Standalone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 23. August 2016
  • |
  • 308 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803041-7 (ISBN)
 

Standalone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas explores the increased demand for energy, including clean energy alternatives and the ways that solar energy is fast becoming a vital source for meeting peak demand, a solution for energy demand in disaster and remote areas, and a viable source to meet emerging energy security needs.

The book provides a detailed overview of PV systems and applications for disaster and remote areas, and includes a guide on how to provide electricity during outages, along with important discussions on the need for increasing the resilience of the grid. The differences and requirements for standalone, mobile, and portable PV systems are discussed, along with how systems can be deployed, transported, and used in remote areas. In addition, the book discusses the use of solar PV systems to create environmentally friendly power systems for remote communities that can be operated independently, also comparing the costs, emissions, and practical applications of other technologies.


  • Presents the only available, detailed overview of PV applications and guidance on how to build PV system in remote locations with limited infrastructure
  • Includes discussions on how standalone, portable, and mobile systems can provide electricity during outages and times of crisis
  • Contains detailed discussions of resilience, affordability, emissions, and cost comparisons between PV systems and other technologies such as diesel generators, wind turbines, and main grid connected applications
  • Includes guidance on managing electrical needs during outages


Prior to becoming an Emeritus Professor, he spent a year completing a project on developing instructional material for an NSF-funded project on 'Visualization and Manipulation of Nanoscale Components using Atomic Force Microscopy." For the last 30 years at SUNYIT, he taught and developed courses in the area of fiber optics, wireless communication, optical communications, nanotechnology, photovoltaic energy, computer and data communication. During his tenure at SUNYIT, he was chairman of the EET department, coordinator of the photonics program and Director of the Master of Science program in advanced technology, which he helped to develop.
Professor Qazi is a recipient of several awards including the William Goddel award for research creativity at SUNYIT and engineering professionalism by Mohawk Valley Engineering Executive Committee. Professor Qazi forged closer relations with the IEEE Mohawk Valley section, is a life member of IEEE and a member of American Society of Engineering Education. He holds a Ph.D. degree in Electrical engineering from Loughborough University, U.K.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 12,24 MB
978-0-12-803041-7 (9780128030417)
0128030410 (0128030410)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Standalone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Photovoltaics for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Type of Natural Disasters
  • 1.3 Electrical Power System/Grid
  • 1.3.1 Impact of Disasters on Power Systems/Grid
  • 1.4 Causes of Power Outages
  • 1.4.1 Cost of Power Outages
  • 1.5 Energy Needs in the Aftermath of Disasters
  • 1.5.1 Backup Power for Emergency Shelters
  • 1.5.2 Emergency Lighting
  • 1.5.3 Communications
  • 1.5.4 Transportation
  • 1.5.5 Portable Systems and Battery Charging for Miscellaneous Applications
  • 1.6 Energy Needs in Remote and Off-Grid Areas
  • 1.7 Energy Need of Remote Areas in Developed Countries
  • 1.8 Energy Need of Remote Areas in the Developing Countries
  • 1.9 Photovoltaics for Disasters Reliefand Remote Areas
  • 1.10 Photovoltaics Around the World
  • 1.11 Growth and Forecast of Photovoltaic Markets
  • Bibliography
  • 2 Fundamentals of Standalone Photovoltaic Systems
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Types of Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.2.1 Battery Storage Hybrid Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.3 Types of Battery Storage Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.4.1 Advantages
  • 2.4.2 Disadvantages
  • 2.5 Applications of Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.6 Components of Standalone PV System
  • 2.6.1 Solar Source or Solar Radiation
  • 2.6.1.1 Characterization of Solar Radiation
  • 2.6.1.2 Variation of Solar Energy With Time and Location
  • 2.6.1.3 Dependence of Solar Radiation on PV System Design
  • 2.6.2 Photovoltaic Cells
  • 2.6.2.1 First Generation PV Cells
  • 2.6.2.2 Second Generation PV Cells
  • 2.6.2.3 Third Generation PV Cells
  • 2.6.2.4 Principle of a PV Cell
  • 2.6.2.5 Characteristics of PV Cells
  • 2.6.2.6 Progress in PV Cells Efficiencies
  • 2.6.3 PV Modules and Arrays
  • 2.6.3.1 PV Module Characteristics
  • 2.6.3.2 Quality Assurance and Safety Requirements of PV Modules
  • 2.6.3.3 PV Arrays
  • 2.6.4 Charge Controller
  • 2.6.4.1 Type of Charge Controllers
  • 2.6.4.2 1 or 2 Stage or On/Off Controllers
  • 2.6.5 PWM Three Stage Controller
  • 2.6.5.1 Maximum Power Point Tracking Charge Controller
  • 2.6.6 Battery Storage for Standalone PV System
  • 2.6.6.1 Types of Storage Batteries for Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.6.6.2 Lead-Acid Batteries
  • 2.6.6.3 Flooded Lead-Acid Batteries
  • 2.6.6.4 Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries
  • 2.6.6.4.1 Gel Electrolyte Battery
  • 2.6.6.4.2 Absorption Glass Mat Electrolyte Battery
  • 2.6.6.5 Nickel-Cadmium Battery
  • 2.6.6.6 Nickel-Metal-Hydride
  • 2.6.6.7 Lithium Ion Battery
  • 2.6.6.8 Battery Hazards in Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.6.6.9 Battery Safety Precautions
  • 2.6.6.10 Battery Management System
  • 2.6.7 Inverter for Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.6.7.1 Type of Inverters
  • 2.6.7.2 Installation and Listing of Inverters
  • 2.7 Sizing Methodologies of Standalone PV Systems
  • 2.7.1 Estimation of Electric Load
  • 2.7.2 Sizing of Battery Bank
  • 2.7.3 Sizing of PV Modules
  • 2.7.3.1 Use of PVWatts for Array Sizing
  • 2.7.4 Sizing of Charge Controller
  • 2.7.5 Sizing the Inverter
  • 2.8 Modeling and Simulation of PV Systems and Software Tools
  • 2.8.1 Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables
  • 2.8.2 Photovoltaic Software
  • 2.8.3 Transient System Simulation Program
  • 2.8.4 Photovoltaic Geographical Information System
  • 2.8.5 PVWatts Calculator
  • Bibliography
  • 3 Mobile Photovoltaic Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Solar-Powered Mobile Trailers
  • 3.2.1 Features of Solar-Powered Mobile Trailers
  • 3.2.2 Types of Solar-Powered Mobile Trailers
  • 3.3 Examples of Mobile PV Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas
  • 3.3.1 Community-Based Mobile PV Systems
  • 3.3.2 Mobile PV Systems for Power, Water Purification, and Communications
  • 3.3.3 Mobile PV Systems for Medical Clinics and Remote Areas
  • 3.3.3.1 Solar-Powered Clinic in A Can
  • 3.3.3.2 Solar-Powered Camel Clinics
  • 3.3.4 Mobile PV Systems for Small Shelters and Illumination
  • 3.3.5 Hand-Driven Solar Generator Cart
  • 3.4 Case Study for Solar Cars
  • 3.4.1 History of Solar Cars
  • 3.4.2 Principles of Solar-Powered Car
  • 3.4.3 Fully Solar-Powered Car
  • 3.5 Case Study of Solar-Powered Airplane
  • 3.5.1 Power Received by Airplane
  • 3.5.2 History of Solar-Powered Plane
  • 3.5.3 Types of Solar-Powered Planes
  • 3.5.4 Solar-Powered Manned Plane for Day and Night
  • 3.5.5 Solar Impulse HB-SB2 (Solar Impulse 2)
  • 3.5.6 Challenges of Solar Powered Manned Planes
  • Bibliography
  • 4 Portable Standalone PV Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Features of Portable Solar Systems
  • 4.3 Types of Portable PV Systems
  • 4.3.1 Compact Portable PV Systems
  • 4.3.1.1 Solar Lantern
  • 4.3.1.2 MPOWERD Luci EMRG Solar Lantern
  • 4.3.1.3 Ultralight Solar Charger and Panel Power Module
  • 4.3.1.4 SolarWrap
  • 4.3.2 Solar Backpack Systems
  • 4.3.3 Solar Suitcase/Briefcase Systems
  • 4.3.3.1 Solar Suitcase for Water Purification in Disaster and Remote Areas
  • 4.3.3.2 Portable and Rechargeable Solar Suitcase for Emergency Survival
  • 4.3.3.3 Solar Briefcase
  • 4.3.4 Foldable PV Systems
  • 4.3.4.1 Powerenz LP40 Waterproof Portable Solar System
  • 4.3.4.1.1 Solar Panel
  • 4.3.4.1.2 Battery
  • 4.3.4.1.3 Solar Charge Controller
  • 4.3.4.1.4 Power Inverter
  • 4.4 Case Study: A Portable System for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas
  • 4.4.1 Light for Schools and Community
  • 4.4.2 Light and Clean Water for Community
  • 4.4.2.1 Small Filtration System for Disaster and Remote Communities
  • 4.4.2.2 Large Water Filtration System for Disasters and Remote Communities
  • 4.5 Case Study: We Care Solar Suitcase (Yellow) for Medical Relief in Remote Areas
  • 4.5.1 Case Study: We Share Solar Suitcase (Blue) for Lighting in Schools and Orphanages
  • Bibliography
  • 5 Fixed Standalone PV Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Solar-Powered Water Pumping Systems
  • 5.2.1 Direct-Coupled Standalone Solar-Powered Water Pumping Systems
  • 5.2.2 Battery-Coupled Standalone Solar-Powered Water Pumping System
  • 5.3 Design of a Standalone Solar-Powered Pumping System in Eight Steps
  • 5.3.1 Step 1: Determine Whether the Pump Is Surface or Submersible
  • 5.3.2 Step 2: Determine the Required Water Flow
  • 5.3.3 Step 3: Pressure Needed to Move Water From Source to Destination
  • 5.3.4 Step 4: Determine the Right Size of Pipe
  • 5.3.5 Step 5: Select a Pump That Will Provide the Required Flow and Pressure
  • 5.3.6 Step 6: Determine Power Needs for the Desired Pump and Size of PV Systems
  • 5.3.7 Step 7: Selecting the Correct Solar Array Mounting
  • 5.3.8 Step 8: Using Water Storage and Water Level Sensor
  • 5.4 Applications of Standalone Solar-Powered Water Pumping Systems
  • 5.4.1 Standalone PV System for Water Supply to Homes or Villages
  • 5.4.2 Standalone PV System for Drip Irrigation System
  • 5.4.3 Standalone PV System for Livestock Watering
  • 5.5 Standalone PV Systems for Water Purification
  • 5.5.1 Standalone PV Systems for Ultraviolet Sterilization
  • 5.5.1.1 Example of Standalone PV System for Ultraviolet Sterilization
  • 5.5.2 Standalone PV System for Reverse Osmosis Water Purification
  • 5.5.2.1 Example of a Standalone PV System for Reverse Osmosis Water Purification
  • 5.5.3 Standalone PV Systems for Ultrafiltration
  • 5.5.3.1 Example of Solar-Powered Ultrafiltration System
  • 5.6 Direct Solar Water Treatment for Purification of Water
  • 5.6.1 Solar Water Disinfection
  • 5.6.2 Solar Pasteurization
  • 5.6.3 Solar Water Distillation Using Solar Stills
  • 5.7 Case Study of Fixed Standalone PV Systems for Mobile Communications in Remote Areas
  • 5.7.1 Solar-Powered Base Stations
  • 5.7.2 Benefits of Solar-Powered Base Stations
  • 5.7.2.1 Cost Effectiveness
  • 5.7.2.2 Reliability
  • 5.7.2.3 Flexibility of Location
  • 5.7.2.4 Environmentally Friendly
  • 5.7.3 Examples of Solar-Powered Base Stations for Disasters and Remote Areas
  • 5.7.4 Solar-Powered Base Station in India
  • Bibliography
  • 6 PV Systems Affordability, Community Solar, and Solar Microgrids
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Affordable PV Systems Programs in United States
  • 6.2.1 California's Innovative SASH Program
  • 6.2.2 District of Columbia's Renewable Energy Rebate Program
  • 6.2.3 GRID Alternatives
  • 6.2.4 US Department of Energy Borrowers Guide for Financing Solar Energy Systems
  • 6.3 Affordable PV Systems Programs for Developing Countries
  • 6.3.1 CleanStart
  • 6.3.2 Renewable Energy Microfinance and Microenterprise Program
  • 6.3.3 REMMP Partnership in India
  • 6.3.4 REMMP Partnership in Haiti
  • 6.3.5 REMMP Partnership in Uganda
  • 6.3.6 Companies and Organization Bringing Solar Energy to Developing Countries
  • 6.4 Community Solar for Affordability and Resilience
  • 6.4.1 Community Solar in United States
  • 6.4.2 Making a Solar Garden
  • 6.4.3 Challenges of Solar Gardens
  • 6.5 Solar Microgrid for Resilience and Disasters
  • 6.5.1 Benefits of a Microgrid
  • 6.5.2 Challenges of Developing Solar Microgrids
  • 6.6 Case Study of Solar Microgrids in India
  • 6.6.1 Solar Microgrid (Funded by Government of India) for Rural Electrification in the Remote Areas
  • 6.6.2 System Rating of Indian Solar Microgrid for Rural Electrification
  • 6.6.3 Benefits of Solar Microgrid in Remote Areas of India
  • 6.6.4 Challenges of Solar Microgrid in Remote Areas of India
  • 6.6.5 Solar Microgrid for Rural Electrification in Remote Areas of India (Completed With the Help of a Global NGO)
  • 6.7 Case study of Solar Microgrids in United States
  • 6.7.1 Case Study of the UCSD Microgrid
  • 6.7.2 Master Controller for UCSD Microgrid
  • 6.7.3 Energy Storage for UCSD Microgrid
  • 6.7.4 Challenges of UCSD Microgrid
  • 6.7.5 Solar Microgrid With Battery Storage for Emergency Shelters in United States
  • Bibliography
  • 7 Solar Thermal Electricity and Solar Insolation
  • 7.1 Solar Thermal Electricity
  • 7.2 Advantages of CSP
  • 7.2.1 Disadvantages
  • 7.3 Principles of CSP Systems
  • 7.3.1 Solar Collectors
  • 7.3.2 Heat Transfer Fluids
  • 7.3.3 Thermal Energy Storage (Storage Tank)
  • 7.3.4 Turbine
  • 7.4 CSP Around the World
  • 7.4.1 Largest CSP Plants of the World in Operation
  • 7.5 Solar Thermal Technologies
  • 7.5.1 Parabolic Trough Systems
  • 7.5.2 Power Tower Systems
  • 7.5.3 Linear Fresnel Reflector System
  • 7.5.4 Parabolic Dish Engine
  • 7.6 Solar Insolation/Radiation
  • 7.7 Measurement of Solar Radiation/Insolation
  • 7.7.1 Pyreheliometer
  • 7.7.2 Pyranometer
  • 7.7.3 Campbell-Stokes Recorder
  • 7.7.4 Satellite-Based Images
  • 7.8 Online Databases for Solar Radiation
  • 7.8.1 NASA's SSE 6.0 for Global Locations
  • 7.8.2 SolarGIS Web Services
  • 7.8.3 NREL Renewable Resource Data Center
  • 7.8.4 RETScreen
  • 7.8.5 Estimating Solar Insolation for Global Locations Using the Photovoltaic Education Network
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix: Appendix on PV Systems for Disaster Relief and in Remote Areas
  • Appendix A. Building Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
  • Introduction
  • Building DSCC Solar Cells Using ICE Kit
  • Instructions for Building the ICE's Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
  • Testing the Assembled DSSC Cell
  • Perovskite Based Solar Cells
  • Appendix B. Assembling One's Own PV Modules
  • Introduction
  • Interconnecting and Bussing of PV Cells
  • Junction Box
  • Mounting and Sealing of Junction Box
  • Liquid Adhesives
  • Adhesive Tapes
  • Acrylic Foam Tapes
  • Encapsulation
  • Framing of PV Module
  • Making a Solar-Powered Cell Phone Charger
  • PV Modules in Remote Areas as a Cottage Industry
  • Public Solar-Powered Cell Phone Chargers
  • Appendix C. Results of Solar Insolation/Radiation Using Different Databases
  • Calculation of Solar Insolation/Radiation Using NASA SSE 6.0
  • Calculation of Solar Insolation Using RETScreen International
  • Estimation of Solar Insolation for International Locations Using SolarGIS iMaps
  • Estimation of Electric Potential and Solar Radiation for International Locations Using SolarGIS pvPlanner
  • Solar Insolation Data for United States Using NREL Renewable Resource Data Center
  • Appendix D. Standard for PV Systems
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  • Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
  • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
  • Bibliography
  • Index
  • Back Cover

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

68,96 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung dieser Web-Seiten erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok