinical Uses
  • Adverse Effects and Interactions
  • Commonly Used Tetracyclines
  • Chlortetracycline
  • Tetracycline
  • Oxytetracycline
  • Doxycycline
  • Minocycline
  • Other Nonantimicrobial Uses of Tetracyclines
  • Dermatology
  • Angular Limb Deformities in Foals
  • Arthritis
  • References
  • 35 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics
  • Pharmacology of Aminoglycosides
  • General Properties
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Spectrum of Activity
  • Clinical Uses
  • Pharmacokinetics of Aminoglycosides
  • General
  • Absorption
  • Distribution
  • Metabolism and Excretion
  • Pharmacokinetics in Nonmammals
  • Aminoglycoside Toxicity
  • Dogs
  • Cats
  • Horses
  • Examples of Drugs
  • Gentamicin
  • Amikacin
  • Kanamycin
  • Apramycin
  • Tobramycin
  • Neomycin
  • Dihydrostreptomycin and Streptomycin
  • Paromomycin
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 36 Chloramphenicol and Derivatives, Macrolides, Lincosamides, and Miscellaneous Antimicrobials
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chemical Features
  • Drug Formulations
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Spectrum of Activity
  • Bacterial Resistance
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Adverse Effects and Precautions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Clinical Use
  • Chloramphenicol Derivatives
  • Thiamphenicol
  • Florfenicol
  • Macrolide Antibiotics
  • Source and Chemistry
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Spectrum of Activity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Adverse Effects and Precautions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Erythromycin
  • Tylosin
  • Tilmicosin
  • Tulathromycin
  • Clarithromycin
  • Gamithromycin
  • Tildipirosin
  • Azithromycin
  • Lincosamide Antibiotics
  • Lincomycin
  • Clindamycin
  • Miscellaneous Antibiotics
  • Bacitracin
  • Novobiocin
  • Thiostrepton
  • Rifampin (Rifampicin)
  • Nitrofurans
  • Virginiamycin
  • Carbadox
  • Glycopeptides (Vancomycin)
  • Methenamine
  • Polymyxins
  • Spectinomycin
  • Oxazolidinones
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 37 Fluoroquinolone Antimicrobial Drugs
  • Chemical Features
  • Structure-Activity Relationships
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Antibacterial Spectrum
  • Susceptibility Testing
  • Resistance
  • Clinical Resistance Problems
  • Human Health Risks from Drug Resistant Bacteria
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Oral Absorption
  • Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Injection
  • Metabolism
  • Excretion
  • Protein Binding
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Pharmacokinetics / Pharmacodynamics
  • Dose Guidelines
  • Clinical Use
  • Dogs and Cats
  • Small Mammals
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Fish
  • Horses
  • Ruminants
  • Pigs
  • Administration to Nursing, Pregnant, or Young Animals
  • Safety
  • Blindness in Cats
  • Problems in Young Animals
  • Diseases or Conditions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Formulations Available
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 38 Antifungal and Antiviral Drugs
  • Antifungal Drugs
  • Griseofulvin
  • Amphotericin B
  • Azole Antifungal Drugs
  • Other Antifungal Agents
  • Topical Antifungal Agents
  • Antiviral Therapy
  • Antiherpesvirus Agents: Nucleoside Analogs
  • Oseltamivir
  • Amantadine and Rimantadine
  • Interferon
  • l-Lysine
  • References and Additional Reading
  • Section 10 Chemotherapy of Parasitic Diseases
  • 39 Antinematodal Drugs
  • Benzimidazoles and Probenzimidazoles
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacodynamics: Mode of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Ruminant Species
  • Pharmacokinetics in nonruminant species
  • Mechanisms of Drug Transfer into Target Parasites
  • Anthelmintic Spectrum
  • Routes of Administration and Drug Formulations
  • Factors Affecting the Disposition Kinetics and Efficacy of Benzimidazole Anthelmintics
  • Factors Related to Pharmaceutical Formulation
  • Withdrawal Times, Safety, and Toxicity
  • Imidazothiazoles
  • Chemistry
  • Mode of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Anthelmintic Spectrum
  • Formulations, Dosages, and Routes of Administration
  • Immunomodulatory Effects
  • Safety and Toxicity
  • Tetrahydropyrimidines
  • Chemistry
  • Mode of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Formulations, Dosages, and Routes of Administration
  • Anthelmintic Spectrum
  • Safety and Toxicity
  • Organophosphate Compounds
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Phenothiazine
  • Piperazine (Diethylenediamine)
  • Diethylcarbamazine Citrate
  • Heartworm Adulticides: Organic Arsenicals
  • Thiacetarsamide Sodium
  • Melarsomine
  • Macrocyclic Lactones
  • Resistance to Anthelmintic Compounds: Molecular Basis
  • Nematodicidal Drug Combinations
  • Novel Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 40 Anticestodal and Antitrematodal Drugs
  • Anticestodal Drugs
  • Introduction
  • Bunamidine
  • Niclosamide
  • Praziquantel
  • Epsiprantel
  • Antitrematodal Drugs
  • Introduction
  • Nitrophenolic Compounds
  • Salicylanilides
  • Benzenesulfonamides
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Phenoxyalkanes
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 41 Macrocyclic Lactones: Endectocide Compounds
  • General Pharmacology: Avermectins and Milbemycins
  • Mechanism of Action: Ecto-Endoparasiticadal Activity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Exchange Between Bloodstream and Target Tissues
  • Hepatic Metabolism: Bile and Intestinal Excretion
  • Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship
  • Therapeutic Uses: Animal Species-Specific Considerations
  • Ruminants
  • Swine
  • Horses
  • Dogs and Cats
  • Resistance
  • Pharmacological Interaction with ABC Transporters: Practical Implications
  • Available Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Drug and Host-Related Factors Affecting Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy in Ruminants
  • Tissue Residues and Withdrawal Times
  • Safety and Toxicity
  • Ecotoxicological Impact
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 42 Antiprotozoan Drugs
  • Nitroimidazoles
  • Metronidazole
  • Tinidazole
  • Ronidazole
  • Benznidazole
  • Secnidazole
  • Pentavalent Antimonials
  • Sodium Stibogluconate
  • Meglumine Antimonate
  • Arsenicals
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Albendazole
  • Fenbendazole
  • Febantel
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Paromomycin
  • Nitrofurans
  • Nifurtimox
  • Tetracyclines
  • Hydroxyquinolones and Naphthoquinones
  • Decoquinate
  • Atovaquone
  • Parvaquone and Buparvaquone
  • Pyridinols
  • Clopidol
  • Guanidine Derivatives
  • Robenidine
  • Thiamine Analogues
  • Amprolium
  • Nitrobenzamides
  • Aklomide and Dinitolmide
  • Nicarbazin
  • Alkaloids
  • Halofuginone
  • Polyether Ionophores
  • Lasalocid
  • Maduramicin
  • Monensin
  • Narasin
  • Semduramicin
  • Salinomycin
  • Triazine Derivatives
  • Diclazuril
  • Toltrazuril
  • Ponazuril
  • Sulfonamides
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase/Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitors
  • Trimethoprim
  • Ormetoprim
  • Pyrimethamine
  • Lincosamides
  • Clindamycin
  • Azalides
  • Azithromycin
  • 4-Aminoquinolines
  • Chloroquine
  • Diamidine Derivatives
  • Diminazene Diaceturate
  • Pentamidine Isethionate
  • Phenamidine Isethionate
  • Amicarbalide
  • Imidocarb Dipropionate
  • Nitrothiazole Derivatives
  • Nitazoxanide
  • References
  • 43 Ectoparasiticides
  • Introduction
  • Pharmaceutics of Topical Formulations
  • Transdermal Delivery
  • Routes of Dermal Absorption
  • Mechanisms of Action
  • Resistance to Ectoparasiticides
  • Fipronil
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Efficacy
  • Safety/Toxicity
  • Neonicotinoids
  • Imidacloprid
  • Nitenpyram
  • Spinosad
  • Dinotefuran
  • Isoxazolines
  • Macrocyclic Lactones
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of action
  • Efficacy
  • Safety/Toxicity
  • Pyrethrins and Synthetic Pyrethroids
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Efficacy
  • Safety/Toxicity
  • Indoxacarb
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Safety/Toxicity
  • Organophosphates
  • Chemistry
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Efficacy
  • Safety/Toxicity
  • Carbamates
  • d-Limonene and Linalool
  • Amitraz
  • Efficacy
  • Safety/Toxicity
  • Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)
  • Juvenile-Hormone Analogs
  • Insect Development Inhibitors
  • Synergists and Repellents
  • Ectoparasiticide Approval and Registration in the US
  • References
  • Section 11 Specialty Areas of Pharmacology
  • 44 Chemotherapy of Neoplastic Diseases
  • Terminology and Treatment Perspectives
  • Cancer Biology
  • Chemotherapy of the Cancer Cell
  • Pharmacodynamic Response
  • Drug Toxicity
  • Specific Chemotherapeutic Drugs
  • Alkylating Agents
  • Nitrogen Mustards
  • Nitrosoureas
  • Other Alkylating Agents
  • Antitumor Antibiotics
  • Antimetabolites
  • Antimicrotubule Agents
  • Taxanes
  • Platinum Containing Agents
  • Miscellaneous Drugs
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Corticosteroids
  • Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
  • New Agents
  • References
  • 45 Immunosuppressive Drugs
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Cellular Effects
  • Immunosuppressive Effects
  • Choice of Drugs
  • Doses
  • Adverse Effects
  • Rationale for Every-Other-Day Therapy
  • Cyclosporine
  • Clinical Use in Dogs
  • Clinical Use in Cats
  • Formulations and Pharmacokinetics
  • Administration
  • Monitoring
  • Adverse Effects and Precautions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Ophthalmic Use.
  • Tacrolimus, Pimecrolimus, and Sirolimus (Rapamycin)
  • Oclacitinib (Apoquel®)
  • Mechanism of Action and Activity
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Safety and Adverse Effects
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®)
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Adverse Effects
  • Clinical Use
  • Chlorambucil
  • Adverse Effects
  • Clinical Use
  • Thiopurines (Azathioprine)
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Use
  • Adverse Effects
  • Use in Horses
  • Importance of Metabolic Pathway for Determining Toxicity
  • Mycophenolate
  • Pharmacokinetics / Pharmacodynamics
  • Clinical Use
  • Adverse Effects
  • Leflunomide
  • Indications and Clinical Uses
  • Adverse Effects
  • Gold Therapy (Chrysotherapy)
  • Available Drugs
  • Clinical Use
  • Doses
  • Adverse Effects
  • Dapsone
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Clinical Use in Animals
  • Adverse Effects
  • References
  • 46 Drugs for Treating Gastrointestinal Diseases
  • Antiemetic Drugs
  • Neurotransmitters Involved in Vomiting
  • Phenothiazine Tranquilizers
  • Antimuscarinic Drugs
  • Antihistaminic Drugs
  • Metoclopramide (Reglan®)
  • Serotonin Antagonists
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Cannabinoids
  • NK-1 Receptor Antagonists
  • Mirtazapine (Remeron)
  • Gastrointestinal Prokinetic Drugs
  • Metoclopramide (Reglan®, Maxeran®)
  • Domperidone (Motilium, Equidone)
  • Cisapride
  • Bethanechol (Urecholine)
  • Neostigmine (Prostigmin)
  • H2-Receptor Antagonists
  • Erythromycin
  • Lidocaine
  • Opiate Antagonists for Promoting Intestinal Motility
  • Drugs for Treatment of Gastrointestinal Ulcers in Animals
  • Antacids
  • Histamine H2-Receptor Antagonists
  • Sucralfate (Carafate®)
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Synthetic Prostaglandins
  • Drugs Used to Treat Helicobacter Gastritis
  • Drugs for Treatment of Diarrhea
  • Mucosal Protectants and Adsorbents
  • Motility Modifiers for Treatment of Diarrhea
  • Opioids
  • Antimicrobial Therapy for Treatment of Diarrhea
  • Drugs for Treatment of Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
  • Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine®)
  • Anticholinergic Drugs (Antimuscarinic Drugs)
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Immunosuppressive Drugs
  • N-3 Fatty Acids For Colitis
  • Cyclosporine
  • Laxatives and Cathartics
  • Stimulant (Irritant) Laxatives
  • Hyperosmotic Cathartics (Saline Cathartics)
  • Hydrophilic Colloids ("Bulk Laxatives")
  • Lubricant Laxatives (Mineral Oil and Liquid Petrolatum)
  • Stool Softeners (Surfactants)
  • Acknowledgment
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 47 Dermatopharmacology: Drugs Acting Locally on the Skin
  • Anatomy and Histology
  • The Epidermis
  • The Dermis
  • Species Differences
  • Biochemistry
  • Energy Production and Utilization
  • Drug Biotransformation
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Protein Metabolism
  • Principles of Percutaneous Absorption: Skin Permeability
  • Topical Vehicles
  • Other Factors Affecting Percutaneous Absorption
  • Penetration Enhancers
  • Electrically Assisted Transdermal Drug Delivery
  • Classification of Dermatological Vehicles
  • Adsorbents and Protectives
  • Demulcents
  • Emollients
  • Astringents
  • Rubefacients, Irritants, and Vesicants
  • Caustics and Escharotics
  • Keratolytics, Keratoplastics, and Antiseborrheics
  • Classes of Medicated Applications
  • Ointments
  • Poultices
  • Pastes
  • Powders
  • Dressings
  • Plasters
  • Suspensions
  • Lotions
  • Dermatotherapy: Atopic Dermatitis
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 48 Drugs that Affect the Respiratory System
  • Antitussive Drugs
  • Cough Reflex
  • Mechanism of Action of Antitussive Drugs
  • Morphine
  • Codeine (Methylmorphine)
  • Hydrocodone
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Butorphanol (Torbutrol®, Torbugesic®)
  • Tramadol (Ultram and Generic)
  • Bronchodilator Drugs ( -Adrenergic Receptor Agonists)
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Use
  • Short-Acting Nonspecific Bronchodilators
  • Longer-Acting 2-Specific Drugs
  • Inhalant Formulations: Nebulized Agonists
  • Adverse Effects from Agonists
  • Tolerance with Chronic Use
  • Cromolyn (Sodium Cromoglycate) (Intal®)
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Use
  • Methylxanthines (Xanthines)
  • Pharmacological Effects
  • Formulations
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Plasma Concentrations and Clinical Monitoring
  • Side Effects and Adverse Effects
  • Drug Interactions
  • Clinical Use in Dogs and Cats
  • Clinical Use in Horses
  • Clinical Use in Cattle
  • Anticholinergic Drugs
  • Use of Anticholinergic Drugs in Horses
  • Drug Choices
  • Adverse Effects
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Use
  • Inhaled Corticosteroids
  • Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
  • Leukotriene Inhibitors
  • Lipooxygenase Inhibitor: Zileuton (Zyflo®)
  • Leukotriene Receptor Blockers
  • Expectorants and Mucolytic Drugs
  • Saline Expectorants
  • Direct Stimulants
  • Guaifenesin (Glyceryl Guaiacolate) and Guaiacol
  • Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst®)
  • Demulcents
  • Decongestants
  • Topical Decongestants
  • Systemic Decongestants
  • Use of Decongestants for Treatment of Incontinence
  • Respiratory Stimulants
  • References
  • 49 Ophthalmic Pharmacology
  • Pertinent Ocular Anatomy and Physiology
  • Factors Influencing Drug Levels in Ocular Tissues
  • Ocular Factors
  • Drug Factors
  • Administration Factors
  • Glaucoma
  • Physiology of Glaucoma
  • Pharmacological Therapy of Glaucoma
  • Ocular Inflammation and Antiinflammatory Therapy
  • Pharmacological Management of Intraocular Inflammation
  • Ocular Infections and Antimicrobial Therapy
  • Antibacterial agents
  • Antifungal agents
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Lacrimogenics
  • T-cell inhibitors
  • Parasympathomimetic
  • Mydriatics and Cycloplegics
  • Sympathomimetics
  • Parasympatholytics
  • Local Anesthetics
  • Additional Reading
  • 50 Pharmacogenomics
  • Basic Genetic Concepts
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Pharmacogenetics of Oral Drug Absorption
  • Pharmacogenetics of Drug Distribution
  • Pharmacogenetics of Drug Metabolism
  • Pharmacogenetics of Drug Excretion
  • Pharmacogenetics of Drug Receptors
  • Pharmacogenetics and Idiosyncratic Reactions
  • Pharmacogenetics and Protein Binding
  • Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Practice
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 51 Considerations for Treating Minor Food-Producing Animals with Veterinary Pharmaceuticals
  • The Use of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in Minor Food-Producing Animals: Special Considerations and Challenges
  • The Approval Process for Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Use in Minor Food-Producing Animals
  • Legislation and Policies Supporting the Availability of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in Minor Food-Producing Animals
  • Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act
  • Compliance Policy Guide 615.115
  • Minor Use and Minor Species Animal Health Act
  • Programs Supporting the Use of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in Minor Food-Producing Animals
  • Minor Use Animal Drug Program
  • The Food Animal Residue Avoidance and Depletion Program
  • Methods for Estimating Withdrawal Intervals for Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Administered to Minor Food-Producing Animals in an Extralabel Manner
  • Comparative Pharmacokinetics
  • Allometric Scaling
  • Species Grouping
  • Future Directions: In Vitro and Molecular Studies
  • Summary
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 52 Unique Considerations Pertaining to the Use of Drugs in Food Animals
  • Introduction
  • Extralabel Use
  • Residues and Withdrawal Times
  • Antibiotics
  • Anticoccidials
  • Antiinflammatories
  • Production Enhancement Drugs
  • Hormones for Reproductive Use
  • Antiparasitics
  • Anesthetics and Analgesics
  • Miscellaneous Food Animal Drugs
  • Summary
  • References
  • 53 Pharmacology in Aquatic Animals
  • Introduction
  • Legal Considerations when Selecting an Antimicrobial for Use in Aquatic Animals
  • A Valid Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship
  • General Conditions for ELU
  • Conditions for ELU in Food-Producing Animals
  • Antimicrobials Prohibited from ELU in Animals
  • Routes of Antimicrobial Administration in Fish
  • Injections
  • Immersion Baths
  • Dipping Treatments
  • Oral
  • Clinical Approaches by Aquatic Animal Specialists
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and Interpretive Criteria
  • Timing of Treatment
  • Salinity Effects
  • Temperature Effects
  • Antimicrobials Used in Aquaculture
  • Oxytetracycline
  • Sulfonamides and Potentiated Sulfonamides
  • Florfenicol
  • Quinolones
  • Beta-lactams
  • Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials Commonly Used in Aquaculture in the USA
  • Oxytetracycline
  • Sulfadimethoxine-ormetoprim
  • Florfenicol
  • References
  • 54 Zoological Pharmacology
  • Introduction
  • Species Groups
  • Invertebrates
  • Vertebrates
  • Allometry in Zoo Medicine
  • References
  • Websites of Interest
  • Section 12 Regulatory and Other Considerations
  • 55 The Regulation of Animal Drugs
  • Introduction
  • Drugs versus Biologics versus Pesticides
  • Animal Drugs
  • Device
  • Veterinary Biologics
  • Pesticides
  • What is a New Animal Drug?
  • Laws, Regulations, and Guidance
  • History of the FDA and its Relationship to Veterinary Medicine
  • Other Important Amendments to the FFDCA
  • Generic Animal Drug and Patent Term Restoration Act
  • The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994
  • The Animal Drug Availability Act of 1996
  • Premarket Evaluation of New Animal Drugs
  • Components of New Animal Drug Applications
  • Classifying Prescription, Over-the-Counter and Veterinary Feed Directive Animal Drugs
  • Abbreviated New Animal Drug Applications
  • The Phased Review Process
  • Animal Drugs Intended for Minor Use Minor Species
  • Postapproval Monitoring of Animal Drugs
  • Drug Experience Reports
  • Adverse Drug Experience Reports
  • International Harmonization
  • Concluding Thoughts
  • References
  • 56 Veterinary Pharmacy
  • Introduction
  • Regulatory Discretion for Extralabel Use
  • Need for Legal Extralabel use - AMDUCA
  • Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act
  • Classification of Drugs
  • Drug
  • Legend ("Prescription") Drugs
  • Over-The-Counter ("Nonprescription") Drugs
  • VFD Drugs
  • Controlled Substances
  • Compounded Drugs
  • Current Status of Compounded Veterinary Drugs
  • Potential Problems from Compounded Drugs
  • Examples of Potential Problems
  • Compounded Transdermal Medications for Pets
  • Compounding Guidelines for Veterinarians and Veterinary Pharmacists
  • Unapproved Drugs Available by Importation
  • Prescribing Controlled Substances
  • Prescribing Records
  • Inventory Records
  • Storage and Security of Controlled Substances
  • Dispensing Medications Intended to Go Home with a Patient
  • Prescription Writing
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 57 Medication Control Programs in Performance Animals
  • Regulation of Drug and Medication Use in Performance Animals
  • Overview of Regulatory Agencies and Stakeholder Organizations
  • Racing Animals
  • Nonracing Drug and Medication Rules
  • The Drug Testing Process
  • Sample Type
  • Analytical Methods for Extraction
  • Analytical Methods for Separation
  • Analytical Methods for Detection
  • Testing Scheme Overview
  • Referee Sample Analysis
  • Factors Affecting Withdrawal Times
  • Thresholds, Reporting Levels, and Cutoffs
  • Current Controversies
  • Furosemide
  • Anabolic Steroids
  • Recombinant Products
  • References
  • 58 Pharmacovigilance
  • Introduction
  • FDA Overview
  • Center for Veterinary Medicine
  • Overview of FDAs Postapproval Surveillance Program
  • Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Event Reporting at CVM
  • Pharmacovigilance
  • Adverse Drug Experience - Definition
  • Adverse Drug Experience (ADE) Reporting
  • Approved versus Unapproved Drugs
  • Animal Devices
  • Product Defects
  • Reporting Product Defects
  • Medication Errors
  • Pet Food Adverse Event and Product Problem Reporting
  • Reporting of Adverse Events associated with pesticides or vaccines
  • Evaluation of Adverse Drug Experience Reports
  • CVMs ADE Review Process
  • Signal Detection at CVM
  • Communication of Drug Safety Information and Regulatory Intervention
  • Communication of Drug Safety Information
  • Safety Measures Beyond Labeling
  • Other Surveillance Methods
  • CVM's International Pharmacovigilance Efforts
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 59 Dosage Forms And Veterinary Feed Directives
  • Pharmacokinetic Considerations and Controlled-Drug Delivery
  • Palatability and Ease Of Drug Administration
  • Veterinary Feed Additives
  • Site-Directed Therapy
  • References
  • 60 Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy
  • Introduction
  • How is EBVM Different from Other Approaches to Pharmacotherapy?
  • How is EBVM Applied to Selecting the Best Treatment for a Specific Patient?
  • Transforming Information Needs into Questions
  • Finding Evidence to Answer the Questions
  • Appraising the Evidence
  • References and Additional Reading
  • 61 Chemical Residues In Tissues Of Food Animals
  • The Concern Over Residues in Food
  • Regulation of Drug Residues in Animals
  • The Veterinarian and Extralabel Drug Use
  • Pharmacokinetics and Residues
  • Drugs Prohibited from Extralabel Use
  • Residue Prevention
  • References and Additional Reading
  • Index
  • EULA

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