Building Brains

An Introduction to Neural Development
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 25. September 2017
  • |
  • 384 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-29391-0 (ISBN)
 
Provides a highly visual, readily accessible introduction to the main events that occur during neural development and their mechanisms
Building Brains: An Introduction to Neural Development, 2nd Edition describes how brains construct themselves, from simple beginnings in the early embryo to become the most complex living structures on the planet. It explains how cells first become neural, how their proliferation is controlled, what regulates the types of neural cells they become, how neurons connect to each other, how these connections are later refined under the influence of neural activity, and why some neurons normally die. This student-friendly guide stresses and justifies the generally-held belief that a greater knowledge of how nervous systems construct themselves will help us find new ways of treating diseases of the nervous system that are thought to originate from faulty development, such as autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.
* A concise, illustrated guide focusing on core elements and emphasizing common principles of developmental mechanisms, supplemented by suggestions for further reading
* Text boxes provide detail on major advances, issues of particular uncertainty or controversy, and examples of human diseases that result from abnormal development
* Introduces the methods for studying neural development, allowing the reader to understand the main evidence underlying research advances
* Offers a balanced mammalian/non-mammalian perspective (and emphasizes mechanisms that are conserved across species), drawing on examples from model organisms like the fruit fly, nematode worm, frog, zebrafish, chick, mouse and human
* Associated Website includes all the figures from the textbook and explanatory movies
Filled with full-colorartwork that reinforces important concepts; an extensive glossary and definitions that help readers from different backgrounds; and chapter summaries that stress important points and aid revision, Building Brains: An Introduction to Neural Development, 2nd Edition is perfect for undergraduate students and postgraduates who may not have a background in neuroscience and/or molecular genetics.
"This elegant book ranges with ease and authority over the vast field of developmental neuroscience. This excellent textbook should be on the shelf of every neuroscientist, as well as on the reading list of every neuroscience student."
--Sir Colin Blakemore, Oxford University
"With an extensive use of clear and colorful illustrations, this book makes accessible to undergraduates the beauty and complexity of neural development. The book fills a void in undergraduate neuroscience curricula."
--Professor Mark Bear, Picower Institute, MIT.
Highly Commended, British Medical Association Medical Book Awards 2012
Published with the New York Academy of Sciences
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • |
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Überarbeitete Ausgabe
  • 42,63 MB
978-1-119-29391-0 (9781119293910)
111929391X (111929391X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
DAVID J. PRICE, ANDREW P. JARMAN, JOHN O. MASON, PETER C. KIND, Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, UK.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface to Second Edition
  • Preface to First Edition
  • Conventions and Commonly used Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • About the Companion Website
  • Chapter 1 Models and Methods for Studying Neural Development
  • 1.1 What is neural development?
  • 1.2 Why research neural development?
  • 1.2.1 The uncertainty of current understanding
  • 1.2.2 Implications for human health
  • 1.2.3 Implications for future technologies
  • 1.3 Major breakthroughs that have contributed to understanding developmental mechanisms
  • 1.4 Invertebrate model organisms
  • 1.4.1 Fly
  • 1.4.2 Worm
  • 1.4.3 Other invertebrates
  • 1.5 Vertebrate model organisms
  • 1.5.1 Frog
  • 1.5.2 Chick
  • 1.5.3 Zebrafish
  • 1.5.4 Mouse
  • 1.5.5 Humans
  • 1.5.6 Other vertebrates
  • 1.6 Observation and experiment: methods for studying neural development
  • 1.7 Summary
  • Chapter 2 The Anatomy of Developing Nervous Systems
  • 2.1 The nervous system develops from the embryonic neuroectoderm
  • 2.2 Anatomical terms used to describe locations in embryos
  • 2.3 Development of the neuroectoderm of invertebrates
  • 2.3.1 C. elegans
  • 2.3.2 Drosophila
  • 2.4 Development of the neuroectoderm of vertebrates and the process of neurulation
  • 2.4.1 Frog
  • 2.4.2 Chick
  • 2.4.3 Zebrafish
  • 2.4.4 Mouse
  • 2.4.5 Human
  • 2.5 Secondary neurulation in vertebrates
  • 2.6 Formation of invertebrate and vertebrate peripheral nervous systems
  • 2.6.1 Invertebrates
  • 2.6.2 Vertebrates: the neural crest and the placodes
  • 2.6.3 Vertebrates: development of sense organs
  • 2.7 Summary
  • Chapter 3 Neural Induction: An Example of How Intercellular Signalling Determines Cell Fates
  • 3.1 What is neural induction?
  • 3.2 Specification and commitment
  • 3.3 The discovery of neural induction
  • 3.4 A more recent breakthrough: identifying molecules that mediate neural induction
  • 3.5 Conservation of neural induction mechanisms in Drosophila
  • 3.6 Beyond the default model - other signalling pathways involved in neural induction
  • 3.7 Signal transduction: how cells respond to intercellular signals
  • 3.8 Intercellular signalling regulates gene expression
  • 3.8.1 General mechanisms of transcriptional regulation
  • 3.8.2 Transcription factors involved in neural induction
  • 3.8.3 What genes do transcription factors control?
  • 3.8.4 Gene function can also be controlled by other mechanisms
  • 3.9 The essence of development: a complex interplay of intercellular and intracellular signalling
  • 3.10 Summary
  • Chapter 4 Patterning the Neuroectoderm
  • 4.1 Regional patterning of the nervous system
  • 4.1.1 Patterns of gene expression are set up by morphogens
  • 4.1.2 Patterning happens progressively
  • 4.2 Patterning the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the Drosophila CNS
  • 4.2.1 From gradients of signals to domains of transcription factor expression
  • 4.2.2 Dividing the ectoderm into segmental units
  • 4.2.3 Assigning segmental identity - the Hox code
  • 4.3 Patterning the AP axis of the vertebrate CNS
  • 4.3.1 Hox genes are highly conserved
  • 4.3.2 Initial AP information is imparted by the mesoderm
  • 4.3.3 Genes that pattern the anterior brain
  • 4.4 Local patterning in Drosophila: refining neural patterning within segments
  • 4.4.1 In Drosophila a signalling boundary within each segment provides local AP positional information
  • 4.4.2 Patterning in the Drosophila dorsoventral (DV) axis
  • 4.4.3 Unique neuroblast identities from the integration of AP and DV patterning information
  • 4.5 Local patterning in the vertebrate nervous system
  • 4.5.1 In the vertebrate brain, AP boundaries organize local patterning
  • 4.5.2 Patterning in the DV axis of the vertebrate CNS
  • 4.5.3 Signal gradients that drive DV patterning
  • 4.5.4 SHH and BMP are morphogens for DV progenitor domains in the neural tube
  • 4.5.5 Integration of AP and DV patterning information
  • 4.6 Summary
  • Chapter 5 Neurogenesis: Generating Neural Cells
  • 5.1 Generating neural cells
  • 5.2 Neurogenesis in Drosophila
  • 5.2.1 Proneural genes promote neural commitment
  • 5.2.2 Lateral inhibition: Notch signalling inhibits commitment
  • 5.3 Neurogenesis in vertebrates
  • 5.3.1 Proneural genes are conserved
  • 5.3.2 In the vertebrate CNS, neurogenesis involves radial glial cells
  • 5.3.3 Proneural factors and Notch signalling in the vertebrate CNS
  • 5.4 The regulation of neuronal subtype identity
  • 5.4.1 Different proneural genes - different programmes of neurogenesis
  • 5.4.2 Combinatorial control by transcription factors creates neuronal diversity
  • 5.5 The regulation of cell proliferation during neurogenesis
  • 5.5.1 Signals that promote proliferation
  • 5.5.2 Cell division patterns during neurogenesis
  • 5.5.3 Asymmetric cell division in Drosophila requires Numb
  • 5.5.4 Control of asymmetric cell division in vertebrate neurogenesis
  • 5.5.5 In vertebrates, division patterns are regulated to generate vast numbers of neurons
  • 5.6 Temporal regulation of neural identity
  • 5.6.1 A neural cell's time of birth is important for neural identity
  • 5.6.2 Time of birth can generate spatial patterns of neurons
  • 5.6.3 How does birth date influence a neuron's fate?
  • 5.6.4 Intrinsic mechanism of temporal control in Drosophila neuroblasts
  • 5.6.5 Birth date, lamination and competence in the mammalian cortex
  • 5.7 Why do we need to know about neurogenesis?
  • 5.8 Summary
  • Chapter 6 How Neurons Develop Their Shapes
  • 6.1 Neurons form two specialized types of outgrowth
  • 6.1.1 Axons and dendrites
  • 6.1.2 The cytoskeleton in mature axons and dendrites
  • 6.2 The growing neurite
  • 6.2.1 A neurite extends by growth at its tip
  • 6.2.2 Mechanisms of growth cone dynamics
  • 6.3 Stages of neurite outgrowth
  • 6.3.1 Neurite outgrowth in cultured hippocampal neurons
  • 6.3.2 Neurite outgrowth in vivo
  • 6.4 Neurite outgrowth is influenced by a neuron's surroundings
  • 6.4.1 The importance of extracellular cues
  • 6.4.2 Extracellular signals that promote or inhibit neurite outgrowth
  • 6.5 Molecular responses in the growth cone
  • 6.5.1 Key intracellular signal transduction events
  • 6.5.2 Small G proteins are critical regulators of neurite growth
  • 6.5.3 Effector molecules directly influence actin filament dynamics
  • 6.5.4 Regulation of other processes in the extending neurite
  • 6.6 Active transport along the axon is important for outgrowth
  • 6.7 The developmental regulation of neuronal polarity
  • 6.7.1 Signalling during axon specification
  • 6.7.2 Ensuring there is just one axon
  • 6.7.3 Which neurite becomes the axon?
  • 6.8 Dendrites
  • 6.8.1 Regulation of dendrite branching
  • 6.8.2 Dendrite branches undergo self-avoidance
  • 6.8.3 Dendritic fields exhibit tiling
  • 6.9 Summary
  • Chapter 7 Neuronal Migration
  • 7.1 Many neurons migrate long distances during formation of the nervous system
  • 7.2 How can neuronal migration be observed?
  • 7.2.1 Watching neurons move in living embryos
  • 7.2.2 Observing migrating neurons in cultured tissues
  • 7.2.3 Tracking cell migration by indirect methods
  • 7.3 Major modes of migration
  • 7.3.1 Some migrating neurons are guided by a scaffold
  • 7.3.2 Some neurons migrate in groups
  • 7.3.3 Some neurons migrate individually
  • 7.4 Initiation of migration
  • 7.4.1 Initiation of neural crest cell migration
  • 7.4.2 Initiation of neuronal migration
  • 7.5 How are migrating cells guided to their destinations?
  • 7.5.1 Directional migration of neurons in C. elegans
  • 7.5.2 Guidance of neural crest cell migration
  • 7.5.3 Guidance of neural precursors in the developing lateral line of zebrafish
  • 7.5.4 Guidance by radial glial fibres
  • 7.6 Locomotion
  • 7.7 Journey's end - termination of migration
  • 7.8 Embryonic cerebral cortex contains both radially and tangentially migrating cells
  • 7.9 Summary
  • Chapter 8 Axon Guidance
  • 8.1 Many axons navigate long and complex routes
  • 8.1.1 How might axons be guided to their targets?
  • 8.1.2 The growth cone
  • 8.1.3 Breaking the journey - intermediate targets
  • 8.2 Contact guidance
  • 8.2.1 Contact guidance in action: pioneers and followers, fasciculation and defasciculation
  • 8.2.2 Ephs and ephrins: versatile cell surface molecules with roles in contact guidance
  • 8.3 Guidance of axons by diffusible cues - chemotropism
  • 8.3.1 Netrin - a chemotropic cue expressed at the ventral midline
  • 8.3.2 Slits
  • 8.3.3 Semaphorins
  • 8.3.4 Other axon guidance molecules
  • 8.4 How do axons change their behaviour at choice points?
  • 8.4.1 Commissural axons lose their attraction to netrin once they have crossed the floor plate
  • 8.4.2 Putting it all together - guidance cues and their receptors choreograph commissural axon pathfinding at the ventral midline
  • 8.4.3 After crossing the midline, commissural axons project towards the brain
  • 8.5 How can such a small number of cues guide such a large number of axons?
  • 8.5.1 The same guidance cues are deployed in multiple axon pathways
  • 8.5.2 Interactions between guidance cues and their receptors can be altered by co-factors
  • 8.6 Some axons form specific connections over very short distances, probably using different mechanisms
  • 8.7 The growth cone has autonomy in its ability to respond to guidance cues
  • 8.7.1 Growth cones can still navigate when severed from their cell bodies
  • 8.7.2 Local translation in growth cones
  • 8.8 Transcription factors regulate axon guidance decisions
  • 8.9 Summary
  • Chapter 9 Life and Death in the Developing Nervous System
  • 9.1 The frequency and function of cell death during normal development
  • 9.2 Cells die in one of two main ways: apoptosis or necrosis
  • 9.3 Studies in invertebrates have taught us much about how cells kill themselves
  • 9.3.1 The specification phase
  • 9.3.2 The killing phase
  • 9.3.3 The engulfment phase
  • 9.4 Most of the genes that regulate programmed cell death in C. elegans are conserved in vertebrates
  • 9.5 Examples of neurodevelopmental processes in which programmed cell death plays a prominent role
  • 9.5.1 Programmed cell death in early progenitor cell populations
  • 9.5.2 Programmed cell death contributes to sexual differences in the nervous system
  • 9.5.3 Programmed cell death removes cells with transient functions once their task is done
  • 9.5.4 Programmed cell death matches the numbers of cells in interacting neural tissues
  • 9.6 Neurotrophic factors are important regulators of cell survival and death
  • 9.6.1 Growth factors
  • 9.6.2 Cytokines
  • 9.7 A role for electrical activity in regulating programmed cell death
  • 9.8 Summary
  • Chapter 10 Map Formation
  • 10.1 What are maps?
  • 10.2 Types of maps
  • 10.2.1 Coarse maps
  • 10.2.2 Fine maps
  • 10.3 Principles of map formation
  • 10.3.1 Axon order during development
  • 10.3.2 Theories of map formation
  • 10.4 Development of coarse maps: cortical areas
  • 10.4.1 Protomap versus protocortex
  • 10.4.2 Spatial position of cortical areas
  • 10.5 Development of fine maps: topographic
  • 10.5.1 Retinotectal pathways
  • 10.5.2 Sperry and the chemoaffinity hypothesis
  • 10.5.3 Ephrins act as molecular postcodes in the chick tectum
  • 10.6 Inputs from multiple structures: when maps collide
  • 10.6.1 From retina to cortex in mammals
  • 10.6.2 Activity-dependent eye-specific segregation: a role for retinal waves
  • 10.6.3 Formation of ocular dominance bands
  • 10.6.4 Ocular dominance bands form by directed ingrowth of thalamocortical axons
  • 10.6.5 Activity and the formation of ocular dominance bands
  • 10.6.6 Integration of sensory maps
  • 10.7 Development of feature maps
  • 10.7.1 Feature maps in the visual system
  • 10.7.2 Role of experience in orientation and direction map formation
  • 10.8 Summary
  • Chapter 11 Maturation of Functional Properties
  • 11.1 Neurons are excitable cells
  • 11.1.1 What makes a cell excitable?
  • 11.1.2 Electrical properties of neurons
  • 11.1.3 Regulation of intrinsic neuronal physiology
  • 11.2 Neuronal excitability during development
  • 11.2.1 Neuronal excitability changes dramatically during development
  • 11.2.2 Early action potentials are driven by Ca2+, not Na+
  • 11.2.3 Neurotransmitter receptors regulate excitability prior to synapse formation
  • 11.2.4 GABAergic receptor activation switches from being excitatory to inhibitory
  • 11.3 Developmental processes regulated by neuronal excitability
  • 11.3.1 Electrical excitability regulates neuronal proliferation and migration
  • 11.3.2 Neuronal activity and axon guidance
  • 11.4 Synaptogenesis
  • 11.4.1 The synapse
  • 11.4.2 Electrical properties of dendrites
  • 11.4.3 Stages of synaptogenesis
  • 11.4.4 Synaptic specification and induction
  • 11.4.5 Synapse formation
  • 11.4.6 Synapse selection: stabilization and withdrawal
  • 11.5 Spinogenesis
  • 11.5.1 Spine shape and dynamics
  • 11.5.2 Theories of spinogenesis
  • 11.5.3 Mouse models of spinogenesis: the weaver mutant
  • 11.5.4 Molecular regulators of spine development
  • 11.6 Summary
  • Chapter 12 Experience-Dependent Development
  • 12.1 Effects of experience on visual system development
  • 12.1.1 Seeing one world with two eyes: ocular dominance of cortical cells
  • 12.1.2 Visual experience regulates ocular dominance
  • 12.1.3 Competition regulates experience-dependent plasticity: the effects of dark-rearing and strabismus
  • 12.1.4 Physiological changes in ocular dominance prior to anatomical changes
  • 12.1.5 Cooperative binocular interactions and visual cortex plasticity
  • 12.1.6 The timing of developmental plasticity: sensitive or critical periods
  • 12.1.7 Multiple sensitive periods in the developing visual system
  • 12.2 How does experience change functional connectivity?
  • 12.2.1 Cellular basis of plasticity: synaptic strengthening and weakening
  • 12.2.2 The time-course of changes in synaptic weight in response to monocular deprivation
  • 12.2.3 Cellular and molecular mechanisms of LTP/LTD induction
  • 12.2.5 Metaplasticity
  • 12.2.6 Spike-timing dependent plasticity
  • 12.3 Cellular basis of plasticity: development of inhibitory networks
  • 12.3.1 Inhibition contributes to the expression of the effects of monocular deprivation
  • 12.3.2 Development of inhibitory circuits regulates the time-course of the sensitive period for monocular deprivation
  • 12.4 Homeostatic plasticity
  • 12.4.1 Mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity
  • 12.5 Structural plasticity and the role of the extracellular matrix
  • 12.6 Summary
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • EULA

Dateiformat: PDF
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

56,99 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung dieser Web-Seiten erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok