Integrating Program Management and Systems Engineering

Methods, Tools, and Organizational Systems for Improving Performance
 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 2. Februar 2017
  • |
  • 456 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-25915-2 (ISBN)
 
Integrate critical roles to improve overall performance in complex engineering projects
Integrating Program Management and Systems Engineering shows how organizations can become more effective, more efficient, and more responsive, and enjoy better performance outcomes. The discussion begins with an overview of key concepts, and details the challenges faced by System Engineering and Program Management practitioners every day. The practical framework that follows describes how the roles can be integrated successfully to streamline project workflow, with a catalog of tools for assessing and deploying best practices. Case studies detail how real-world companies have successfully implemented the framework to improve cost, schedule, and technical performance, and coverage of risk management throughout helps you ensure the success of your organization's own integration strategy. Available course outlines and PowerPoint slides bring this book directly into the academic or corporate classroom, and the discussion's practical emphasis provides a direct path to implementation.
The integration of management and technical work paves the way for smoother projects and more positive outcomes. This book describes the integrated goal, and provides a clear framework for successful transition.
* Overcome challenges and improve cost, schedule, and technical performance
* Assess current capabilities and build to the level your organization needs
* Manage risk throughout all stages of integration and performance improvement
* Deploy best practices for teams and systems using the most effective tools
Complex engineering systems are prone to budget slips, scheduling errors, and a variety of challenges that affect the final outcome. These challenges are a sign of failure on the part of both management and technical, but can be overcome by integrating the roles into a cohesive unit focused on delivering a high-value product. Integrating Program Management with Systems Engineering provides a practical route to better performance for your organization as a whole.
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Eric Rebentisch leads research projects at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Sociotechnical Systems Research Center (SSRC). His research focuses on improving the performance of technically driven organizations and their product offerings.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Editors
  • Contributors
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Foreword: Practices, Knowledge, and Innovation
  • Preface
  • Reference
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • The Origins of an Important Collaboration
  • Creating a Knowledge Foundation through Exploratory Research
  • Overview of the Book
  • References
  • PART I: IN SEARCH OF INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS
  • CHAPTER 1: TOWARD A NEW MINDSET
  • 1.1 Striving for Perfection in Complex Work
  • 1.2 Boldly Going Again Where People Have Gone Before
  • 1.3 Strategy Realization Requires Good Management
  • 1.4 Workforce + Organizational Capabilities = Competitive Advantage
  • 1.5 Rays of Hope
  • 1.6 Trekking toward a New Mindset
  • 1.7 Summary
  • 1.8 Discussion Questions
  • 1.9 References
  • Endnote
  • CHAPTER 2: THE ENGINEERING PROGRAM PERFORMANCE CHALLENGE
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Making White Elephants Extinct
  • 2.3 Large Engineering Programs Are Complex
  • 2.4 We Need a Better Solution
  • 2.5 Summary
  • 2.6 Discussion Questions
  • 2.7 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 3: THE FEATURES OF SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
  • 3.1 A Major Engineering Program Failure?
  • 3.2 Bridging Boundaries to Foster Program Success
  • 3.3 Contributors to Success in Action
  • 3.4 Summary
  • 3.5 Discussion Questions
  • 3.6 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 4: THE CASE FOR INTEGRATING PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT
  • 4.1 The Roots of Nonintegration
  • 4.2 Program Management and Systems Engineering Are Different
  • 4.3 Program Management
  • 4.4 Systems Engineering
  • 4.5 Why Divergence Is Such a Problem
  • 4.6 Integrating Is Difficult, but Not Impossible
  • 4.7 Discussion Questions
  • 4.8 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 5: KEY CONCEPTS IN INTEGRATION
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Assessing Integration between Disciplines
  • 5.3 Attributes of Integration in Complex Organizations
  • 5.4 Practitioner Perspectives on Integration
  • 5.5 Summary
  • 5.6 Discussion Questions
  • 5.7 References
  • PART II: BUILDING CAPABILITIES TO EFFECTIVELY EXECUTE ENGINEERING PROGRAMS
  • CHAPTER 6: HOW INTEGRATION WORKS IN PROGRAMS
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 The Integration Framework
  • 6.3 Summary
  • 6.4 Discussion Questions
  • 6.5 References
  • CHAPTER 7: INTEGRATION IN PRACTICE IN THE F/A-18E/F SUPER HORNET PROGRAM
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Program Background and the Context of Integration
  • 7.3 Twelve Days of August: A Start on the Integration Journey
  • 7.4 Enabling Integration by Reducing Program Complexity
  • 7.5 A Parallel Process in NAVAIR to Improve Integration
  • 7.6 The E/F Program Pilots a New Way of Working Together
  • 7.7 Improved Decision Making
  • 7.8 Program Delivery
  • 7.9 Integration Practices Observed in the F/A-18E/F Program
  • 7.10 Summary
  • 7.11 Discussion Questions
  • 7.12 References
  • Endnote
  • CHAPTER 8: PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTEGRATION PROCESSES, PRACTICES, AND TOOLS
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Episodic Integration Mechanisms
  • 8.3 Pervasive Integration Mechanisms
  • 8.4 A Note on Tailoring
  • 8.5 Summary
  • 8.6 Discussion Questions
  • 8.7 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 9: THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Structural Dimensions of Integration
  • 9.3 Organizational Environmental Factors
  • 9.4 The Challenges of Integration in Large-Scale Programs: Systems Failure
  • 9.5 Characteristics of Successful Program Integration
  • 9.6 The International Space Station: A Model in Systems Integration
  • 9.7 Summary
  • 9.8 Discussion Questions
  • 9.9 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 10: DEVELOPING INTEGRATION COMPETENCIES IN PEOPLE
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Identifying Integration Competencies
  • 10.3 Developing Integration Competencies
  • 10.4 Managing Integration Competencies
  • 10.5 Summary
  • 10.6 Discussion Questions
  • 10.7 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 11: INTEGRATION THROUGHOUT THE PROGRAM LIFE CYCLE
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Integration and the Generic Life Cycle
  • 11.3 Life Cycle Stages for Systems Engineering
  • 11.4 Program Management Life Cycle Characteristics
  • 11.5 Large-Scale Infrastructure Programs
  • 11.6 Life Cycle Integration
  • 11.7 Leadership Styles for the Big Dig's Five Stages of Program Management
  • 11.8 Summary
  • 11.9 Discussion Questions
  • 11.10 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 12: THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE INTEGRATION ON PROGRAM PERFORMANCE
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Program Performance
  • 12.3 Measuring Integration in Programs
  • 12.4 Integration as a Catalyst for Program Performance
  • 12.5 Case Study: Electronic Support Upgrade for the Royal Australian Navy's Anzac Class Frigate
  • 12.6 Summary
  • 12.7 Discussion Questions
  • 12.8 References
  • Endnote
  • PART III: DEVELOPING INTEGRATION COMPETENCIES IN YOUR ORGANIZATION
  • CHAPTER 13: INTEGRATION MEANS CHANGE
  • 13.1 Introduction: The Case for Change
  • 13.2 The Need to Be Thoughtful about Change
  • 13.3 Frameworks and Models for Change
  • 13.4 Readiness Assessment
  • 13.5 The Road Ahead and How to Prepare for It
  • 13.6 Summary
  • 13.7 Discussion Questions
  • 13.8 References
  • Additional Resources
  • CHAPTER 14: SUCCESSFUL CHANGE PROGRAMS THAT IMPROVED INTEGRATION
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Redefining What Is Possible: The Marriage of Systems Engineering and Program Management at Lockheed Missiles & Space Company
  • 14.3 Using Certification to Foster Integration in U.S. Government Agency Acquisition Programs
  • 14.4 Integrating Software Engineering and Program Management at Nationwide
  • 14.5 Managing Change in Engineering Program Organizations: Boosting Productivity in BMW's Engineering Department
  • 14.6 Delivering the World's Most Complex Inner-City Infrastructure Program: Boston's Big Dig
  • 14.7 Summary
  • 14.8 Discussion Questions
  • 14.9 References
  • Endnotes
  • CHAPTER 15: LEADING AN INTEGRATION CHANGE PROGRAM
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Understanding the Work Ahead: The Organizational Context
  • 15.3 Planning for Change within the Organizational Context
  • 15.4 Putting the Four Input Dimensions for Change Together
  • 15.5 Practices to Consider
  • 15.6 Summary
  • 15.7 References
  • PART IV: A CALL TO ACTION
  • CHAPTER 16: CALLS TO ACTION
  • 16.1 Call to Action for Academia: Help Budding Professionals Learn to Adapt
  • 16.2 Call to Action for Enterprise: Build the Right Engine for Strategy Implementation
  • 16.3 Call to Action for Policymakers: Refocus Oversight and Accountability in the Right Ways
  • 16.4 Call to Action for Industry and Professional Societies: Take an Interdisciplinary View
  • 16.5 Call to Action for Researchers: Explore Interdisciplinary Systems
  • 16.6 References
  • AFTERWORD: TOWARD AN INTEGRATED FUTURE
  • The Case for Integration
  • New Insights Gained Along the Way
  • The Path Forward
  • GLOSSARY
  • INDEX
  • End User License Agreement

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This book results from a significant collaborative effort involving many individuals and institutions during the course of the last five years. The comparison of this collaborative effort to a program is appropriate. It has defined objectives, many stakeholders, and a stream of benefits generated over time. This book is but one project producing benefits for the overall effort.

Like any program, multiple stakeholders operate in a number of different functions to produce the overall benefit. Each plays a unique role that collectively produces something that they individually could not produce. Some of the contributions are managerial, some are technical, and others are enabling. Upon reflection, over the course of the last 16 months during which this book has been in various stages of development, many have contributed. This is an attempt to acknowledge their efforts in what has become a fairly dynamic project. Some of those who started the project were unable to complete it or completed their parts early and went on to other things. Others joined partway through, or even close to the completion. Others have been part of the project from start to finish. They represent participation from a broad spectrum, and truly exemplify the spirit of this book: bringing together multiple perspectives to create something unique and noteworthy. It is not intentional that anyone who contributed to this effort would not be recognized, and all contributions and involvement have been deeply appreciated whether acknowledged here or not.

The overall effort was directed through the PMI/INCOSE/MIT Alliance team, which included Randall Iliff (INCOSE lead), Stephen Townsend (PMI lead), and Eric Rebentisch (MIT lead), with Tina Srivastava, Kenneth M. Zemrowski, Jack Stein, Ashok Jain, Richard Gryzbowski, and Eileen Arnold, all from INCOSE, and Keith Rosenbaum from PMI. This group helped to define the vision for the book, helped organize and enable the research activities that supported the knowledge base for the book, organized the dissemination of the findings at conferences and other venues, and assisted with the development and publication. They also helped to identify and recruit the numerous contributors to the book from within their respective professional communities. Both PMI and INCOSE mobilized their network of chapters and chapter leads to solicit subject matter expert and practitioner participation and contributions to this book. Notably, Jean-Claude Roussel, the INCOSE EMEA Sector Director, Claes Bengtsson from the INCOSE Swedish chapter, and Jack Stein from the INCOSE Michigan chapter helped to recruit contributors to this effort.

Playing central roles in creating the knowledge foundation for this book were Maria Pacenza from PMI Market Research, who conducted the first integration survey and presented the initial findings. Edivandro Conforto and Monica Rossi performed in-depth analysis of the first integration survey data, and followed up with additional interviews and synthesis of findings to clarify what is meant by integration between program management and systems engineering. Thomas Reiner and Lucia Beceril conducted follow-on confirmatory research as part of their graduate studies to further refine and validate the concept of integration. Additional perspective in shaping and directing the book content came from Randall Iliff, Jeffrey Thompson, Ann Bachelor, Claude Baron, Samuel Boutin, and Tomoichi Sato. PMI and INCOSE members Heinz Stoewer, James Armstrong, Brian Maddocks, Jeffrey Thompson, Randall Iliff, and Tina Srivastava helped to build awareness of program management and systems engineering integration's potential through their conference presentations, as did presentations by MIT researchers Josef Oehmen, Edivandro Conforto, and Eric Rebentisch.

The editors and contributors have been acknowledged in lists in the front of the book. They had formally designated roles in creating the content of this book. The editors created chapter drafts that form the basic structure of the book. The contributors provided significant and important content for those chapters. Their roles are in fact not so easily defined, as many of them filled in and took on the work that needed to be done to produce the book. While all their contributions provide the substance of this book and are greatly appreciated, two individuals played an outsized role and deserve additional mention for their contributions. Marvin Nelson filled the role of principal co-editor of this book. In addition to writing chapters in the book, he also edited and integrated the entire manuscript of the book and did much of the detailed technical work that is necessary when publishing a book. Stephen Townsend wrote or played a significant role in writing a number of chapters in the book. Additionally, he provided essential leadership in shepherding the manuscript through the many steps and around potential pitfalls in the process to getting a completed manuscript. Both were critical to the completion of this process, and whose contributions are not adequately captured by their appearance in the lists above.

As the manuscript was taking shape, many subject matter expert reviewers from both PMI and INCOSE helped to review an early draft of the manuscript and provide feedback on its strengths, weaknesses, and omissions. Over one thousand comments were provided by these experts from North America, Europe and Asia, who provided good ideas, important insights, and in some cases the awareness of the need to change course or redo some sections. They were Bryan Pflug, Brigitte Daniel-Alle, Alain Roussel, Jean-Claude Roussel, Gary Smith, J. Robert Wirthlin, Med Ahmadoun, Laurie Wiggins, Liew PakSan, Linda Agyapong, Clement Yeung, Kambiz Moghaddam, Claes Bengtsson, Magnus Cangard, Timothy H. Wiseley, Dennis Van Gemert, Jörg Lalk, Cecilia Haskins, Timothy Ferris, Arie Wessels, Kenneth Zemrowski, Virginia Lentz, Joseph Dyer, Eduardo Flores, Heather Ramsey, Michael Morgan, and Garry Roedler.

Others provided essential support for this effort by enabling connections to people, content, or in the form of knowledge of how to write a book. Donn Greenberg (PMI Publications Manager) helped to facilitate initial contacts with Wiley and offered valuable advice on structuring agreements between the parties. Barbara Walsh (PMI Publications Department) facilitated the graphics design work for the book. Holly Witte and Bob Kenley from the INCOSE Publications Office provided assistance in enabling access to INCOSE content and in the formal INCOSE review process. Paul Schreinemakers (Technical Director), Mike Celentano (Deputy Technical Director), and Kenneth Zemrowski from the INCOSE Technical Operations Team helped with the review and approval of the final manuscript by INCOSE. Margaret Cummings (Executive Editor at John Wiley & Sons) was an invaluable source of guidance and support throughout this project and was able to effortlessly identify a path forward through all potential challenges.

Because of the multistakeholder nature of this project, legal expertise proved to be essential. Elizabeth Levy (MIT Office of General Counsel), Marjorie Gordon (PMI Counsel), and Gita Srivastava, Stephanie Tso, and Laura Kalesnik (from Norton Rose Fulbright, INCOSE's Counsel) played key roles in structuring the legal frameworks for the book project and related collaborative agreements needed to allow the collaborative work to proceed. Peter Bebergal (MIT Technology Licensing Office) and Catherine Viega (from PMI) helped in making the intellectual property from their respective organizations available to the team to produce the final manuscript. Thanks also to Benjamin Lindorf, General Counsel, Institute for Defense Analysis, for his help in making the content of Chapter 7 readily available for this book.

Others provided essential enabling support to the project. Craig Killough (PMI Vice President, Organization Markets) supported the participation of Stephen Townsend and Marvin Nelson in the production of the book, which proved critical to its completion. Cindy Anderson (PMI Vice President, Brand) signed off on the co-brand license with Wiley. David Long (Past INCOSE President) did the same for INCOSE. Jordon Sims (PMI Organization Relations Director) helped with engaging Larry Prusak to write the Foreword. Thanks also go to David Long (Past INCOSE President) and John A. Thomas (Past INCOSE President) for their enthusiastic support of the PMI/INCOSE Alliance and the origins of this particular project. Seemingly simple things can often make a big difference in the progress of a project. In this case, being able to meet as a team periodically to discuss, take stock, and make plans was very important to being able to maintain progress toward the end goal. Thanks to Jillian Moriera and the Sociotechnical Systems Research Center at MIT, Stephen Townsend at PMI, and Randall Iliff at BB7 each for hosting these important meetings of the team.

Last, but far from least, not a few families and those close to the authors and contributors were inconvenienced by "the book project" as writing was underway, and particularly around key deadlines. A special thank you goes to them for their patience and support during this project.

This is the product of many hands. As the saying goes, many hands make light work. In a complex project involving the coordination and reconciliation of a diverse set of inputs, that doesn't always seem to be the case. However, in the case of this book, it is correct to say that many hands make superior work-that is the message (and the experience) of this effort. Any errors or omissions, however unintentional, are the sole...

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