Biochar Application

Essential Soil Microbial Ecology
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 344 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803436-1 (ISBN)
 

Biochar Application: Essential Soil Microbial Ecology outlines the cutting-edge research on the interactions of complex microbial populations and their functional, structural, and compositional dynamics, as well as the microbial ecology of biochar application to soil, the use of different phyto-chemical analyses, possibilities for future research, and recommendations for climate change policy.

Biochar, or charcoal produced from plant matter and applied to soil, has become increasingly recognized as having the potential to address multiple contemporary concerns, such as agricultural productivity and contaminated ecosystem amelioration, primarily by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and improving soil functions.

Biochar Application is the first reference to offer a complete assessment of the various impacts of biochar on soil and ecosystems, and includes chapters analyzing all aspects of biochar technology and application to soil, from ecogenomic analyses and application ratios to nutrient cycling and next generation sequencing. Written by a team of international authors with interdisciplinary knowledge of biochar, this reference will provide a platform where collaborating teams can find a common resource to establish outcomes and identify future research needs throughout the world.


  • Includes multiple tables and figures per chapter to aid in analysis and understanding
  • Includes a comprehensive table of the methods used within the contents, ecosystems, contaminants, future research, and application opportunities explored in the book
  • Includes knowledge gaps and directions of future research to stimulate further discussion in the field and in climate change policy
  • Outlines the latest research on the interactions of complex microbial populations and their functional, structural, and compositional dynamics
  • Offers an assessment of the impacts of biochar on soil and ecosystems


T. Komang Ralebitso-Senior is a Senior Lecturer in Molecular Biology and former Program Leader for BSc(Hons) Biological Sciences in the School of Science & Engineering at Teesside University, UK. She has studied at the City University of New York, the University of Natal (South Africa), and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. She held post-doctoral positions at the BioMEMS Laboratory of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, and the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Oxford. Komang is a STEM Ambassador and member of the Society for Applied Microbiology and the International Society for Microbial Ecology.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 5,27 MB
978-0-12-803436-1 (9780128034361)
012803436X (012803436X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • BIOCHAR APPLICATION
  • BIOCHAR APPLICATION
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 - Microbial Ecology Analysis of Biochar-Augmented Soils: Setting the Scene
  • OVERVIEW
  • BIOCHAR
  • Terra Preta
  • Contemporary Biochar and Physico-/Biochemical Characteristics
  • BIOCHAR AND ITS APPLICATIONS
  • Climate Change Mitigation
  • Agriculture
  • Bioremediation
  • BIOCHAR AS HABITAT FOR SOIL ORGANISMS
  • SOIL BIOTA RESPONSE TO BIOCHAR
  • Microfauna
  • Meso-/Macrofauna
  • POLICY GUIDELINES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOCHAR APPLICATION
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 2 - Feedstock and Production Parameters: Effects on Biochar Properties and Microbial Communities
  • BIOCHAR CHARACTERISTICS AND KEY DETERMINING PARAMETERS
  • Biochar Carbon
  • Biochar Structure
  • Mineral (Ash) Content of Biochar
  • INFLUENCE OF BIOCHAR ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES
  • The Role of Biochar Carbon for Interacting Microbial Consortia
  • Effects of Biochar Structure on Microbial Community Dynamics
  • Microbial Impacts of Biochar Mineral (Ash) Content
  • CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
  • References
  • 3 - Biochar Effects on Ecosystems: Insights From Lipid-Based Analysis
  • BACKGROUND
  • EXTRACTING LIPIDS AND PRODUCTION OF FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS
  • MAKING SENSE OF PLFA: ANALYTICAL APPROACH AND?INTERPRETATION OF PLFA DATA
  • COMPOSITIONAL AND STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS FROM PLFA
  • BIOCHAR AS HABITAT
  • LINKING WHO TO WHAT: FUNCTIONAL INSIGHTS FROM PLFA
  • MISUSE OF PLFA
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4 - DGGE-Profiling of Culturable Biochar-Enriched Microbial Communities
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE CASE STUDY
  • Overview of Experimental Design and Analyses
  • Reagents and Media Preparation
  • Soil pH and Moisture Determination
  • Combined Culture-Based and Molecular Analyses
  • Results and Discussion
  • Microcosm pH and Moisture Content
  • Viable Cell Counts on Different Culture Media
  • DGGE-Based Analysis of Total and Culturable Communities
  • Study Conclusions and Knowledge Gaps
  • CHAPTER CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5 - Next-Generation Sequencing to Elucidate Biochar-Effected Microbial Community Dynamics
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ANTHROPOGENIC BIOCHAR
  • BIOCHAR AND SOIL PROPERTIES
  • THE MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN BIOCHAR
  • BIOCHAR AND THE AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH: A CASE STUDY
  • Study I: Biochar Bacterial Diversity from Amazonian Anthrosols?Revealed by T-RFLP and Pyrosequencing (Bacteria)
  • Study II: Functional Diversity of Bacterial Genes Associated with?Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation in Anthropogenic Dark Earth of Amazonia
  • Study III: Bioprospection of Bacterial Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degraders Isolated from Biochar of Amazonian Dark Earths from Centra Amazon
  • FUTURE RESEARCH
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 6 - Examining Biochar Impacts on Soil Abiotic and Biotic Processes and Exploring the Potential for Pyrosequencing Analysis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ABIOTIC PROCESSES
  • Soil Physical and Hydrological Properties
  • Soil Solution Chemistry and Chemical Interactions at the Biochar?Complex Interface
  • BIOTIC PROCESSES
  • Biochar Influence on Soil Microbial Community Structure
  • Biochar Effect on Microbial-Mediated Pathways in Soil
  • METAGENOMIC SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGIES
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 7 - Elucidating the Impacts of Biochar Applications on Nitrogen Cycling Microbial Communities
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE MICROBIAL NITROGEN CYCLE
  • Nitrogen Fixation
  • Nitrification
  • Denitrification
  • Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox)
  • Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA)
  • Mineralization and Immobilization
  • Factors Controlling Nitrogen Cycling in Soil
  • BIOCHAR'S PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AFFECTING SOIL MICROBIAL?NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS
  • Soil Water Content and Soil Structure
  • Biochar and Soil pH
  • Biochar Redox Properties
  • Nitrogen Leaching
  • Biochar Carbon and Soil Carbon Interactions
  • Biochar Nitrogen Content
  • Biochar Porosity and Microbial Microsite Formation
  • BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL NITROGEN CYCLING
  • Nitrogen Fixation
  • Mineralization (Ammonification) and Immobilization
  • Nitrification (Ammonia Oxidation, Nitrite Oxidation)
  • Denitrification
  • KNOWLEDGE GAPS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
  • GLOBAL IMPACT OF BIOCHAR ON SOIL NITROGEN CYCLING
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 8 - Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere and Its Response to Biochar Augmentation
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Biochar
  • The Importance of Studying Biochar Supplementation in Agriculture
  • What Is the Rhizosphere?
  • Previous Studies of the Rhizosphere and the Influence of Biochar
  • Potential Mechanisms of Biochar's Effects?on Rhizosphere Communities
  • AN ILLUSTRATIVE STUDY
  • Rationale
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • Study Conclusions and Knowledge Gaps
  • CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 9 - Potential Application of Biochar for Bioremediation of Contaminated Systems
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR IN HEAVY?METAL-CONTAMINATED SYSTEMS
  • Biochar Applications in Heavy Metal Remediation
  • Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Remediation by Biochar
  • ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR IN SYSTEMS IMPACTED?BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
  • Remediation of Synthetic Dyes
  • Remediation of Antibiotics
  • Remediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Remediation of Organic Pesticides
  • ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR TO GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS
  • Remediation of Heavy Metals in Groundwater
  • Remediation of Organic Contaminants in Groundwater
  • Remediation of Other Pollutants in Groundwater
  • RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 10 - Interactions of Biochar and Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soil
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PAH DEGRADATION
  • Sorption of PAHs to Biochar
  • Bioavailability of Sorbed PAHs and Other Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants
  • BIOCHAR AND ATRAZINE INTERACTIONS
  • CONCLUSIONS, OUTLOOK, AND FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
  • References
  • 11 - A Critical Analysis of Meso- and Macrofauna Effects Following Biochar Supplementation
  • ROLE OF FAUNA IN SOIL ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
  • FAUNA EFFECTS ON BIOCHAR: BIOTURBATION AND PERSISTENCE
  • Bioturbation
  • Persistence
  • BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL FAUNA
  • Proposed Direct and Indirect Mechanisms
  • Observations in Charcoal-Enriched Soils
  • Earthworms
  • Enchytraeids
  • Nematodes
  • Collembolans
  • Mites
  • Macroarthropods
  • INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BIOCHAR AND FAUNA
  • Soil Structure Development
  • Nutrient Cycling and Plant Growth
  • Climate Change Mitigation
  • Detoxification
  • Plant Protection Against Pests
  • References
  • 12 - Summation of the Microbial Ecology of Biochar Application
  • BOOK RATIONALE
  • METHODOLOGICAL STATE OF THE ART
  • BOOK/KNOWLEDGE PAUCITIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Back Cover

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