Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 21. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 380 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-802845-2 (ISBN)
 

Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention provides an authoritative review of the role of fish and fish oil intake in the promotion of human health. This up-to-date volume provides a complete examination of intake patterns as well as research evidence of intake in disease prevention and treatment.

Readers will gain knowledge ranging from the current state of fish and fish oil intake, their health promoting effects and influences on individual response, how they influence development and health maintenance through the life cycle, and their role in disease prevention and treatment. This book is an invaluable resource for all researchers working to understand the relationship between fish and human health. It is a valuable reference for nutritionists, dietitians, and health care providers.


  • Imparts a valuable understanding of fish intake patterns around the world and the role of fish and fish oil in human health through the lifecycle
  • Offers an understanding of the role of fish and fish oil in disease risk reduction and treatment
  • Presents the current status of fish intake and recommended intake levels for human health
  • Focuses on research on unique fish and oil sources and potential problems with fish availability
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 13,87 MB
978-0-12-802845-2 (9780128028452)
0128028459 (0128028459)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Copyright Page
  • Content
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgment
  • Part I - Fish and fish oil intake and recommendations
  • Chapter 1 - Fish Intake in the United States
  • Imports and production
  • Individual intake
  • Disappearance data
  • Self-Reported Intake at the National Level
  • Retail Availability and Consumption Patterns
  • Regional and Subpopulation Consumption
  • Barriers to Seafood Consumption
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Fish and Fish Oil in the Mediterranean Diets
  • Introduction
  • The Mediterranean Diet
  • Historical Aspects and the Seven Countries Study
  • The Composition of the Diet of Crete
  • Mediterranean Diet and Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • Healthy Mediterranean Seafood and the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake
  • Adherence to Mediterranean-type Diet Score, Plasma Fatty Acids and the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3 - Recommended Intake of Fish and Fish Oils Worldwide
  • Introduction
  • Intake recommendations
  • Recommendations Issued by Worldwide Authorities
  • Dietary sources
  • Meeting Recommendations with Fish and/or Other Dietary Sources
  • Supplemental sources
  • Meeting Recommendations with Fish Oil or Other Supplements
  • Additional Considerations Regarding LC n-3 PUFA
  • Specific Life Stages and Population Groups
  • Pregnant or Lactating Women
  • Vegetarian and Vegan Populations
  • Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA, 22:5n3)
  • Sustainability
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - Pregnant Women and Consumption of Fish: Where are We?
  • The fish paradox unraveled: pregnant women should eat more fish for optimal brain development in their children
  • Omega-3 DHA and neurocognitive development
  • Requirements for DHA during pregnancy to support CNS Development
  • Recommended Intakes
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Bioavailability of Lipids in Fish and Fish Oils
  • Introduction: what is bioavailability?
  • From fish lipids to fish foods and other fish oil delivery systems
  • Composition Specificities of Lipids in Fish and Fish Lipids
  • Fish Lipids Carry a Large Range of Fatty Chains, Including Omega-3 FA
  • In Fish, the FA Carrier Molecules are very Diverse: TAG Versus PL and Position of FA Within
  • Lipid Classes and Molecular Species
  • Regiospecificity of FA in TAGs and PLs
  • Unsaponifiable Fraction, Contaminants, and Neoformed Compounds
  • Fish Lipid Supramolecular Structures in Fish, Foods, and Delivery Systems
  • Digestion and bioaccessibility of fish lipids
  • What Occurs to Fish Lipids After Ingestion?
  • Bioaccessibility of n-3 PUFA, Molecular, and Supramolecular Structure
  • Bioavailability of fish lipids according to different molecular and supramolecular structures and the food product
  • Bioavailability of n-3 LC-PUFA can be Modified by the Molecular Form of Lipids
  • PLs Versus TGs and PL-Containing Oils
  • LC n-3 PUFA in PLs Versus TAGs
  • Natural Sources of LC n-3 PUFA in PLs: Krill and Egg
  • Structured TAG and Oils with Different TAG Structures
  • Structured TAG Molecules Containing LC n-3 PUFA
  • Marine Mammal Oils with Different Positions of LC n-3 PUFA on TAG
  • Bioavailability of Fish LC-PUFA May Depend on the Supramolecular Organization of Lipids
  • Fish Lipids in Fish Muscle
  • Fish Oil Emulsions and Microcapsules
  • Conclusion and future prospects
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - Fish Oils in Human Nutrition: History and Current Status
  • Introduction
  • Market
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Infant Formula
  • Clinical Nutrition
  • Functional Foods
  • Claims
  • United States
  • Structure/Function Claims
  • Nutrient Content Claims
  • Health Claims
  • European Union
  • Nutrition Claims (European Commission, 2010)
  • Health Claims (European Commission, 2006)
  • Article 13(1)
  • Article 14(1)(b)
  • Japan
  • Foods with Function Claims
  • Foods with Nutrient Function Claims (FNFC)
  • Foods for Specified Health Uses (FOSHU)
  • Australia New Zealand
  • Nutrition Content Claims (Australia New Zealand, 2013)
  • Health Claims (Australia New Zealand, 2013)
  • Canada
  • Nutrient Content Claims (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, online(a))
  • Health Claims
  • Food (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, online(b))
  • NHP-Cod Liver Oil (http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=cod.liver.oil⟨=eng)
  • NHP-Fish Oil (http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/monoReq.do?id=88⟨=eng)
  • NHP-Krill Oil (http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/monoReq.do?id=205⟨=eng)
  • NHP-Seal Oil (http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=seal.oil⟨=eng)
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part II - Fish and fish oil nutrition in the life cycle
  • Chapter 7 - Omega 3 Fatty Acids Counterbalance Actions of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
  • Balancing our options
  • Two tissue biomarkers predict health risk differently
  • Considering Blood HUFA Balance
  • Considering Blood Cholesterol Levels
  • Two essential nutrients compete for a place in life
  • Quantitative Description of Diet-Tissue Dynamics
  • Recognizing the Impact of Each Food Item
  • Two families of eicosanoids have different impacts
  • Recognizing n-3 and n-6 Eicosanoids
  • Different Potencies in Eicosanoid Actions
  • Inflammation has Many Outcomes
  • HUFA Balance Affects Food Energy Toxicity
  • Two choices: prevent the cause or treat signs and symptoms
  • Two origins of food: land and sea
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Fish Consumption During Pregnancy and Anthropometric Measures at Birth
  • Introduction
  • Fish consumption and birth outcomes: results from observational studies
  • Studies Using Fish Consumption as a Proxy of Exposure
  • Studies Using Fish Consumption and Maternal, Fetal, or Infant Mercury Concentrations as Exposure
  • Studies Using Fish Consumption and Maternal or Cord Blood Organochlorine Compounds as Exposure
  • Fish consumption during pregnancy: A glimpse at infant neurodevelopment
  • Inconsistencies of epidemiological findings on birth outcomes
  • Fish consumption and birth outcomes: planning an epidemiologic study
  • Implications for pregnant women
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Fish Oil and The Retinopathy of Prematurity
  • Retinopathy of prematurity
  • Pathogenesis of ROP
  • Fish oil
  • Fish oil and retinopathy of prematurity
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Fish Oil for Physical Performance in Athletes
  • Introduction
  • Dietary fish oil: provision of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Dietary fish oil and performance: a reemerging theme
  • Setting a framework around "athletes"
  • Dietary fish oil and its physiological contribution to physical performance
  • Fish oil and oxygen modulation
  • Blood flow
  • Cardiac function
  • Oxygen efficiency
  • Oxygen modulation and physical performance
  • Maximal oxygen consumption
  • Endurance and exercise performance
  • Fish oil and inflammation, immune, and oxidative stress
  • Inflammation and immune modulation
  • Skeletal muscle damage and oxidative stress
  • Inflammation, reactive oxygen stress, and physical performance
  • EPA versus DHA: does it matter and how much is enough?
  • Future focus: uncovering the potential effects of dietary fish oil on performance
  • Fish oil and exercise intolerance: an insight to study design
  • Nutritional preconditioning in hypoxic environments
  • Fish oil supporting supra-maximal exercise
  • Maintaining skeletal muscle mass
  • Long-term monitoring and optimization of LC n-3 PUFA in athletes
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - Fish Intake and Strength in the Elderly
  • Aging
  • Fish oil
  • Molecular effects of n-3 PUFA
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Fish and Fish Oil for the Aging Brain
  • Introduction
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  • The aging brain, myelin maintenance, and nutrients from fish
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • References
  • Part III - Fish and fish oils in health promotion and disease prevention and treatment
  • Chapter 13 - Farmed Fish: A Valuable Source of Lipid Based Nutrients
  • Fish: a source of fat soluble nutrients
  • Determinants of LCn3 content
  • LCn3 from aquaculture to human health
  • Other lipid soluble nutrients
  • Carotenoids
  • Vitamin D
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Fish and Fish Oil and the Metabolic Syndrome
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • What is Metabolic Syndrome?
  • Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome
  • Nutritional Approaches and Metabolic Syndrome
  • Fish and fish oil and metabolic syndrome
  • Fish and Metabolic Syndrome
  • Dietary Patterns Containing Fish and Metabolic Syndrome
  • Fish and Components of Metabolic Syndrome
  • Gender Differences
  • Fatty or Lean Fish
  • Fish Oil and Metabolic Syndrome
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 15 - Dietary and Supplemental Long-Chain N3 Fatty Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes
  • Introduction
  • Intervention studies
  • Observational studies
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 16 - Seafood Consumption and Fasting Leptin and Ghrelin in Overweight and Obese
  • Role and production of leptin and ghrelin
  • Conditions affecting blood levels of leptin and ghrelin
  • Fasting leptin and ghrelin levels in overweight and obese participants after different types of seafood diets and weight loss
  • Additional aspects
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17 - Fish/Fish Oil Intake and Inflammatory Biomarkers, Endothelial Function
  • Overview
  • EPA Competes with Arachidonic Acid
  • EPA/DHA Suppress the Inflammatory Nuclear Factor-?B Pathway
  • EPA and DHA Promote the Resolution of Inflammation
  • Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2
  • Responders and Non-Responders?
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 18 - Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
  • Introduction
  • Randomized trials
  • Epidemiology
  • Mechanisms of action of n-3 fatty acids
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • Conflict of Interest Statement
  • References
  • Chapter 19 - Salmon and Vascular Risk in Young Healthy Subjects
  • Fish and seafood in health and human nutrition
  • Salmon as food
  • Markers of vascular risk
  • Experimental studies: salmon and vascular risk factors
  • Blood lipids
  • Blood pressure
  • Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM VCAM)
  • Inflammation markers
  • Tumor Necrosis Factors Alpha
  • Other vascular risk factors
  • Fibrinogen
  • Adiponectin
  • Apolipoproteins
  • Increasing omega-3 3 PUFA concentrations in salmon
  • Health risks of consuming oil-rich fish
  • Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 20 - Fish and Fish Oil for Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes
  • Introduction
  • Etiology
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Diabetic complications
  • Fish oil and diabetes, preclinical models
  • Fish oil and diabetes, ecological evidence
  • Prospective cohort studies on fish oil, long chain n-3 fatty acids and diabetes risk
  • Randomized, controlled trials with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease in diabetics
  • Effects of fish and fish oil on mortality in subjects with T2DM
  • Effect of fish and fish oil on cardiovascular disease in subjects with diabetes
  • Effects of fish and fish oil on endothelial function in diabetics
  • Effect of fish and fish oil on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 21 - Fish Consumption and Heart Rate Variability
  • Introduction
  • Heart rate variability
  • HRV as an index of health
  • Measuring heart rate variability
  • Describing heart rate variability
  • Changes in HRV parameters induced by fish consumption and possible mechanisms involved
  • Implications for clinical practice, health promotion and disease prevention
  • Summary and concluding comments
  • References
  • Chapter 22 - Fish and Fish Oil and Lipoprotein Particle Number and Size
  • Introduction
  • Lipoprotein particles
  • Measurements of lipoprotein particle size and subclasses
  • Diet and lipoprotein particle number and size
  • Effect of fish intake on lipoprotein particles
  • Fish oils and lipoprotein particle number and size
  • Effect on VLDL
  • Effect on LDL
  • Effect on HDL
  • Postprandial lipids
  • Discussion and conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 23 - Fish, Fish Oil, and Liver Cancer
  • Introduction
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  • Etiology and Risk Factors for HCC
  • Viral Infection
  • Alcoholic Cirrhosis Versus Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • Modifiable Versus Nonmodifiable Risk Factors
  • Chemopreventive Strategies of HCC
  • Etiology-Specific Chemoprevention
  • Generic Chemoprevention
  • Dietary Agents
  • Secondary Prevention
  • Fish and fish oil
  • Chemistry of Fish Oil
  • Sources of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 PUFAs)
  • Mechanism of Action of n-3 PUFAs
  • Effects of fish oil on HCC
  • In Vitro Cell Culture Data
  • Animal Model Studies
  • Human Clinical Trials
  • Synergistic Effect of Fish Oil and Vitamin D
  • Summary and future prospective studies
  • Acknowledgments
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 24 - Brain, Fish Oil-Enriched Diet, and Sphingolipids
  • Introduction
  • Sphingolipid turnover and brain pathology
  • Improvement of brain sphingolipid metabolism and functions by n-3 fatty acids of the fish oil
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 25 - Liver Disease and Parenteral Fish Oil
  • Introduction
  • Parenteral nutrition and the importance of fat emulsions
  • Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease
  • The role of parenteral soybean oil emulsions in the pathogenesis of PNALD
  • Fish oil monotherapy in PNALD
  • FOLE in the Treatment of PNALD
  • FOLE in the Prevention of PNALD
  • Mechanisms of FOLE Therapy in PNALD
  • Concerns about FOLE Monotherapy
  • Addition of FOLE to SOLE to treat PNALD
  • Combination emulsions containing fish oil in the management of PNALD
  • SMOFLipid in the Treatment of PNALD
  • SMOFLipid in the Prevention of PNALD
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 26 - Fish Oil Supplementation and Cancer Cachexia
  • Clinical studies
  • LCn-3 Supplementation in Cancer Cachexia
  • LCn-3 Supplementation in Chemotherapy
  • Animal studies
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 27 - Utilization of Fish Oil for the Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Introduction
  • Classification of TBI
  • Primary Injury
  • Secondary Injury
  • Ischemia
  • Diffuse Axonal Injury
  • Cerebral Edema
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
  • Failure to Find Therapeutic Interventions for TBI
  • Omega-3 PUFAs and TBI
  • Preclinical Studies
  • Postinjury Administration
  • Preinjury Administration
  • Omega-3 Use in Human TBI
  • Guidelines and Protocols
  • Severe TBI Protocol
  • Implications for critical or intensive care
  • The Omega Protocol for Brain Health
  • Potential Harmful Effects
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • References
  • Chapter 28 - Dietary Fish Oil Protects Against Gentamicin, Cisplatin, Uranyl Nitrate, and Nitric Oxide Donor/Metabolite-Induced ...
  • Introduction
  • Beneficial Health Effects of FO Enriched in w-3 PUFA From Marine Sources
  • Renal Health Effects of FO Enriched in n-3 PUFA from Marine Sources
  • Protective effect of dietary fish oil (FO) on gentamicin (GM), cisplatin (CP) and uranyl nitrate (UN) induced nephrotoxicity
  • Pathophysiology of GM, CP, and UN
  • Gentamicin Pathophysiology
  • Cisplatin Pathophysiology
  • Uranyl Nitrate Pathophysiology
  • Protection Against Gentamicin, Cisplatin, and Uranyl Nitrate-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Damage
  • Effect of Dietary Fish oil (FO) on GM/CP/UN-Elicited Nephrotoxicity Parameters in Serum
  • Effect of Dietary Fish oil (FO) on Brush Border Membrane (BBM) Enzymes in Cortical Homogenates and Isolated BBM Vesicles (BBMV)
  • Effect of Dietary Fish Oil (FO) on GM/CP/UN-Induced Alterations in Carbohydrate Metabolism Enzymes in Renal Cortex and Medulla
  • Effect of Dietary Fish oil (FO) on GM/CP/UN-Induced Alterations in Antioxidant Defense Parameters in Renal Cortex and Medulla
  • Protective Effect of Dietary Fish Oil (FO) on Nitric Oxide Donor/Metabolites, Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP), Sodium Nitrite (S...
  • Nitric Oxide Donors and Metabolites
  • Summary and conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Part IV - Unique Sources
  • Chapter 29 - Seafood Proteins and Human Health
  • Introduction
  • Seafood protein
  • Nutritional value of seafood proteins in human health
  • Seafood Protein and Cardiovascular Health
  • Seafood Protein and Obesity
  • Seafood Protein and Colorectal Cancer
  • Seafood processing by-products as a source of muscle proteins
  • Amino Acid Profile of ISP-Recovered Proteins and their Health Benefits
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 30 - Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil
  • Introduction to krill oil
  • Metabolic health effects of krill oil
  • Effects on Blood Lipids
  • Human Studies
  • Animal Studies
  • Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
  • Human Studies
  • Animal Studies
  • Body Weight and Endocannabinoids
  • Human Studies
  • Animal Studies
  • Blood Pressure, Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity
  • Human Studies
  • Animal Studies
  • References
  • Chapter 31 - Risks and Possible Health Effects of Raw Fish Intake
  • Background
  • Health effects of raw fish intake
  • Introduction
  • Fatty Acid Composition
  • Taurine and Bioactive Peptides
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Other
  • Health Risks of Raw Fish Intake
  • Introduction
  • Risk of Parasites in Raw Fish
  • Trematodes
  • Cestodes
  • Nematodes
  • Anisakidae
  • Classical Diseases
  • Emerging Diseases
  • Prevention
  • Gnathostoma
  • Myxosporean Parasites
  • Risk of Bacterial Pathogens in Raw Fish
  • Scombroid Poisoning
  • Further Considerations
  • Conclusions
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Index
  • Back cover

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