Sorghum Biochemistry

An Industrial Perspective
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. September 2016
  • |
  • 358 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803182-7 (ISBN)
 

Sorghum Biochemistry: An Industrial Perspective explores the many uses for sorghum in industry and biofuels. Not only does it offer a detailed understanding of the physical and biochemical qualities of the grain, it also takes an in-depth look at the role sorghum plays in such industries as brewing and ethanol production and the mechanics of post-harvest processing and value addition.

Sorghum has long been an important staple in Africa and Asia, but its value goes far beyond its uses in human and animal consumption. Sorghum is also used in many industries, including waxes, packing material, wall board, ethanol, beverages, and brewing, and one variety called sweet sorghum has also been used as a bioenergy crop. Sorghum Biochemistry: An Industrial Perspective offers a closer look at how the grain is used in such a variety of ways, and how we can continue to optimize its potential.

  • Provides detailed biochemical studies on grain sorghum to inform researchers grappling with similar issues
  • Offers foundational information on the quality and composition of sorghum as a grain
  • Covers a variety of uses for sorghum in many industries, including food and beverage, energy, and brewing
  • Includes photos and illustrations to enhance the understanding of processes and sorghum biochemistry


Dr. Ratnavathi has a PhD in Biochemistry from Osmani University, and currently serves as the Principal Investigator on the NFBSFARA project on 'Studies on sucrose accumulation in sweet sorgum for efficient ethanol production," while also leading a research project from the DBT on the therapeutic properties of sorghum. He has led several other externally funded projects and was instrumental in establishing a food safety laboratory under the NAIP Millet Value chain project. He has developed 30 sorghum recipes and 10 semi-processed products, and has published numerous journal articles, books, and book chapters.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 6,30 MB
978-0-12-803182-7 (9780128031827)
0128031824 (0128031824)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • 1 Sorghum Grain Quality
  • Front Cover
  • Sorghum Biochemistry: An Industrial Perspective
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Biography
  • Introduction
  • 2 Malting and Brewing of Sorghum
  • 3 Mycotoxin Contamination in Sorghum
  • 4 Sorghum Uses-Ethanol
  • 5 Sorghum Syrup and Other by Products
  • 6 Sorghum Processing and Utilization
  • Index
  • Back Cover
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 6.1 Abrasive Decortication and Hammer Milling
  • 6.2 Roller Milling
  • 6.4 Primary Processing
  • 6.5 Secondary Processing
  • 6.6 Production of Processed Foods Through Machines
  • References
  • 5.19 Estimation of Glucose
  • 5.20 Starch and Maltodextrin From Sorghum
  • 5.21 Glucose and High Fructose Syrup
  • 5.22 Studies on Standardization of Isomerization of Glucose Syrup
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Syrup Production
  • References
  • 5.16 Enzymes
  • 5.4 Production of Natural Syrup From Sweet Sorghum Stalk Juice (NARI, Phaltan, India) (Small Scale)
  • 5.5 Analysis of Sample of Madhura by CFTRI, Mysore and ITALAB Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai
  • 5.6 Manufacturing the Syrup (Large Scale)
  • 5.8 Evaporating the Juice
  • 5.9 Concentrating the Syrup
  • 5.10 Finishing the Syrup
  • 5.11 Semi Syrup
  • 5.13 General Sanitation
  • 5.18 Starch Isolation and methods adopted
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 History of Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.3 Distribution of Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.4 Productivity of Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.5 Accumulation of Dry Matter in Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.6 Sucrose Metabolism in Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.7 Agronomy of Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.8 Maximization of Biomass in Sweet Sorghum Through Genetic Enhancement of Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.9 Maximization of Biomass in Sweet Sorghum
  • 3.8 Pearling of Black Sorghum
  • 3.4 Enzymatic Changes in Sorghum Genotypes During A. Parasiticus (NRRL 2999) Infestation
  • 3.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Deteriorated Sorghum Grain
  • 3.5 Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics Extracted from Sorghum Genotypes on the Growth of A. parasiticus (NRRL 2999) and Aflatox...
  • 3.6 Induction of Chitinase in Response to Aspergillus Infection in Sorghum
  • 4.10 Resistance to Diseases and Pests
  • 4.11 Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Resistance to Key Pests (Shoot Fly, Corn Plant Hopper, and Stem Borer) in Re...
  • 4.12 Genetic Improvement of Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.14 Culm Characteristics
  • 4.15 Juice Yield and Quality
  • 4.16 Studies on Juice Quality (NRCS, Hyderabad)
  • 4.17 Improvements Achieved in Juice Quality of Sweet Sorghum: Determination of Sucrose in Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.18 Juice Quality in Sweet Sorghum at Different Crop Growth Stages
  • 4.19 Juice Quality in Sweet Sorghum as a Vegetative Crop
  • 4.20 Phenology and Biomass Productivity
  • 4.22 Grain Quality
  • 4.23 Resistance to Diseases and Pests
  • 4.25 Easy to Strip Stalk
  • 4.27 Status of Sweet Sorghum Breeding
  • 4.28 Utilization of Sweet Sorghum
  • 4.30 Crop Retention and Stalk Storage
  • 4.31 Fermentation
  • 4.32 Ethanol Yield
  • 4.34 Recovery of Ethanol at Different Crop Growth Stages With Different Yeast Strains (NRCS, Hyderabad)
  • 4.35 Total Alcohol Recovery (Stalk and grain) in Sweet Sorghum (PDKV, Akola)
  • 4.36 Pilot Scale Evaluation of Ethanol Production From Sweet Sorghum Stalk Juice (NRCS, Hyderabad)
  • 4.37 SWOT Analysis on Production of Ethanol From Sweet Sorghum (NRCS, Hyderabad)
  • 4.38 Ethanol Production From Damaged Grain
  • 4.39 Sorghum Grain-Based Potable Alcohol - Global Experiences
  • 4.40 Dynamics of Ethanol Utilization in Various Demand Quarters
  • 4.41 Feedstocks for Manufacturing of Ethanol-An Overview
  • 4.42 Technical Suitability of Molded Sorghum Grain in Ethanol Production
  • 4.43 Economic Prospects of Alcohol Production from Sorghum Grain
  • 4.44 Effluent/Waste Water Treatment for Grain Alcohol Distillery
  • 4.45 Biomethanation, Aeration, and Ferti-Irrigation
  • 4.48 Advantages Accruing from Backward Integration
  • 3.7 Inhibition of AFB1 Production by an Antifungal Component, Eugenol on Sorghum Grains
  • 4.50 New Initiatives
  • 4.52 Recommendations on the Industrial Uses of Molded Sorghum Grain
  • 4.53 Energy Balance in Bioenergy Production
  • 4.55 Sweet Sorghum for Grain and Fodder
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 In Vitro Studies on the Aflatoxin Elaboration in Sorghum Through Aspergillus parasiticus
  • 2.9 Fermentation Studies
  • 2.10 Use of Malted and Fermented Meals in Bhakari/Roti Making
  • 2.11 Summary
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Use of Sorghum as Malt
  • 2.3 Malting Studies
  • References
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 2.4 Sugars and Starch
  • 2.5 Lager Beer From 100% Sorghum
  • 2.6 Use of Sorghum as Adjunct
  • 2.7 Nonalcoholic Beverages and Weaning Foods
  • 2.8 Fermentation
  • C.V. Ratnavathi, PhD
  • U.D. Chavan, PhD
  • 1.2 Comparison with Other Cereals
  • 1.3 Dough and Roti Making Quality of Sorghum
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.1 Sorghum Species
  • 1.1.2 Grain Quality
  • 1.1.3 Sorghum Kernel Structure
  • 1.1.4 Physical Characters
  • 1.1.5 Biochemical Parameters
  • 1.1.6 Protein Estimation
  • 1.1.7 Protein Body and Protein Matrix Characteristics of Sorghum
  • 1.1.9 Determination of Protein Digestibility
  • 1.1.11 Starch
  • 1.1.13 Amylose Estimation
  • 1.1.15 Starch Granule Structure
  • 1.1.16 Starch Estimation
  • 1.1.17 Starch Digestibility of Raw Sorghum Grain
  • 1.1.18 Starch Digestibility
  • 1.1.19 Starch Digestibility With and Without Protease Pretreatment
  • 1.3.1 Dough Quality
  • 1.3.2 Roti Quality
  • 1.3.3 Traditional Food Products of Sorghum and Their Commercialization
  • 1.3.4 Noodles
  • 1.2.1 Alternative Uses of Sorghum
  • 1.2.2 Human Food
  • 1.2.3 Animal Feed
  • 1.2.4 India
  • 1.2.5 China
  • 1.2.7 Eastern and Southern Africa
  • 1.1.20 Influence of Protein Predigestion on Starch Digestibility of Sorghum Genotypes
  • 1.1.21 Fat Estimation
  • 1.1.22 Tannins and Phenols of Sorghum Grain
  • 1.1.23 Extraction of Polyphenols
  • 1.1.26 Phytic Acid Estimation
  • 1.1.28 Sorghum Phytochemicals and Their Impact on Human Health
  • 2.8.1 Prefermentation Processing of Cereals
  • 2.8.3 Indigenous Fermented Cereal Foods
  • 2.8.4 Importance and Advantages/Benefits of Fermented Cereals
  • 2.6.1 Malting and Brewing
  • 2.4.1 Starch and Protein Digestibility
  • 2.3.1 Amylolytic Activity
  • 2.3.2 Dry Matter Loss
  • 2.3.4 Soluble Proteins
  • 2.10.1 Water Uptake, Dough Rollability, and Moisture Loss
  • 2.10.2 Organoleptic Evaluation of Bhakari/Roti
  • 2.9.1 Changes in pH and Titrable Acidity
  • 2.9.2 Changes in Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and Dry Weight
  • 2.9.3 Changes in Composition
  • 2.9.4 Changes in Tryptophan and Methionine
  • 2.9.6 Changes in IVPD
  • 3.2.1 Substrate Suitability of Sorghum Genotypes to Fungal Infestations
  • 3.1.1 Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Sorghum
  • 3.7.1 Isolation of A. flavus strains and AFB1 production
  • 3.7.2 In Vitro Screening of Sorghum Cultivars
  • 3.7.3 Inhibition of AFB1 Production by an Antifungal Component, Eugenol
  • 3.7.4 Determination of Starch and Protein
  • 4.49.1 Strengths
  • 4.49.2 Weaknesses
  • 4.49.3 Opportunities
  • 4.49.4 Threats Possible Solutions
  • 4.41.1 Saccharine
  • 4.41.4 Grain-Based Ethanol Production Technology
  • 3.6.1 Experimental Materials
  • 3.6.2 Detection of Chitinase Activity After PAGE Under Native Conditions
  • 3.6.5 Levels of Chitinase Activity
  • 3.6.6 Red Sorghum
  • 3.6.9 Aflatoxin Levels
  • 3.5.1 Materials
  • 3.5.3 Fungal Strain
  • 3.5.8 Aflatoxin Elaboration in Acidic Methanol Treated Grains
  • 3.5.10 0.01% Level of Phenolics
  • 3.5.11 0.1% Phenolics Level
  • 3.3.1 Physical Characteristics
  • 3.3.2 Chemical Characteristics
  • 3.4.1 Preparation of the Sample
  • 3.8.1 Pearling of Black Sorghum by Physic-Chemical Methods and Its Utilization
  • 4.9.1 Time of Sowing Trial
  • 5.18.1 Proximate Composition of Sorghum Grains
  • 5.18.3 Standardization of Starch Production From Sorghum Grains
  • 5.18.4 Effect of Soaking Temperature on the Yield of Starch
  • 5.18.5 Effect of Soaking Time on the Yield of Starch Sorghum Grains
  • 5.18.6 Standardization of Production of Glucose Syrup From Sorghum Starch by Acid Hydrolysis
  • 5.18.7 Standardization of Dextrinization of Sorghum Starch Using a-Amylase
  • 5.18.8 Standardization of Production of Glucose Syrup From Sorghum Starch Using Acid Hydrolysis Followed by a-Amylolytic De...
  • 5.19.2 Thin Layer Chromatography
  • 5.19.3 Gas Liquid Chromatography
  • 5.19.6 Effect of Glucose Isomerase Concentration on the Release of Fructose From Glucose Syrup
  • 5.19.7 Production of High Fructose Syrup From Rain Damaged Sorghum Grains
  • 5.19.8 Isolation and Standardization of Starch From Sorghum Grains
  • 5.15.1 Gelling
  • 5.15.2 Enzymes
  • 5.15.4 Crystallization
  • 5.15.6 Note About Enzymes
  • 5.15.7 Health Benefits of Syrup
  • 5.16.1 a-Amylase, Glucoamylase, and Glucoisomerase
  • 5.17.2 Glucoamylase
  • 3.7.5 Statistical Analysis
  • 5.3.1 Juice Extraction
  • 5.22.1 Effect of Enzyme Concentration on Isomerization of Glucose Syrup by Glucose Isomerase
  • 5.22.3 Effect of pH on Isomerization of Glucose Syrup by Glucose Isomerase
  • 5.22.5 Production of Sorbitol From Sorghum Starch
  • 5.22.6 Properties of Sorbitol
  • 5.21.1 Production of Glucose Syrup by Saccharification Using Native Glucoamylase at Optimum Condition
  • 5.21.2 Production of High Fructose Syrup From Sweet Sorghum Juice
  • 5.21.4 Variation in the Production of Glucose Syrup on the Saccharification Using Immobilized Glucoamylase During Recycling...
  • 5.19.10 Studies on Standardization of Dextrinization of Starch by a-Amylase
  • 5.19.11 Standardization of Saccharification of Starch
  • 5.19.11.1 Effect of Percent Dry Solids of Dextrin Syrup of Sorghum Starch on Saccharification by Glucoamylase
  • 5.19.11.3 Effect of Time on Saccharification of Sorghum Starch by Glucoamylase
  • 5.19.11.4 Effect of Temperature on Saccharification of Sorghum Starch by Glucoamylase
  • 5.19.10.1 Effect of Starch Concentration on the Dextrinization of Starch by a-Amylase
  • 5.19.10.2 Effect of a-Amylase Concentration on the Dextrinization of Starch by a-Amylase
  • 5.19.1.1 Qualitative Estimation of Sugars
  • 5.19.1.2 Quantitative Estimation of Glucose
  • 5.19.8.1 Chemical Composition of Starch
  • 5.19.9.1 Effect of Acid Concentration on the Dextrinization of Starch by Acid
  • 5.19.9.3 Effect of Temperature on the Dextrinization of Starch by Acid
  • 5.19.7.1 Chemical Composition of Sorghum Grains
  • 5.18.2.1 Starch Isolation
  • 3.8.1.1 Introduction
  • 3.4.1.1 a- and ß-Amylase Activity
  • 3.4.1.3 ß-Amylase
  • 3.4.1.4 Protease Activity
  • 3.4.1.5 Lipase
  • 3.7.4.1 Protein
  • 3.1.1.1 Status of AFB1 Contamination
  • 3.1.1.2 Status of FB1 Contamination
  • 3.1.1.3 Status of OTA Contamination
  • 3.2.1.1 Preparation of Samples
  • 3.2.1.3 Status of Aflatoxin Production
  • 3.2.1.4 Red Sorghum
  • 3.2.1.6 White Sorghum
  • 3.2.1.8 Ergosterol Production
  • 1.1.19.1 Starch Digestibility Without Protease Pretreatment of Sorghum Genotypes
  • 3.4.1.5.1 Statistical Analysis
  • 3.4.1.4.1 Status of Protease Activity
  • 3.8.1.1.1 Degree of Moldiness/Blackening in Promising Sorghum Cultivars
  • 3.8.1.1.2 Effect of Blackening on Physico-Chemical Properties
  • 3.8.1.1.3 Relationship Between Blackening Intensity and Grain Peroxidase Activity
  • 3.8.1.1.5 Standardization of Pearling Treatment
  • 3.8.1.1.6 Effect of Pearling on Nutrient Composition of Black Sorghum
  • 3.8.1.1.7 Chemical Dehulling of Black Sorghum
  • 3.8.1.1.8 Identification of Molds on Black Sorghum and Aflatoxin Content
  • 3.8.1.1.9 Effect of Storage on Shelf-Life of Black and Pearled Sorghum
  • 3.8.1.1.10 Utilization of Pearled Sorghum
  • 3.8.1.1.11 Summary
  • 5.18.2.1.1 Standardization of Suitable Process for the Extraction and Recovery of Starch From Molded and Blackened Sorghum ...
  • 5.18.2.1.1.1 Extraction and Recovery of Starch

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