Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • 5. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 16. Juni 2017
  • |
  • 576 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-27086-7 (ISBN)
 
Now in its Fifth Edition, Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals provides a basic understanding of domestic animal anatomy and physiology, taking an interconnected approach to structure and function of the horse, dog, cat, cow, sheep, goat, pig, and chicken.
* Offers a readable introduction to basic knowledge in domestic animal anatomy and physiology
* Covers equine, canine, feline, bovine, ovine, ruminant, swine, and poultry anatomy and physiology
* Considers structure and function in relation to each other for a full understanding of the relationship between the two
* Provides pedagogical tools to promote learning, including chapter outlines, study questions, self-evaluation exercises, clinical correlates, key terms, suggested readings, and a robust art program
* Includes access to a companion website with video clips, review questions, and the figures from the book in PowerPoint
5. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 19,51 MB
978-1-119-27086-7 (9781119270867)
1119270863 (1119270863)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
The authors
William O. Reece, DVM, PhD is University Professor Emeritus in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, at Iowa State University of Science and Technology in Ames, Iowa, USA.
Eric W. Rowe, DVM, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, at Iowa State University of Science and Technology in Ames, Iowa, USA.
  • Intro
  • Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Companion Website
  • 1 Basics of Structure and Function
  • The Cell, Its Structure and Functions
  • The Organelles
  • Energy Production
  • Functions of DNA and RNA
  • DNA and Its Replication
  • Mitosis
  • RNA and Protein Synthesis
  • Embryology
  • Tissues
  • Epithelium
  • Connective Tissue
  • Directional Terms and Planes
  • Body Cavities
  • Thoracic Cavity
  • The Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • The Peritoneum
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 2 Body Water: Properties and Functions
  • Physicochemical Properties of Solutions
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
  • Tone of Solutions
  • Interconversion of Units of Measurement
  • Distribution of Body Water
  • Total Body Water and Fluid Compartments
  • Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid
  • Water Movement between Fluid Compartments
  • Water Balance
  • Water Gain
  • Water Loss
  • Water Requirements
  • Dehydration, Thirst, and Water Intake
  • Dehydration
  • Stimulus for Thirst
  • Relief of Thirst
  • Adaptation to Water Lack
  • Camels
  • Sheep and Donkeys
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 3 Blood and Its Functions
  • General Characteristics
  • Hematocrit
  • Blood Color
  • Blood Volume
  • Blood pH
  • Leukocytes
  • Classification and Appearance
  • Lifespan and Numbers
  • Function
  • Diagnostic Procedures
  • Erythrocytes
  • Hemoglobin and Its Forms
  • Erythropoiesis
  • Numbers
  • Shape
  • Size
  • Erythrocyte Indices
  • Lifespan
  • Fate of Erythrocytes
  • Iron Metabolism
  • Anemia and Polycythemia
  • Hemostasis: Prevention of Blood Loss
  • Hemostatic Components
  • Proteins
  • Vascular Endothelium
  • Platelets
  • Clot Formation (Blood Coagulation)
  • Fibrin Degradation
  • Prevention of Blood Coagulation
  • Prevention in normal circulation
  • Prevention in Withdrawn Blood
  • Tests for Blood Coagulation
  • Coagulation Defects
  • Species Differences
  • Plasma and Its Composition
  • Plasma Proteins
  • Other Plasma Constituents
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 4 Nervous System
  • Structure of the Nervous System
  • Neurons and Synapses
  • Glial Cells
  • Myelin Sheaths
  • Organization of the Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Neurotransmitters
  • The Nerve Impulse and Its Transmission
  • Mechanisms of Transmission
  • Action Potential
  • Saltatory Conduction
  • Neuron Placement
  • Reflexes
  • Spinal Reflex
  • Somatic and Visceral Reflexes
  • Reflex Centers
  • Postural Reflexes and Reactions
  • The Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Meninges of the Brain
  • Meninges of the Spinal Cord
  • Ventricles of the Brain
  • Circulation and Function of Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Central Nervous System Metabolism
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Blood Requirement
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 5 The Sensory Organs
  • Classification of Sensory Receptors
  • Sensory Receptor Responses
  • Graded Responses
  • Adaptation
  • Pain
  • Visceral Pain
  • Referred Pain
  • Taste
  • Taste Reception
  • Taste Sensations
  • Temperature and Taste
  • Depraved Appetite
  • Smell
  • Olfactory Region Structure
  • Odor Perception
  • Pheromones
  • Hearing and Equilibrium
  • External Ear
  • Middle Ear
  • Inner Ear
  • Vestibular Structure and Function
  • Cochlear Structure and Function
  • Summary of Sound Reception
  • Vision
  • Structure and Functions of the Eye
  • Chemistry of Vision
  • Adaptation to Varying Light
  • Field of Vision
  • Eyeball Movements and Accessory Structures
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 6 Endocrine System
  • Hormones
  • Modes of Transmission
  • Biochemistry
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Anterior Pituitary
  • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
  • Posterior Pituitary and Its Hormones
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Parathyroid Glands
  • Parathyroid Hormone and Calcium Ion Regulation
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
  • Glucocorticoid Functions and Regulations
  • Mineralocorticoid Functions and Regulation
  • Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
  • Pancreatic Gland
  • Hormones of the Pancreas
  • Control of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion
  • Prostaglandins and Their Functions
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 7 Bones, Joints, and Synovial Fluid
  • General Features of the Skeleton
  • The Axial Skeleton
  • The Appendicular Skeleton
  • Bone Structure
  • Composition of Bone
  • Haversian Systems
  • Cells of Bone
  • Bone Formation
  • Growth of Long Bones
  • Bone Remodeling
  • Bone Repair
  • Joints and Synovial Fluid
  • Blood, Lymph, and Nerve Supply of Joints
  • Synovial Membrane
  • Articular Cartilage
  • Lubrication of Synovial Joints
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 8 Muscle
  • Classification
  • Smooth Muscle
  • Cardiac Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Arrangement
  • Skeletal-Muscle Harnessing
  • Microstructure of Skeletal Muscle
  • Muscle-Fiber Division
  • Sarcotubular System
  • Neuromuscular Junction
  • Skeletal-Muscle Contraction
  • Depolarization of Muscle Fibers
  • Contraction Process
  • Energy Changes
  • Contraction versus Contracture
  • Contraction Strength
  • Comparison of Contraction among Muscle Types
  • Changes in Muscle Size
  • Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia
  • Atrophy
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 9 The Cardiovascular System
  • Heart and Pericardium
  • Myocardium
  • Heart Valves
  • Blood Flow through the Heart
  • Blood Vessels
  • Blood Circulatory Systems
  • Lymphatic System
  • Spleen
  • Cardiac Contractility
  • Origin of the Heartbeat
  • Conduction of the Impulse
  • Cardiac Cycle
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Wave Forms
  • Isoelectric Line
  • Heart Sounds
  • Heart Rate and Its Control
  • Metabolic Rate
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Autoregulation
  • Reflexes
  • Blood Pressure
  • Pressure Generation and Flow
  • Systolic and Diastolic Pressures
  • Measurements
  • Blood Flow
  • Autoregulation
  • Cardiac Output and Blood Diversion
  • Breathing and Blood Flow
  • Circulation Time
  • Capillary Dynamics
  • Diffusion and Bulk Flow
  • Mechanism of Bulk Flow
  • Capillary Imbalances
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 10 The Respiratory System
  • Respiratory Apparatus
  • Airways to the Lungs
  • Pulmonary Alveoli
  • The Lungs and Pleura
  • Factors Associated with Breathing
  • Respiratory Cycles
  • Types of Breathing
  • States of Breathing
  • Respiratory Frequency
  • Lung Sounds
  • Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
  • Respiratory Pressures
  • Partial Pressure
  • Arterial and Venous Blood Partial Pressure
  • Atmospheric Air versus Alveolar Air
  • Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Dead Space Ventilation
  • Pressures That Accomplish Ventilation
  • Pneumothorax
  • Mediastinal Pressure
  • Diffusion of Respiratory Gases
  • Oxygen Transport
  • Transport Scheme
  • Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
  • Carbon Dioxide Transport
  • Hydration Reaction
  • Carbamino Compounds
  • Loss of Carbon Dioxide at the Alveolus
  • Regulation of Ventilation
  • Neural Control
  • Humoral Control
  • Respiratory Clearance
  • Physical Forces of Deposition
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Clearance
  • Alveolar Clearance
  • Nonrespiratory Functions of the Respiratory System
  • Panting
  • Purring
  • Pathophysiology Terminology
  • Avian Respiration
  • General Scheme of Avian Respiratory Morphology
  • Mechanics of Respiration and Air Circulation
  • General Considerations
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 11 The Urinary System
  • Gross Anatomy of the Kidneys and Urinary Bladder
  • The Nephron
  • Nephron Components
  • Formation of Urine
  • Distribution of Blood at the Glomerulus
  • Glomerular Filtration
  • Dynamics of Filtration
  • Filtration Factors
  • Autoregulation
  • Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
  • Reabsorption of Na+, Cl-, Glucose, and Amino Acids
  • Reabsorption of Water and Urea
  • Secretion of H+, K+, NH3, and Organic Molecules
  • Transport Maximum
  • Countercurrent Mechanism
  • Countercurrent Multiplier System
  • Countercurrent Exchanger System
  • Role of Urea
  • Concentration of Urine
  • Antidiuretic Hormone and Osmoregulation
  • Concentration Failure
  • Extracellular Fluid Volume Regulation
  • Aldosterone
  • Other Hormones with Kidney Association
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Erythropoietin
  • Prostaglandins
  • Micturition
  • Transfer of Urine to the Urinary Bladder
  • Micturition Reflexes
  • Descriptive Terms
  • Characteristics of Mammalian Urine
  • Renal Clearance
  • Creatinine Clearance Application
  • Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance
  • Acids and Bases
  • Relationship of pH to H+ Concentration
  • Chemical Buffer Systems
  • Mechanism of H+ Secretion by the Kidneys
  • Role of Respiratory System
  • Avian Urinary System
  • Anatomic Features
  • Renal Portal System
  • Uric Acid Formation and Excretion
  • Concentration of Avian Urine
  • Modification of Ureteral Urine
  • Urine Characteristics and Flow
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 12 Digestion and Absorption
  • Introductory Considerations
  • The Oral Cavity and Pharynx
  • Teeth
  • Tongue
  • Pharynx
  • The Simple Stomach
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Intestines
  • Small Intestine
  • Large Intestine
  • Accessory Organs
  • Composition of Foodstuffs
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Accessory Foods
  • Pregastric Mechanical Functions
  • Prehension
  • Mastication
  • Deglutition
  • Gastrointestinal Motility
  • Segmentation and Peristalsis
  • Mechanical Functions of the Stomach and Small Intestine
  • Delay of Gastric Emptying
  • Emesis
  • Mechanical Functions of the Small Intestine
  • Mechanical Functions of the Large Intestine
  • Defecation
  • Intestinal Transport of Electrolytes and Water
  • Digestive Secretions
  • Saliva
  • Gastric Secretions
  • Pancreatic Secretions
  • Biliary Secretions
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats
  • Microbial Digestion in the Large Intestine
  • The Ruminant Stomach
  • Structure and Function
  • Characteristics of Ruminant Digestion
  • Rumination
  • Gas Production and Eructation
  • Chemistry and Microbiology of the Rumen
  • Ruminant Metabolism
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Energy Production
  • Ruminant Ketosis and Bloat
  • Avian Digestion
  • The Digestive Tract
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 13 Body Heat and Temperature Regulation
  • Body Temperature
  • Gradients of Temperature
  • Diurnal Temperature
  • Physiologic Responses to Heat
  • Circulatory Adjustments
  • Evaporative Heat Loss
  • Responses to Extremes of Heat
  • Physiologic Responses to Cold
  • Reduction of Heat Loss
  • Increase in Heat Production
  • Hibernation
  • Awakening from Hibernation
  • Brown Fat versus White Fat
  • Hypothermia and Hyperthermia
  • Hypothermia
  • Fever
  • Heat Stroke and Impaired Evaporation
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 14 Male Reproduction
  • Testes and Associated Structures
  • Epididymis
  • Ductus Deferens
  • Scrotum
  • Descent of the Testes
  • Accessory Sex Glands and Semen
  • Penis and Prepuce
  • Muscles of Male Genitalia
  • Blood and Nerve Supply
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Epididymal Transport
  • Spermatogenic Wave
  • Hormonal Control
  • Other Functions of Testosterone
  • Erection
  • Mounting and Intromission
  • Emission and Ejaculation
  • Factors Affecting Testicular Function
  • Reproduction in the Avian Male
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 15 Female Reproduction
  • Functional Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
  • Ovaries
  • Ovarian Follicles
  • Tubular Genital Tract
  • External Genitalia
  • Blood Supply of Female Genitalia
  • Hormones of Female Reproduction
  • Estrogens
  • Progesterone
  • Gonadotropins
  • Ovarian Follicle Activity
  • Follicular Growth
  • Ovulation
  • Corpus Luteum Formation and Regression
  • Summary of Ovarian Cycle Events
  • Sexual Receptivity
  • Estrous Cycle and Related Factors
  • Stages of Estrous Cycle
  • Photoperiod
  • Nutrition
  • Species Characteristics
  • Ewe
  • Pregnancy
  • Transport of Oocyte and Spermatozoa
  • Fertilization
  • Implantation and Placentation
  • Hormones
  • Diagnosis
  • Parturition
  • Signs of Approaching Parturition
  • Hormone Changes
  • Stages
  • Involution of the Uterus
  • Cow
  • Mare, Ewe, and Sow
  • Bitch
  • Reproduction in the Avian Female
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • 16 Lactation
  • Functional Anatomy of Female Mammary Glands
  • Mammary Gland of Cows
  • Mammary Glands of Other Animals
  • Mammogenesis
  • Development in Cattle
  • Development in Other Animals
  • Lactogenesis and Lactation
  • Hormones and Their Interactions
  • Hormonal Maintenance of Lactation
  • Composition of Milk
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Other Substances
  • Species Variation in Composition
  • Colostrum
  • Milk Removal and Other Considerations
  • Milking Interval
  • Regression of the Mammary Gland
  • SUGGESTED READING
  • Appendix A Normal Blood Values
  • Reference Intervals for Common Domestic Species: Blood Gas and Hematology
  • References and Resources
  • Appendix B Answers to Self Evaluation
  • Index
  • EULA

CHAPTER 1
Basics of Structure and Function


CHAPTER OUTLINE


  •   THE CELL, ITS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS
    • The Organelles
  •   ENERGY PRODUCTION
  •   FUNCTIONS OF DNA AND RNA
    • DNA and Its Replication
    • Mitosis
    • RNA and Protein Synthesis
  •   EMBRYOLOGY
  •   TISSUES
    • Epithelium
    • Connective Tissue
  •   DIRECTIONAL TERMS AND PLANES
  •   BODY CAVITIES
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • The Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • The Peritoneum

In general, the study of anatomy refers to the study of the structure of body parts and includes gross anatomy (identification by unaided visual means) and microscopic anatomy (identification by microscopic assistance that usually begins at the cellular level). The study of physiology is a study of the functions of the body, or as sometimes stated, "how the body works," and includes biophysical and biochemical processes and precludes a knowledge of anatomy. Although anatomy and physiology can be taught as separate entities, overlaps are unavoidable and it follows that greater productivity is obtained by integrating the two disciplines.

The study of anatomy and physiology is assisted by prerequisite courses, which include chemistry, physics, biology, and quantitative skills in mathematics. With this in mind, we will rely not only on your previous preparation, but also on the desire to advance your knowledge with application to animal anatomy and physiology. This chapter provides basics of structure and function that should be helpful to you as you study the chapters that follow.

  THE CELL, ITS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS


  1. What separates the cell cytoplasm from interstitial fluid?
  2. What are organelles?
  3. Define the nuclear membrane.
  4. What does chromatin become in dividing cells?
  5. Differentiate between granular and agranular endoplasmic reticula and their associated functions.
  6. Are the vesicular structures of the endoplasmic reticulum separate or interconnected?
  7. What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
  8. What organelle is the site of the citric acid cycle?
  9. What is the principal substance of lysosomes?
  10. What cellular function are the centrioles associated with? What ?is their location within the cell known as?

The number of cells in an animal is in the trillions and for the human has been estimated to be about 100 trillion. Each of these cells had their start beginning with fertilization of an oocyte. The appearance of cells varies with the organ of which they are a part and will be shown and described when encountered. Cells are highly organized chemical systems and share many features that are shown schematically in Figure 1-1. The basic components of a cell are the plasma membrane (cell membrane) that bounds the cell and gives it limits; the cytoplasm, which is the homogenous ground substance that forms the background in which the formed elements are suspended; and the nucleus. The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane and the cytoplasm is separated from the surrounding fluids (interstitial fluid) by a cell membrane. The cell membrane is usually pliable and is composed of phospholipids and proteins. The phospholipid molecules occur in two layers. The protein molecules may be associated with either the outer or inner layer and may penetrate completely or incompletely (see Chapter 2).

  FIGURE 1-1 Schematic drawing of the general organization of a cell. (From Eurell JA, Frappier BL. Dellmann's Textbook of Veterinary Histology. 6th edn. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.)

Because of cell specialization, no cell can be called typical. The cytoplasm is the location of diverse metabolic activities and is filled with both minute and large dispersed particles and organelles.

The Organelles


The organelles are highly organized physical structures represented in Figure 1-1 and, in addition to the cell membrane, consist of the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, and centrioles. These structures assist the cytoplasm with its metabolic activities by receiving materials into the cell, synthesizing new substances, generating energy, packaging materials for transport to other parts of the cell or to the circulation, excretion of waste products, and reproduction.

Nucleus

The nucleus is the control center of the cell, controlling its chemical reactions and ­reproduction. It contains large quantities of DNA. Nuclear components consist of a nuclear membrane, one or more nucleoli, and chromatin, all bathed in nuclear sap (nucleoplasm). The nuclear membrane (also called nuclear envelope) consists of two membranes wherein the outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum, and the space between the two nuclear membranes, the lumen, is also continuous with the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Numerous nuclear pores penetrate both layers. These pores permit exchange between the nucleoplasm of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell, including movement of RNA synthesized in the nucleus, out into the cytoplasm. The nucleolus does not have a limiting membrane and is a structure that contains large amounts of RNA and proteins that are found in ribosomes. Chromatin appears as dark-staining particles throughout the nucleoplasm in the nondividing cell. In the dividing cell, the chromatin organizes into chromosomes.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of tubular and flat vesicular (small thin-walled cavity) structures in the cytoplasm that all interconnect with one another. The fluid within the lumen of the ER is continuous with the fluid in the nuclear envelope and is different from the fluid in the cytoplasm. A large number of small granular particles called ribosomes are attached to the outer surfaces of many parts of the ER. Where these are present they are called the granular or rough ER, and where they are not present they are called the agranular or smooth ER. Ribosomes are composed of a mixture of RNA and proteins and function in the synthesis of proteins. The agranular ER functions in the synthesis of lipid substances and other enzymatic processes of the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

The Golgi apparatus is closely related to the ER. It is prominent in secretory cells, being well developed in cells secreting enzymes and hormones. It packages ­materials made in the cell and transforms them into units that are then distributed outside the cell. The packaging begins when vesicles pinch off from the ER and then fuse with the Golgi apparatus. The vesicular substances are then processed in the Golgi apparatus to form lysosomes or other secretory vesicles, which become surrounded by a membrane. They are then released from the Golgi apparatus for storage or use in the cell or are transported to the cell membrane, where they are released into the extracellular fluid as a secretion.

Mitochondria

Mitochondria are the "powerhouses" of the cell because they are the principal sites for energy production. The number in a cell depends on the amount of energy required, and mitochondria increase in number when cellular needs increase. A mitochondrion is composed of an outer and an inner membrane. The inner membrane has infoldings that provide shelves for the attachment of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes (enzymes for production of energy). The inner cavity consists of a matrix (supporting substance) that contains enzymes and coenzymes (cofactors) required for extracting energy from nutrients. The matrix is the site of the citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and Krebs cycle).

Lysosomes

The vesicular organelles called lysosomes are formed by the Golgi apparatus and then become dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Because lysosomes contain digestive enzymes, their presence in the cytoplasm provides an intracellular digestive system allowing digestion of damaged cellular structures, food particles ingested by the cell, and bacterial cells.

Centrosome

The centrosome is located in the cytoplasm, close to the nucleus, and contains two centrioles. The centrioles are usually oriented at right angles to each other and each consists of nine groups of three microtubules arranged in a circle. During cell division the centrosome serves as a spindle pole and helps to organize the microtubules.

  ENERGY PRODUCTION


  1. What substance is formed from the catabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to begin the aerobic stage of energy production via the citric acid cycle?
  2. What are the cofactors involved in the transfer of electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport...

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