Performance Psychology

Perception, Action, Cognition, and Emotion
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 24. September 2015
  • |
  • 366 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803391-3 (ISBN)
 

This book integrates findings from across domains in performance psychology to focus on core research on what influences peak and non-peak performance. The book explores basic and applied research identifying cognition-action interactions, perception-cognition interactions, emotion-cognition interactions, and perception-action interactions. The book explores performance in sports, music, and the arts both for individuals and teams/groups, looking at the influence of cognition, perception, personality, motivation and drive, attention, stress, coaching, and age. This comprehensive work includes contributions from the US, UK, Canada, Germany, and Australia.


  • Integrates research findings found across domains in performance psychology
  • Includes research from sports, music, the arts, and other applied settings
  • Identifies conflicts between cognition, action, perception, and emotion
  • Explores influences on both individual and group/team performance
  • Investigates what impacts peak performance and error production
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 4,46 MB
978-0-12-803391-3 (9780128033913)
0128033916 (0128033916)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Performance Psychology
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • WHAT IS PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGY?
  • WHAT COMPONENTS OF PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGY ARE CONSIDERED?
  • HOW IS THE BOOK STRUCTURED?
  • Section A - What is Performance Psychology?
  • Overview
  • 1 - The Building Blocks of Performance: An Overview
  • PERCEPTION
  • ACTION
  • COGNITION
  • EMOTION
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Theoretical Framework of Performance Psychology: An Action Theory Perspective
  • DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGY
  • Performance and Psychology
  • Structure of Performance Orientation
  • Characteristics of Peak Performance
  • The Action Paradigm-A Meta-Theoretical Perspective on Performance
  • The Primacy of Action
  • Intention-The Organizing Principle of Action
  • The Action Space and Its Situational Configuration
  • The Functional Architecture of Actions
  • System Levels of Action Organization
  • The Phase Structure of Actions
  • Functional Systems of Action Control
  • Functionality of Emotional Processes with Special Reference to Performance
  • Multifacetedness and Functional Complexity
  • Functional Disturbances
  • Options in Emotional Processing
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Measurement Considerations in Performance Psychology
  • Measurement Considerations in Performance Psychology
  • TYPES OF MEASURES
  • Quantitative Measures
  • The Concept of Reliability
  • The Concept of Validity
  • Statistical Power and Sample Size
  • Administering and Interpreting Performance Measures
  • Qualitative Measures
  • Sampling: The Importance of Case Selection
  • Methodological Triangulation and Interpretative Pluralism
  • Transferability of Measures and Research Outcomes
  • MEASUREMENT AND THEORY DEVELOPMENT
  • Alternative Models
  • The Principle of Parsimony
  • TWO-PARAMETER MODEL FOR CAPTURING THE COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE-BEHAVIORAL LINKAGE IN PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGY
  • NEW TRENDS IN PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Applications within Performance Psychology
  • FUNCTIONS OF APPLIED PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGY
  • THE ROAD TO EXCELLENCE
  • DEVELOPING AN ECOLOGICALLY APPROPRIATE PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM IN MUSIC
  • CONSIDERATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGY
  • Phase 1-Orientation
  • Phase 2-Activity Analysis
  • Phase 3-Individual/Team Assessment
  • Phase 4-Conceptualization
  • Phase 5-Psychological Skills Training
  • Phase 6-Implementation
  • Phase 7-Evaluation
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • Section B - Performance Phenomena of Cognitive-Action Interaction
  • Overview
  • 5 - Bridging the Gap between Action and Cognition: An Overview
  • COGNITION AND ACTION
  • THE YIPS IN GOLF
  • Neurological Origin: Focal Dystonia
  • Psychological Origin: Choking
  • Motor Origin: Dynamic Stereotype
  • Diagnosing and Treating the Yips
  • THE EDUCATION OF SOCCER COACHES
  • TALENT IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT IN HIGH-PERFORMANCE SPORTS
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Improving Performance by Means of Action-Cognition Coupling in Athletes and Coaches
  • THE PROFESSION OF COACHING
  • PURPOSE
  • DEVELOPMENT OF COACHING EXPERTISE
  • History of Leadership in Sport
  • Behavioral Theories
  • Situational Theories
  • Multidimensional Model of Leadership
  • Member Characteristics and Coach Behavior
  • Gender
  • Age and Experience
  • Psychological Qualities
  • Coach Behavior and Satisfaction
  • Coach Behavior and Performance
  • Summary of Leadership in Sport
  • ATHLETE PERCEPTIONS OF SUCCESSFUL COACHING
  • EXPECTANCY EFFECTS IN COMPETITIVE SPORT
  • Step 1-Coach Develops Expectations for Athlete Performance
  • Step 2-Expectations Influence Coaching Behaviors
  • Step 3-Perceptions of Coach Behavior Affects Athletes
  • Step 4-Athlete Performance Conforms to Coach Expectations
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Music Performance: Expectations, Failures, and Prevention
  • COMMUNALITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPORTS AND MUSIC PERFORMANCE
  • PERFORMANCE FAILURES IN MUSICIANS
  • Music Performance Anxiety
  • Choking under Pressure
  • Dynamic Stereotype
  • Musician's Dystonia
  • IMPROVING PERFORMANCE IN MUSICIANS
  • A HEURISTIC MODEL OF PERFORMANCE FAILURES IN MUSICIANS
  • CONCLUSION: SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Motor Imagery and Mental Training in Older Adults
  • MOTOR IMAGERY AS A PREREQUISITE FOR MENTAL TRAINING
  • MOTOR IMAGERY AND MENTAL TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS
  • MENTAL BALANCE TRAINING FOR POSTURAL CONTROL
  • Method
  • Participants
  • Postural Control
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Interviews
  • Intervention Procedures
  • Relaxation
  • MI Ability
  • Balance Experience
  • Mental Training for Balance Tasks
  • Reflection
  • Results and Discussion
  • CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
  • REFERENCES
  • Section C - Dysfunctional Learning, Errors, and Other Performance Phenomena of Perception-Cognition Interactions
  • 9 - Bridging the Gap between Perception and Cognition: An Overview
  • NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF COGNITIVE MECHANISMS GUIDING PERCEPTION AND ACTION
  • Prefrontal Cortex and Attentional Selection
  • "The Winner Takes It All"
  • The Role of Dopamine
  • COGNITIVE MODELS: DRIFT DIFFUSION
  • CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Performance and Error Monitoring: Causes and Consequences
  • THEORIES OF ERROR PROCESSING
  • METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES WHEN MEASURING RESPONSE-RELATED EEG ACTIVITY
  • PREDICTING ERRORS
  • Predicting Behavioral Adaptation
  • Individual Differences and Error Monitoring
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Committing Errors as a Consequence of an Adverse Focus of Attention
  • "SERIOUS" ERRORS IN THE COURSE OF PERCEPTION
  • SELECTIVE ATTENTION AS BIASED COMPETITION
  • SELECTIVE ATTENTION AND CHANGE BLINDNESS
  • PERCEPTUAL ERRORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF INATTENTION
  • Electrophysiological Evidence for the Role of Selective Attention in Change Detection
  • SELECTIVE ATTENTION AND VISUAL AWARENESS
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 12 - Lifestyle and Interventions for Improving Cognitive Performance in Older Adults
  • COGNITIVE LEISURE ACTIVITY
  • Cognitive Training: Intervention Studies
  • Physical Training: Intervention Studies
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • Section D - Self-Other Perceptions and Other Performance Phenomena of Perception-Action Interactions
  • 13 - Bridging the Gap between Perception and Action: An Overview
  • HOW DOES PERCEPTION AFFECT ACTION?
  • HOW DOES ACTION AFFECT PERCEPTION?
  • ONLINE AND OFFLINE EFFECTS OF THE PERCEPTION-ACTION LINK
  • CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 - Capturing Motion for Enhancing Performance: An Embodied Cognition Perspective on Sports and the Performing Arts
  • OVERVIEW OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES
  • OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
  • Research in the Performing Arts
  • Research in Sports
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 15 - Auditory Action Perception
  • AUDITORY PERCEPTION
  • AUDITORY ACTION PERCEPTION
  • BIDIRECTIONAL ACTION PERCEPTION COUPLING
  • INTERNAL MODEL AND REAFFERENCES
  • EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
  • Auditory Action Perception with Natural Movement Sounds
  • Auditory Action Perception with Artificial Movement Sounds (Sonification)
  • Motor Perception
  • Motor Control and Learning
  • Outlook in Applied Fields
  • CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
  • REFERENCES
  • 16 - Visual Perception in Expert Action
  • STATE OF RESEARCH
  • Temporal Aspects of Visual Perception and Action
  • Offline Use of Visual Information for the Control of Action
  • Online Use of Visual Information for the Control of Action
  • Timing of Optical Information Pick-Up
  • Spatial Aspects of Visual Perception and Action
  • APPLIED SCIENCE: THE VISUAL CONTROL OF BASKETBALL SHOOTING
  • Reinterpretation of Previous Studies
  • Methodological Considerations
  • FUTURE RESEARCH
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • Section E - Performance under Pressureof Individuals or Teamsand Other Performance Phenomena of Emotion-Cognition Interactions
  • 17 - Bridging the Gap between Emotion and Cognition: An Overview
  • EMOTIONS AND OTHER AFFECTIVE PHENOMENA
  • COGNITION: A NECESSARY DISTINCTION BETWEEN EXECUTIVE AND NON-EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS
  • PERFORMANCE-ORIENTED THEORIES BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN EMOTION AND COGNITION
  • General Emotion-Performance Theories
  • The Cognitive-Motivational-Relational Theory
  • Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning
  • The Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat
  • Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes
  • Performance-Oriented Emotion-Cognition Theories
  • Boxes and Arrows Frameworks
  • Theory of Reinvestment
  • Attentional Control Theory
  • Neurovisceral Integration Model
  • A Critical View of the Theories Reviewed
  • CONTENT OF SECTION E
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 18 - Performing under Pressure: Influence of Personality-Trait-Like Individual Differences
  • PTLIDS AND THE INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE UNDER PRESSURE
  • Competitive Trait Anxiety
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Trait Emotional Intelligence
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Hardiness
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Mental Toughness
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Optimism and Pessimism
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Perfectionism
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Reinvestment
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Resilience
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • Sensation Seeking (Risk Taking)
  • Definition and Background
  • Influence on Performance under Pressure
  • PTLID Summary
  • FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS WITHIN PTLID RESEARCH
  • Integrating and Combining PTLIDs
  • PTLIDs: An Interactionist Approach
  • Trait Activation
  • Appraisals
  • Physiological Measures
  • THE BLANKET APPROACH: GUIDELINES FOR USE AND CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • REFERENCES
  • 19 - The Influence of Hormonal Stress on Performance
  • INSTRUCTIONS FOR GETTING YOUR DREAM JOB BASED ON CORTISOL RESEARCH
  • CORTISOL-WHAT IS IT AND WHAT DOES IT DO?
  • STATE AND TRAIT INFLUENCES ON CORTISOL
  • CORTISOL AND PERFORMANCE
  • Cortisol and Sports Performance
  • Cortisol and Outcome in Sports
  • Model of Neuroendocrine and Mood Responses to a Competitive Situation
  • Critique of the Model of Neuroendocrine and Mood Responses to a Competitive Situation
  • Cortisol and Cognitive Performance
  • Cognitive-Processing Hypothesis
  • Critique of the Cognitive-Processing Hypothesis
  • CORTISOL-PERFORMANCE FRAMEWORK
  • SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
  • REFERENCES
  • 20 - Performing under Pressure: High-Level Cognition in High-Pressure Environments
  • PROBLEM SOLVING
  • CREATIVITY
  • DECISION-MAKING
  • COMPARING PROBLEM SOLVING AND CREATIVITY
  • COMPARING DECISION-MAKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING/CREATIVITY
  • EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE ON HIGHER COGNITION
  • Problem Solving
  • Creativity
  • Decision-Making
  • CONCLUSION AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
  • Future Research on Pressure and High-Level Cognition
  • Future Research on Affective States and High-Level Cognition
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • V
  • W
  • Y
  • Back Cover
Chapter 2

Theoretical Framework of Performance Psychology


An Action Theory Perspective


Jürgen R. Nitsch1,  and Dieter Hackfort2     1Department of Performance Psychology, Institute of Psychology, German Sport University Cologne, Germany     2University of the Federal Armed Forces Munich, Germany

Abstract


First, the psychological perspective on performance is characterized with regard to the scope of performance psychology, the structure of performance orientation, and the characteristics of peak performance. The second step addresses the action theoretical foundation of performance psychology. Third, particular attention is given to the functional and dysfunctional roles of pleasant as well as unpleasant emotions in action organization.

In particular, the action theoretical perspective as developed by the authors is characterized by three fundamental assumptions: (1) The basic nature of humans is substantiated by the necessity and capability of organizing life by actions. (2) Action is a system process, that is, the integrated response of an agent to his or her present situation in the world. (3) Psychological processes, states, and traits are considered as fundamentally related to action.

These assumptions are differentiated with respect to intention as the organizing principle of action; situation as the actual context of action established by the constellation of person, environment, and task; system levels of action organization (i.e., physical, biological, mental, and social); the phase structure of actions (i.e., anticipation, realization, and interpretation); and functional systems of action control (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and automatic).

Keywords


Action phases; Action space; Action theory; Anticipation; Emotion; Intention; Peak performance; Performance psychology; Situated action; Systems approach   Performance is a constituent element of human life and a particular objective of manifold everyday activities. Consequently, it is addressed from the perspective of different scientific disciplines ranging from philosophy to biochemistry. In psychology, performance became a traditional topic in various fields of fundamental and applied psychology, e.g., in educational psychology, occupational psychology, clinical psychology, and sport psychology. Aside from the test diagnostic assessment of "classic" performance variables (e.g., reaction time, concentration, intelligence), numerous empirical studies are focused on the efficiency and vulnerability of mental functioning on the one hand and on social interaction in performance settings on the other. Typical issues are learning and memory; problem solving; decision-making; movement control; time management; learning and achievement motivation; coping with stress, anxiety, and failure; error prevention; performance-related mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders; burnout and dropout; as well as team building; division of tasks; allocation of responsibilities; teamwork skills; conflict management; mobbing prevention; and leadership style. In applied sport psychology, "performance psychology" commonly covers a toolbox of intervention techniques related to "mental power," "mental strength," "mental toughness," "mental fitness," or more specifically to self-confidence and self-efficacy, for example, self-motivation, self-programming, goal-setting, self-talk, imagery, visualization and mental training, stress-inoculation, cognitive reframing, attention control, relaxation, and biofeedback (see, e.g., Dosil, 2006; Hackfort & Tenenbaum, 2006; Hardy, Jones, & Gould, 1996). In spite of those multifarious aspects, there has been, however, neither a comprehensive and consensual definition of performance psychology until now nor an integrative theory that provides the potential to systematically guide research and application, thus making the dynamic complexity of human performance sufficiently understandable, controllable, and communicable. So, it is worth paying particular attention to these issues. This will happen in three theory-oriented steps: First, the psychological perspective on performance is characterized, providing a preliminary understanding of performance psychology and its subject area. The second and main step addresses the needed (meta-) theoretical foundation of performance psychology. Accordingly, the focus is not on listing various performance-related theoretical concepts (e.g., for team sports thoroughly carried out by Lebed & Bar-Eli, 2013) but on embedding and considering the performance issue within the overall context of human action organization. Therefore, essentials of the action theory perspective as developed by the authors are outlined and specified with regard to the issue at hand. Third, particular attention is given to the functional role of emotions in action organization. This will contribute to further illustrating action theoretical postulates and to a more proper theory-based understanding of emotional states and processes with special regard to both performance and in general.

Definition and Scope of Performance Psychology


Performance and Psychology


The general task of performance psychology is related to the description, explanation, prediction, and optimization of performance-oriented activities in accordance with general and domain-specific ethical standards. The psychological perspective on performance comprises three issues: (1) the psychological fundamentals of performance-oriented activities in various action domains such as labor, politics, arts, music, or sports; (2) psychological transfer effects of performance-oriented activities in particular with regard to personality development, self-esteem, time management, stress control, communication skills, etc.; and (3) optimization of the capability to achieve demanding mental tasks. This understanding refers to different agents, for example, individuals, groups, and organizations, young and elderly, as well as people with or without disabilities. It covers different motives, domains, and kinds of activity, for example, school/academic education, the whole range of professional activities, health-oriented sport and exercise, and elite sports, housekeeping, and playing music, as well as strange and/or extraordinary performances documented in the Guinness World Records. Even health, well-being, youthfulness, beautifulness or life expectancy are increasingly considered to be products of more or less successfully self-managed activity for which the person is self-responsible. In addition, the preceding definition includes different proficiency levels (e.g., novices and experts, amateurs and professionals) as well as different criteria of performance, for example, primary criteria related to the action itself and its direct results (frequency, duration, speed, accuracy, novelty, required effort, and their combinations), and secondary criteria in the sense of external/extrinsic social evaluation and feedback. According to Bem's (1972) "self-perception theory," the latter follows a simple logic: If I (or someone else) receive recognition such as praise, awards, applause, or many scientific citations, then the corresponding performance must have been outstanding! (As we all know, that is often a misguiding conclusion!) For a better understanding of the psychological perspective on performance, it is necessary to distinguish two functional aspects of performance: (1) performance as a means to an end with regard to the motives and interests that are intended to satisfy by the consequences of a performance action; (2) performance as an end in itself, that is, the accent is on the self-reinforcing performance activity itself and its progressive perfection. In this sense, striving for excellence more or less turns into functional autonomy. Furthermore, we must be aware of the formally twofold usage of the term "performance" (1) as related to a class of specific actions and outcomes or (2) as a more or less marked dimension of any kind of human action (that is the position preferred here).

Structure of Performance Orientation


The key features of any performance orientation can be summarized as follows (see Figure 1): 1. Reference Standards: Feeling challenged to set/raise and to meet/exceed demanding reference standards, which are considered as binding for the evaluation of the course and outcome of an action and specified by the habitual and/or actual aspiration level. According to well-known conceptions of achievement motivation, typical references are individual's prior performance (Individual Reference Standard; e.g., actual "handicap" of a golf player), the performance of relevant others (Interindividual ReferenceStandard; e.g., handicap or actual results of other golf players on a tour), the demands of a given task (Task Reference Standard; e.g., the "par" as the strokes calculated for one "hole" in golf), and/or a specific standard value that must be met (Normative Reference Standard; e.g., maximum handicap needed to be allowed to play on a golf course).
Figure 1 Structure of performance orientation (broken lines...

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Dateiformat: PDF
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

85,62 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
Hinweis: Die Auswahl des von Ihnen gewünschten Dateiformats und des Kopierschutzes erfolgt erst im System des E-Book Anbieters
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung des WebShops erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok