Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein first discovered and identified in 1993 by Dr. Vivek Rangnekar's laboratory in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Par-4 (later also known as PAWR) is a naturally occurring tumor suppressor. Studies have indicated that Par-4 selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving normal, healthy, cells unaffected. Mechanisms contributing to the cancer-selective action of Par-4 have been associated with protein kinase A activation of intracellular Par-4 in cancer cells or GRP78 expression primarily on the surface of cancer cells. Par-4 is downregulated, inactivated or mutated in diverse cancers. This first of two volumes will be the first on the market on the topic of Par-4, and will provide the opportunity for researchers to discuss the future direction of studies, broaden the scope of research, and contribute a more complete understanding of the molecule's structural features, key functional domains, regulation and relevant basic and clinical/translational facets.
IntroductionChapter 1. Discovery and Overview of Par-4Chapter 2. Significance of Par-4 Interaction with aPKCChapter 3. Structural Analysis of the C-terminal domain of Par-4Chapter 4. Crystallization and crystallographic analysis of the C-terminal domain of Par-4 (PAWR)Chapter 5. Role of ubiquitinase FBX045 in Par-4 regulationChapter 6. Regulation of Par-4 by type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase ßChapter 7. Role of Par-4 in regulation of cell death by circumin and ceramideChapter 8. Par-4 in dissociation induced cell death in human pluripotent stem cellsChapter 9. Role of Par-4 in EMTChapter 10. Bacillus thuringiensis Induced Par-4 and Apoptosis in Human CellsChapter 11. Role of Par-4 in ZebrafishChapter 12. Role of Par-4 in GRP78 translocationChapter 13. Interaction of THAP1 with Par-4 in PML bodiesChapter 14. Regulation of DAPK and AMIDA by Par-4Chapter 15. Regulation of Par-4 by CK2 kinase