This book focuses on structural characterisation techniques for porous materials. Covering a range of techniques, including gas sorption, mercury porosimetry, thermoporometry, NMR and imaging methods, this practical guide presents the basic theory behind each characterisation technique, and discusses the practicalities of the experimental and data analysis approaches needed for complex industrial samples.
The book shows readers how to approach characterising a particular sort of material for the first time and then how to develop a strategy for more in-depth analysis. It also demonstrates how to determine the best techniques for solving particular problems, and describes methods of obtaining the required information, as well as the limitations of various methods. It particularly highlights a scientific approach involving parameter validation and simple acquisition.
Featuring examples taken from case studies of real-world industrial materials, this book is intended for industrial practitioners and researchers. It provides a manual of potential techniques and answers questions concerning porous materials that arise in areas such as the catalyst industry, the oil and gas sector, batteries, fuel cells, tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery devices.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Aims of this book
1.2 Porous materials
1.3 Characterisation science
1.4 What is a pore?
1.5 Void space descriptors
Chapter 2: Gas sorption
2.1 Basic theory
2.2 Nature of experiment
2.3 What can I find out with this method?
Chapter 3: Mercury porosimetry
3.1 Basic theory
3.2 Nature of experiment
3.3 What can I find out with this method?
Chapter 4: Thermoporometry and Scattering
Chapter 5: NMR and microscopy methods
5.1 Theory of NMR and imaging techniques
5.2 Nature of experiments
5.3 What can I find out with these methods?
Chapter 6: Hybrid methods
6.2 Utilisation of network effects in pore characterisation
6.3 Combined mercury porosimetry and thermoporometry
6.4 Integrated gas sorption and mercury porosimetry
6.5 Combined MRI and gas sorption
6.6 Combined CXT and gas adsorption
6.7 Integrated NMR cryodiffusometry and relaxometry, combined with gas sorption
6.8 Combined CXT and liquid metal intrusion
6.9 Serial gas sorption with different adsorptives
6.10 Scattering methods and mercury porosimetry
6.11 Combined CXT, MRI and mercury porosimetry
Chapter 7: Structural characterisation in absorbent and catalyst design
7.1 Special considerations for industrial materials
7.2 Relating pore structure to raw material properties and fabrication method
7.3 Relating mass transport to pore structure
7.4 Understanding product activity and selectivity
Chapter 8: Structural characterisation in engineering geology
8.1 Special considerations for natural porous systems
8.2 Predicting permeability, reservoir producibility and bound volume index
8.3 Characterising multi-scale, hierarchical porous structures