Elements of Environmental Chemistry

 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. Juli 2020
  • |
  • 288 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-43489-4 (ISBN)
 
A practical approach to environmental chemistry, Elements of Environmental Chemistry, 3rd Edition provides readers with the fundamentals of environmental chemistry and a toolbox for putting them into practice. This is a concise, accessible, and hands-on volume designed for students and professionals working in the chemical and environmental sciences.

The 3rd Edition has been completely revised and rearranged. The first chapter on tool skills has been expanded to include thermodynamic considerations and measurement issues. The former chapter on the partitioning of organic compounds has been expanded to cover the fates of organic compounds, with an emphasis on developing the reader s chemical intuition for predicting a chemical s fate based on structure. The material on lead, mercury, pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, and flame retardants has been expanded and combined into the last chapter and supplemented with more references to the literature. The problem sets have been extended and now include over 130 problems, some of which can be solved using Excel.
3. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
  • 7,54 MB
978-1-119-43489-4 (9781119434894)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Jonathan D. Raff, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. He was the recipient of a National Science Foundation American Competitiveness in Chemistry Fellowship and early career awards from the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Ronald A. Hites, PhD, is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. He is a Fellow of the American Chemical Society, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. He was an editor of Environmental Science and Technology from 1990-2019.
PREFACE

1. Simple Tool Skills

1.1. Unit Conversions

1.2. Estimating

1.3. Ideal Gas Law

1.4. Stoichiometry

1.5. Thermodynamic Considerations

1.6. Measurement Issues

1.7. Problem Set

2. Mass Balance and Kinetics

2.1. Steady-State Mass Balance

2.1.1 Flows, Stocks, and Residence Times

2.1.2. Adding Multiple Flows

2.1.3. Fluxes are Not Flows!

2.2. Non-Steady-State Mass Balance

2.2.1. Up-Going Curve

2.2.2. Down-Going Curve

2.2.3. Working with Real Data

2.3. Chemical Kinetics

2.3.1. First-Order Reactions

2.3.2. Second-Order Reactions

2.3.3. Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

2.4. Problem Set

3. Atmospheric Chemistry

3.1. Atmospheric Structure

3.2. Light and Photochemistry

3.3. Atmospheric Oxidants

3.4. Kinetics of Atmospheric Reactions

3.4.1. Pseudo-Steady State Example

3.4.2. Arrhenius Equation

3.5. Stratospheric Ozone

3.5.1. Formation and Loss Mechanisms

3.5.2. Chapman Reaction Kinetics

3.6. Smog

3.7. Problem Set

4. Climate Change

4.1. Historical Perspective

4.2. Blackbody Radiation and Earth's Temperature

4.3. Absorption of Infrared Radiation

4.4. Greenhouse Effect

4.5. Earth's Radiative Balance

4.5.1. Greenhouse Gases

4.5.2. Albedo

4.5.3. Solar Constant

4.5.4. Combined Effects

4.6. Aerosols and Clouds

4.7. Radiative Forcing

4.8. Global Warming Potentials

4.9. Concluding Remarks

4.10. Problem Set

5. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria

5.1. Pure Rain

5.2. Polluted Rain

5.3. Additional Acid Rain Chemistry and Implications

5.4. Surface Water

5.5. Ocean Acidification

5.6. Problem Set

6. Fates of Organic Compounds

6.1. Molecular Interactions

6.1.1. Electronegativity

6.1.2. Molecular dipoles and quadrupoles

6.1.3. Types of Weak Interactions

6.2. Vapor Pressure

6.3. Aqueous Solubilities

6.3.1. Solubilities of Pure Liquids and Solids

6.3.2. Solubilities of Gases

6.4. Partitioning into Organic Phases

6.5. Partitioning into Biota

6.5.1. Bioconcentration

6.5.2. Bioaccumulation

6.5.3. Biomagnification

6.6. Adsorption

6.7. Water-Air Transfer

6.8. Reactive Fates of Organic Pollutants

6.9. Putting it Altogether: Partitioning and Persistence

6.10. Problem Set

7. Toxic Stuff: Mercury, Lead, Pesticides, PCBs, Dioxins, and Flame Retardants

7.1. Mercury

7.2. Lead

7.3. Pesticides

7.3.1. Pesticide History

7.3.2. Legacy Pesticides

7.3.3. Current Use Herbicides

7.3.4. Current Use Insecticides

7.3.5. Current Use Fumigants

7.3.6. Current Use Fungicides

7.4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

7.4.1. PCB Nomenclature

7.4.2. PCB Production and Use

7.4.3. PCBs in the Hudson River

7.4.4. PCBs in Bloomington, Indiana

7.4.5. Yusho and Yu-Cheng Diseases

7.4.6. PCB Conclusions

7.5. Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans

7.5.1. Dioxin Nomenclature

7.5.2. Chick Edema Disease

7.5.3. Agent Orange

7.5.4. Times Beach, Missouri

7.5.5. Seveso, Italy

7.5.6. Combustion Sources of Dioxins

7.5.7. U.S. Dioxin Reassessment and Conclusions

7.6. Brominated and Other Flame Retardants

7.6.1. Polybrominated Biphenyls

7.6.2. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

7.6.3. Other Flame Retardants

7.7. Lessons Learned

Appendix A Primer on Organic Structures and Names

Appendix B Periodic Table of the Elements

Appendix C Useful Physical and Chemical Constants

Appendix D Answers to the Problem Sets

Index

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