Geological Controls for Gas Hydrates and Unconventionals

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 384 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-802059-3 (ISBN)
 

Geological Controls for Gas Hydrate Formations and Unconventionals tells the story of unconventional hydrocarbon resources, especially gas hydrates, tight gas, shale gas, liquid- rich shale, and shale oil, to future generations. It presents the most current research in unconventionals, covering structural constituents of continental margins and their role in generating hydrocarbons. Additionally, this book answers basic questions regarding quantifications and characterizations, distributions, modes of occurrence, physical and chemical properties, and more - in essence, all the information that is necessary to improve the models for precision prediction of the enigma of gas hydrates and other unconventionals. Blending geology, geophysics, geomechanics, petrophysics, and reservoir engineering, it explains in simple language the scientific concepts that are necessary to develop geological and reservoir models for unconventionals. Serving as a focal point for geoscientists and engineers conducting research that focuses on reservoir characteristics of unconventionals, Geological Controls for Gas Hydrate Formations and Unconventionals is a useful resource for a variety of other specialiststies including physicists, geochemists, exploration geologists, and petroleum and reservoir engineers. It details the key factors for successful exploration and development of unconventional reservoirs including discovery, data evaluation, full-field development, production, and abandonment, along with a vivid description ofn the worldwide occurrence of unconventional hydrocarbons.

  • Includes a range of datasets that provide detailed workflows for geological modeling
  • Presents theoretical and real data analysis from different parts of the world, making its content practical and implementable in a range of gas hydrate exploration and extraction scenarios
  • Features more than 200 figures and illustrations to highlight key concepts


Dr. Sanjeev Rajput is a Principal Advisor Geophysics, Oil and Gas Development with Baker Hughes, Malaysia and has 15 years of diverse experience in oil and gas industry. He obtained a B.Sc in Physics and Mathematics in 1998 from M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, India and a Master of Technology (M.Tech) in Applied Geophysics in 2001 from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India. In 2007, he graduated with a Ph.D. from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India, specializing in 4C seismic data analysis and quantitative interpretation. Sanjeev began his career as a Marine Geophysicist with CGG International before going for his post-doctorate fellowship with University of Texas at Austin, USA. As a Reservoir Geophysicist with Schlumberger in 2007 he was involved in Full Field Review, Mature Field development, and Quantitative Interpretation of Geophysical data. He joined CSIRO Australia in 2009 as a Senior Research Scientist and moved on as Principal Scientist. His consulting work was focused on geophysical data analysis and quantitative interpretation of oil and gas fields. Sanjeev joined Baker Hughes in 2013 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. His work is primarily on Mature Oil and Gas field development, Unconventional hydrocarbon exploration and development, and Quantitative Interpretation and production enhancement. He is a member of SEG, EAGE, and SPE. He has authored greater than 50 international publications.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 16,58 MB
978-0-12-802059-3 (9780128020593)
0128020598 (0128020598)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Geological Controls for Gas Hydrates and Unconventionals
  • Geological Controls for Gas Hydrates and Unconventionals
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Authors Biography
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • AUDIENCE
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 - CONTINENTAL MARGINS
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2 MORPHOLOGY
  • 1.3 EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTAL MARGINS
  • 1.4 DIVERGENT PASSIVE (ATLANTIC) MARGINS
  • 1.5 CONVERGENT ACTIVE (PACIFIC) MARGINS
  • 1.6 STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION
  • 1.7 GLOBAL HYDROCARBON RESOURCE ESTIMATES
  • 1.7.1 GAS HYDRATES
  • 1.7.2 SHALE GAS
  • 1.7.3 TIGHT OIL AND GAS
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - GENERATION OF METHANE IN EARTH
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 WHAT ARE GAS HYDRATES?
  • 2.3 WHERE ARE GAS HYDRATES FOUND?
  • 2.4 METHANE GENERATION IN SUBSURFACE EARTH
  • 2.4.1 TERMINOLOGY
  • 2.4.2 BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 2.4.2.1 Microbial (Bacterial) Methane
  • 2.4.2.2 Thermogenic or Thermal Methane
  • 2.4.3 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • 2.4.3.1 Microbial (Bacterial) Gases
  • 2.4.3.2 Thermogenic Gases
  • 2.4.4 SOLUBILITY OF METHANE
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 3 - SEDIMENTATION PATTERN
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 EROSION, TRANSPORTATION, AND DEPOSITION
  • 3.3 GENESIS OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
  • 3.4 SEDIMENTATION IN OCEANS
  • 3.5 RATE OF SEDIMENTATION
  • 3.6 PRODUCTIVITY OF ORGANIC MATTER
  • 3.7 REMINERALIZATION (DECOMPOSITION) PRESERVATION OF ORGANIC MATTER
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - TECTONICS AND GAS HYDRATES
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 ORGANIC CONTENT
  • 4.3 GAS HYDRATE STABILITY ZONE
  • 4.4 SEDIMENTATION
  • 4.5 FAULTING
  • 4.6 FLUID FLOW
  • 4.7 DIAPIRISM
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - ROCK PROPERTIES
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.1.1 ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE (Z OR AI)
  • 5.1.2 SHEAR IMPEDANCE (ZS OR SI)
  • 5.1.3 DENSITY (?)
  • 5.1.4 POROSITY (Ø)
  • 5.1.5 YOUNG'S MODULUS (E) (FIG. 5.3)
  • 5.1.6 SHEAR MODULUS (?) (FIG. 5.4)
  • 5.1.7 BULK MODULUS (K)
  • 5.1.8 POISSON'S RATIO (S)
  • 5.2 ESTIMATION METHODS OF ROCK PROPERTIES
  • 5.2.1 AMPLITUDE VERSUS OFFSET/AMPLITUDE VERSUS ANGLE ANALYSIS
  • 5.2.1.1 AVA Modeling Example
  • 5.2.2 AVO FOR UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCE PLAYS
  • 5.2.3 SEISMIC INVERSION
  • 5.2.3.1 Quality Control of Seismic Data and Conditioning
  • 5.2.3.2 Seismic Petrophysics
  • 5.2.3.3 Rock Physics Modeling
  • 5.2.3.4 Log Calibration and Wavelet Extraction
  • 5.2.3.5 Low-Frequency Modeling
  • 5.2.3.6 Simultaneous Inversion
  • 5.3 SOME THOUGHTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - FLUID FLOWS
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 SEISMIC DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  • 6.3 UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR BSR
  • 6.3.1 MODELLING
  • 6.3.2 SOME THOUGHTS
  • 6.4 COLD SEEP PLUMBING SYSTEM
  • 6.4.1 PLUMBING MECHANISM
  • 6.5 INJECTED SANDS AND FLUID FLOW
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS
  • 7.2.1 RESERVOIR MODELING FOR UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS
  • 7.2.2 GAS HYDRATE RESERVOIRS
  • 7.2.2.1 Methane Hydrate Production Test
  • 7.2.3 COAL SEAM GAS RESERVOIRS
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - SOME FACTS, DATA ANALYSIS, AND EXAMPLES
  • 8.1 SOME FACTS ABOUT UNCONVENTIONALS
  • 8.2 SHALE OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION
  • 8.2.1 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
  • 8.3 SUBSURFACE DATA INTEGRATION FOR HORIZONTAL WELL
  • 8.3.1 DATA INTEGRATION AND INTERPRETATION
  • 8.3.1.1 Geological Settings
  • 8.3.1.2 Petrophysical Understanding
  • 8.3.1.3 Understanding Sedimentology
  • 8.3.1.4 Geophysical and Geomechanical Analysis
  • 8.3.2 SOME REMARKS
  • 8.4 COAL SEAM GAS
  • 8.4.1 OPTIMIZING FIELD DEVELOPMENT FOR COAL SEAM GAS
  • 8.4.2 FRACTURE STIMULATION
  • 8.4.3 CROSS-WELL SEISMIC MODELING
  • 8.4.4 FULL-WAVEFORM MODELING
  • 8.4.5 AMPLITUDE VERSUS OFFSET MODELING
  • 8.4.6 CROSS-WELL SEISMIC
  • 8.4.7 AVO CHARACTERISTICS
  • 8.4.8 SOME REMARKS
  • 8.5 GAS HYDRATES
  • 8.5.1 SEISMIC DATA ANALYSIS
  • 8.5.1.1 Mode Conversions and Overburden Effect
  • 8.5.1.2 Seismic Indicators
  • The Bottom-simulating Reflectors
  • Enhanced Seismic Reflections Below the BSR
  • 8.5.1.3 Real Data Examples
  • Seismic Chimneys and Amplitude Blanking
  • Hydrate Mounds
  • Weathered Zones and Seismic Uplift
  • Simulated Seismic Response for Green Canyon Model
  • 8.5.2 SOME REMARKS
  • 8.6 GAS HYDRATE MAPPING
  • 8.6.1 REAL DATA EXAMPLE - ALASKA
  • 8.6.2 REAL DATA EXAMPLE - CASCADIA MARGIN, IODP EXPEDITION 311 DATA, CANADA (KUMAR ET AL., 2009)
  • 8.7 OIL SHALE OR LIQUID-RICH SHALE
  • 8.7.1 PRODUCING OIL-GAS RATIO
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  • 9.3 DECOMPOSITION OR DISSOCIATION
  • 9.4 HYDRATE IMPACT ON CLIMATE
  • 9.5 GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS
  • 9.5.1 STORREGA SLIDE-NORWEGIAN SEA
  • 9.5.2 CAPE FEAR SLIDE - ATLANTIC MARGIN
  • 9.5.3 BEAUFORT SEA
  • 9.5.4 CASCADIAN MARGIN
  • 9.5.5 HYDRATE-ASSOCIATED RISKS FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLOITATION
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - THE ROAD AHEAD AND OTHER THOUGHTS
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 CONVENTIONAL VERSUS UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES
  • 10.2.1 CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES
  • 10.2.2 UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES
  • 10.3 UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES: FUTURE PROSPECTS
  • 10.3.1 TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS
  • 10.3.2 SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS
  • 10.3.3 TIGHT OIL OR SHALE OIL RESERVOIRS
  • 10.3.3.1 Some Facts about Tight Oil
  • 10.3.3.2 Tight Oil or Shale Oil Reservoir Development Stages
  • 10.3.4 COAL BED METHANE OR COAL SEAM GAS
  • 10.3.4.1 Key Parameters for Understanding CBM Plays
  • 10.3.4.2 Seismic Attributes
  • 10.3.5 GAS HYDRATES
  • 10.3.5.1 Recent Advances in Gas Hydrate Production
  • 10.4 TOWARDS ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION METHODS
  • 10.5 FINAL THOUGHTS AND SOME REMARKS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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