Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 2

Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 25. März 2016
  • |
  • 1182 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-800375-6 (ISBN)
 

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects is the second of three volumes in this informative series and offers a comprehensive examination of the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse. Each volume serves to update the reader's knowledge on the broader field of addiction as well as to deepen understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume 2 addresses stimulants, club and dissociative drugs, hallucinogens, and inhalants and solvents. Each section provides data on the general, molecular and cellular, and structural and functional neurological aspects of a given substance, with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions.

Research shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others, and understanding these commonalties provides a platform for studying specific addictions in more depth and may ultimately lead researchers toward new modes of understanding, causation, prevention, and treatment. However, marshalling data on the complex relationships between addictions is difficult due to the myriad material and substances.

  • Offers a modern approach to understanding the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence-based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions
  • Fills an existing gap in the literature by serving as a 'one-stop-shopping" synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse
  • Includes in each chapter: list of abbreviations, abstract, introduction, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references
  • Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and from the genome to whole body
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 33,92 MB
978-0-12-800375-6 (9780128003756)
0128003758 (0128003758)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants, and International Aspects
  • How To use
  • Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants, and International Aspects
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • I - Stimulants
  • A - General Aspects
  • 1 - Cocaine: Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes. An Overview
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES ON COCAINE ABUSE
  • Historical Cocaine Use
  • Clinical Features of Cocaine Addiction
  • Genetic and Environmental Factors Contributing to Individual Susceptibility to Cocaine Dependence: Endogenous Opioid System and ...
  • MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF COCAINE ADDICTION
  • Historical Research on the Mechanism of Action of Cocaine
  • Development of Humanized Behavioral Models of Cocaine Addiction
  • Cocaine-Induced Neurobiological Adaptations and Gene Expression Changes
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER DRUGS OF ABUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF THE STATISTICS OF COCAINE USE IN THE UNITED STATES
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Amphetamine Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes: An Overview
  • INTRODUCTION
  • USAGE, MISUSE, AND ADDICTION PROCESSES
  • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of ADHD
  • Key Facts of Dopamine
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Mephedrone: An Overview of Its Neurotoxic Potential
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ?-KETOAMPHETAMINES, AMPHETAMINES AND THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUROTOXICITY
  • STRATEGY FOR EXAMINATION OF THE NEUROTOXIC POTENTIAL OF MEPHEDRONE
  • MEPHEDRONE DOES NOT DAMAGE DA NERVE ENDINGS
  • MEPHEDRONE ENHANCES THE NEUROTOXICITY CAUSED BY METHAMPHETAMINE, AMPHETAMINE, AND MDMA
  • MEPHEDRONE DOES NOT DAMAGE 5HT NERVE ENDINGS
  • DISCUSSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF MEPHEDRONE ABUSE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • B - Molecular and Cellular Aspects
  • 4 - Cocaine and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BDNF, COCAINE, AND ANIMAL MODELS
  • BDNF, Cocaine, and the Mesolimbic Pathway
  • BDNF and Acute or Repeated Cocaine Exposure
  • BDNF GENETICS IN COCAINE ADDICTION
  • BDNF Gene Expression
  • BDNF Gene Polymorphisms
  • CLINICAL STUDIES AND BDNF
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF COCAINE AND BDNF
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - On the Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Cocaine Addiction
  • INTRODUCTION
  • OVERVIEW OF THE ECBS
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid Receptors
  • Cannabinoid Receptors Ligands
  • Cannabinoid Enzyme Inhibitors
  • ECBS IN COCAINE ADDICTION
  • Cocaine and Marijuana Interactions in Polydrug Users
  • ECBS and Animal Models of Cocaine Addiction: Behavioral Studies
  • CB1R and Animal Models of Cocaine Addiction: Biochemical and Molecular Studies
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF SELF-ADMINISTRATION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - The Fas Receptor/Fas-Associated Protein and Cocaine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • RELEVANT FEATURES OF FAS RECEPTOR AND FADD ADAPTOR
  • REGULATION OF FAS RECEPTOR FORMS BY COCAINE
  • REGULATION OF FADD FORMS BY ACUTE AND CHRONIC COCAINE IN RAT BRAIN
  • ROLE OF FADD FORMS IN THE INITIAL PROPENSITY TO COCAINE USE
  • REGULATION OF FADD FORMS IN HUMAN COCAINE ADDICTION
  • RELEVANCE OF FAS/FADD REGULATION BY COCAINE AND ITS DOWNSTREAM SIGNALING
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Apoptosis
  • Key Facts of Cocaine Addiction
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Cocaine and Neuromolecular Imaging of Neurotransmitters in the Brain: BRODERICK PROBE® Laurate Nanobiosensors in Mesocorticolimbic Neurons and the Nucleus Accumbens: Sex and Genes
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COCAINE IS A PSYCHOSTIMULANT
  • ROLE OF NMI IN THE STUDY OF COCAINE
  • What Is NMI?
  • What Is New About NMI?
  • NMI Image Scanning with a Semiderivative Circuit
  • NMI Online with Open-Field Behavior
  • SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN COCAINE-INDUCED NEUROCHEMISTRY ONLINE WITH BEHAVIOR
  • Purpose of the Studies
  • Animals and Surgical Procedures
  • Neurochemistry
  • Behavior
  • ROLE OF THE ESTROUS CYCLE IN COCAINE-INDUCED RESPONSES
  • ROLE OF THE GENETIC FH ANIMAL MODEL OF DEPRESSION IN COCAINE ADDICTION: COMPARISON WITH THE SD STRAIN
  • Biogenic Amine and Motor Responses to Cocaine in FH Compared with SD Animals
  • Further Discussion on Anxiety Behavior in the FH versus the SD Strain: Another Connection to Drug Addiction and Self-Medication
  • Plausible Mechanisms for Gene/Neurotransmitter Interaction
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Modulators: Potential Agents for Treating Cocaine Addiction
  • INTRODUCTION: ADDRESSING THE NEED FOR TREATING COCAINE ABUSE
  • MGLU5 RECEPTOR: A BRIEF BACKGROUND
  • THE CYCLE OF DEVELOPING ADDICTION
  • THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF COCAINE
  • REPEATED COCAINE EXPOSURE LEADS TO SENSITIZATION TO THE EFFECTS OF COCAINE
  • COCAINE USE ESCALATES WITH EXPOSURE
  • WITHDRAWAL AND RELAPSE
  • WITHDRAWAL CREATES AN INCUBATION OF CRAVING
  • EXTINGUISHED COCAINE-SEEKING IS READILY REINSTATED
  • TWO APPROACHES TO TREATING COCAINE DEPENDENCE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCES MISUSE
  • CONCLUSION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Neuronal and Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine in Caenorhabditis elegans
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS HOMOLOGIES WITH MAMMALIAN DOPAMINERGIC SYNAPSES
  • AMPHETAMINE DIRECTLY MODULATES THE DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS
  • Amperometric Recordings in Caenorhabditis elegans Dopaminergic Neurons
  • AMPHETAMINE CAUSES BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS
  • AMPHETAMINE ACTIVATES TARGETS OTHER THAN THE DOPAMINERGIC SYSTEM TO GENERATE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS
  • ?-PHENYLETHYLAMINE AND AMPHETAMINE ACTIVATE THE SAME MOLECULAR TARGETS BUT VIA DIFFERENT KINETICS
  • APPLICATION TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Uptake, Binding, Release Experiments, and Michaelis-Menten Value (Km)
  • Keys Facts of Heterologous Expression System
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Amphetamines Activate G-Protein Coupled Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1): Implications for Understanding and Treating Psychostimulant Abuse
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DISCOVERY OF THE TRACE AMINE RECEPTOR
  • ANATOMIC LOCALIZATION
  • PHARMACOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRACE AMINE RECEPTOR
  • DRUG DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
  • For Profit
  • Not for Profit
  • IN VIVO STUDIES RELATED TO DRUG ABUSE
  • AMPH/METH
  • Cocaine
  • Ethanol
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT TAAR1
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Amphetamine and Signal Detection
  • INTRODUCTION
  • A PRIMER ON SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY
  • SENSITIVITY INDICES: D´, A´, SI, AND PERCENT CORRECT
  • AMPH EFFECTS ON SENSITIVITY
  • TERMINOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
  • DOSE EFFECTS OF AMPH
  • IMPLICATIONS OF AMPH EFFECTS ON SIGNAL DETECTION
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ON AMPH AND SIGNAL DETECTION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • 12 - The Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine on Brain Activity-Related Immediate Early Gene Expression
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Fos
  • Activity-Dependent Cytoskeleton Associated Protein (Arc)
  • Zif/268
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 13 - Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Abnormalities and Neuronal Apoptosis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • METH-INDUCED PSYCHOSIS
  • Induction of Positive and Negative Symptoms
  • Induction of Neurocognitive Deficits
  • METH-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY
  • Substantial Morphological Changes
  • Substantial Terminal Degeneration
  • Possibility of Neuronal Apoptosis
  • MODELS FOR METH-INDUCED PSYCHOSIS
  • Positive Symptoms
  • Behavioral Sensitization and Cognitive Deficits
  • Neurotoxicity (Figure 1)
  • Our Model (I) for METH-Induced Progressive Behavioral and Neuropathological Abnormalities (Figures 2 and 3)
  • NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DEFICITS AND METH-INDUCED PSYCHOSIS AND APOPTOSIS
  • Risk Factors for METH Psychosis
  • Neurodevelopmental GABAergic Deficits and Induction of Psychosis
  • A Hypothesis for Relating Neurodevelopmental GABAergic Deficits to METH-Induced Apoptosis (Figure 4)
  • Our Model (II) for Relating Neurodevelopmental GABAergic Deficits to Exacerbated METH-Induced Apoptosis (Figure 5)
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTORS OF METH-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 - Methamphetamine and the JAK/STAT Pathway
  • THE JAK/STAT SIGNALING PATHWAY IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW
  • Physiological Functions of the JAK/STAT Pathway
  • JAK/STAT Pathway in Neuropathologies
  • JAK/STAT PATHWAY AND METHAMPHETAMINE
  • Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity: A Quick Overview
  • Role of JAK/STAT Pathway on METH Neurotoxicity
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of METH
  • Key Facts of Noncanonical JAK/STAT Pathway
  • Key Facts of Neuroinflammation
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 15 - Methamphetamine and the Blood-Brain Barrier
  • BBB COMPOSITION AND FUNCTION: A QUICK OVERVIEW
  • Tight Junctions
  • Adherens Junctions
  • Transport Across Endothelial Cells
  • EFFECT OF METH ON BBB FUNCTION: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
  • Hyperthermia
  • Paracellular Permeability: Role of Tight Junctions
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • Energy Imbalance
  • Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress
  • Neuroinflammation and Autophagy
  • ADHESION MOLECULES AND TRANSENDOTHELIAL IMMUNE CELLS MIGRATION
  • METH ABUSE AND BRAIN INFECTION
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of the BBB
  • Key Facts of METH
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 16 - Melatonin Receptors as Modulators of Methamphetamine-Mediated Behaviors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • METHAMPHETAMINE
  • MELATONIN RECEPTORS
  • THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK AND DRUGS OF ABUSE
  • LOCOMOTOR SENSITIZATION
  • CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Melatonin
  • Key Facts of Circadian Rhythms
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 17 - Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE PROTEASOME IN METHAMPHETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY
  • THE E3 LIGASE PARKIN IN METHAMPHETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts About Methamphetamine (METH) Neurotoxicity
  • Key Facts About the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS)
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 18 - Methamphetamine and Neuronal Nitric Oxide
  • DEFINITION OF NEUROTOXICITY AND PRECLINICAL MODELS OF METHAMPHETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY
  • DEFINITION OF ADDICTION, THE STAGES OF ADDICTION AND ANIMAL MODELS OF METHAMPHETAMINE ADDICTION
  • METHAMPHETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY
  • NITRIC OXIDE, A NEUROTRANSMITTER WITH TWO FACES
  • Role of Nitric Oxide in Physiological Processes
  • Role of Nitric Oxide in Pathological Processes
  • ROLE OF NITRIC OXIDE IN METHAMPHETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT METHAMPHETAMINE AND NNOS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 19 - Candidate Genes of Chromosome 18q21, Methamphetamine, and Psychosis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts about Methamphetamine Abuse
  • Key Facts about SNPs
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • C - Structural and Functional Aspects
  • 20 - Structural and Functional Aspects of Stimulant Misuse and Addiction
  • INTRODUCTION
  • STRIATUM AND MIDBRAIN
  • STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ALTERATIONS OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX IN STIMULANT ADDICTION AND MISUSE
  • Orbitofrontal Cortex
  • Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
  • Inferior Frontal Cortex
  • Anterior Cingulate Cortex
  • Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
  • STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ALTERATIONS IN OTHER BRAIN REGIONS
  • The Insula
  • The Thalamus
  • The Amygdala
  • The Cerebellum
  • FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT ASPECTS OF STIMULANT MISUSE AND ADDICTION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 21 - Sleep and Cocaine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SUBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS
  • OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE SLEEP OUTCOMES
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP OUTCOMES AND COGNITION
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP OUTCOMES AND MOOD
  • SLEEP AND COCAINE USE OUTCOMES
  • NEUROBIOLOGY OF COCAINE-INDUCED SLEEP CHANGES
  • PHARMACOTHERAPY OPTIONS TARGETING SLEEP ABNORMALITIES
  • PSYCHOTHERAPY OPTIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SLEEP PROBLEMS IN COCAINE USERS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENTS OF SLEEP
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 22 - Motivations for Use of Crack Cocaine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COCAINE AND COCAINE DEPENDENCE
  • ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION
  • NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF MOTIVATIONS TO USE COCAINE
  • The Role of DA
  • PAVLOVIAN CUE-INDUCED CRAVINGS AND INSTRUMENTAL BEHAVIOR
  • SOCIAL FACTORS AND MEASURING MOTIVATIONS FOR COCAINE USE
  • RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • MOTIVATIONS FOR USE IN A MAINLY COCAINE-USING POPULATION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Route of Administration and Motivation to Use Cocaine
  • Key Facts about the Neurological Basis of Motivation to Use Cocaine
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 23 - Cocaine and Postmortem Levels in Neurological Tissues
  • INTRODUCTION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • Postmortem Distribution of Drugs
  • PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM
  • COC AND BZE CONCENTRATIONS IN NEUROLOGICAL TISSUES AND OTHER MATRICES
  • POSTMORTEM DISTRIBUTION OF COC AND BZE IN NEUROLOGICAL TISSUES
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF COCAINE ABUSE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 24 - Cerebral Gray Matter Volumes in Cocaine Dependence: Clinical and Functional Implications
  • NEUROINFLAMMATORY AND VASOACTIVE EFFECTS OF COCAINE
  • Cocaine-Induced Structural Brain Changes: An Overview
  • A Study of Cerebral Morphometry of Cocaine Dependence
  • Subjects and Assessments
  • Imaging Protocol, Spatial Preprocessing, and Modeling of Brain Images
  • Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM)
  • Results of VBM: Differences in GMV Between CD and HC
  • Discussion of Cerebral Morphometry in Cocaine Dependence
  • Discussion of Gender Differences in Cerebral Morphometry in Cocaine Addiction
  • Functional Implications of GMV Changes in Cocaine Addiction
  • Methodological Considerations and Conclusions
  • KEY FACTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 25 - The Rise of the Ego: Social Cognition and Interaction in Cocaine Users
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE ZURICH COCAINE COGNITION STUDY
  • BASAL COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS
  • COLOR VISION AND EARLY INFORMATION PROCESSING
  • SOCIAL COGNITION AND INTERACTION
  • Social Cognition
  • Social Interaction
  • Social Attitudes
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER SUBSTANCE ADDICTIONS AND MISUSES
  • CONCLUSION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF COCAINE USE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 26 - Amphetamine-Induced Psychosis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL ASPECTS
  • Neuropathobiology
  • Dopamine Model of Psychosis
  • Sensitization Phenomena
  • Susceptible Genes
  • Neuroimaging Findings
  • TREATMENT
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Amphetamine Use
  • Key Facts of Amphetamine-Induced Psychosis
  • Key Facts of Amphetamine-Induced Psychosis Symptoms
  • Key Facts of Amphetamine-Induced Psychosis Etiology
  • Key Facts of Amphetamine-Induced Psychosis Treatment
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 27 - The Role of Environmental Context in Amphetamine Abuse
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Environmental Conditioning and Amphetamine Abuse
  • Potential Mechanisms for Amphetamine-Induced Environmental Conditioning
  • Environmental Novelty and Amphetamine Abuse
  • Potential Mechanisms for the Novelty-Amphetamine Abuse Interactions
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Conditioning
  • Key Facts of Novelty Exposure
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 28 - Adolescent Exposure to Amphetamines and Vulnerability to Addiction
  • ADOLESCENCE: A TIME OF CHANGE
  • BEHAVIORAL ANTECEDENTS OF ADOLESCENT AMPHETAMINE (AMPH) USE
  • NEUROBIOLOGICAL PRECURSORS OF ADOLESCENT USE OF AMPHS
  • ADOLESCENTS AND AMPHS: USE AND ABUSE
  • ADOLESCENCE: A TIME OF HEIGHTENED VULNERABILITY?
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • CALL TO ACTION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF ADOLESCENCE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 29 - The Effect of Oxytocin on Methamphetamine Addiction
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Oxytocin and Methamphetamine
  • Synthesis and Release of Oxytocin
  • Oxytocin and Neural Function
  • Effect of OT on MAP-Induced Psychological Dependence and Other Neurobehavioral Changes
  • Self-Administration
  • Conditioned Place Preference
  • Behavioral Sensitization
  • Locomotor Activity
  • Mechanisms by Which OT Affects MAP-Induced Neurobehavioral Change
  • Changes in the Endogenous Oxytocinergic System
  • Effect of OT on the Mesolimbic Dopamine System
  • Effect of OT on the Glutamatergic System
  • New Research
  • Research Significance
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT MICRODIALYSIS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 30 - Peripheral Influences of Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS OF METHAMPHETAMINE
  • PERIPHERAL CONTRIBUTORS TO METH TOXICITY
  • Lungs
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Kidneys
  • Vasculature
  • GI Tract
  • Systemic Inflammation
  • IMPLICATIONS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT METHAMPHETAMINE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 31 - Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperlocomotion: A Focus on the Role of the Prefrontal Serotonergic System
  • INTRODUCTION
  • METH-INDUCED HYPERACTIVITY
  • THE ROLE OF PREFRONTAL MONOAMINE SYSTEMS IN METH-INDUCED HYPERACTIVITY
  • CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF METH
  • THE ROLE OF THE PREFRONTAL SEROTONERGIC SYSTEM IN METH-INDUCED BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF SEROTONERGIC SYSTEM
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 32 - 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methamphetamine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • USE OF 1H-MRS TO STUDY EFFECTS OF METHAMPHETAMINE USE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 33 - Neuropsychological Aspects of Methamphetamine Use Disorders and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF METHAMPHETAMINE AND HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS
  • METHAMPHETAMINE
  • Neurocognitive Profile of MA Use
  • Executive Functions
  • Learning and Memory
  • Psychomotor Speed
  • Attention and Working Memory
  • Visuospatial Abilities and Language
  • Social Cognition
  • Everyday Functioning among MA Users
  • HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS
  • Neuropsychological Profile of HIV
  • Executive Functions
  • Learning and Memory
  • Speed of Information Processing, Motor and Psychomotor Abilities
  • Attention and Working Memory
  • Visuospatial Abilities and Language
  • Social Cognition
  • Everyday Functioning in HIV
  • COMBINED EFFECTS OF MA AND HIV
  • Neurobiology of Combined MA and HIV
  • Neuroimaging in Comorbid MA and HIV
  • Neuropsychological Profile of Combined MA and HIV
  • Everyday Functioning in Combined MA and HIV
  • SPECIAL TOPICS
  • HIV, MA, and Aging in Combination
  • Intervention and Treatment of HIV+/MA+ Individuals
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of MA
  • Key Facts of HIV
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • D - Methods
  • 34 - Quantitative Colorimetric Assays for Methamphetamine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COLORIMETRIC ASSAYS FOR MA
  • QUANTIFICATION OF MA BY COLORIMETRIC ASSAY
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of MA
  • Key Facts of Quantitative Analysis
  • Key Facts of Colorimetry
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 35 - Assays for Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Blood
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS FOR METHAMPHETAMINE AND AMPHETAMINE
  • Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry
  • High-performance liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry
  • INTERNAL STANDARDS FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF METHAMPHETAMINE AND AMPHETAMINE
  • EXTRACTION METHOD FOR METHAMPHETAMINE AND AMPHETAMINE IN HUMAN BLOOD
  • Liquid-Liquid Extraction
  • Conventional LLE Procedures
  • Solid-Phase Extraction
  • Conventional SPE Procedures
  • New SPE Methods
  • SPE Tips
  • Molecularly Imprinted SPE
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of LLE
  • Key Facts of SPE
  • Key Facts of MIPs
  • Key Facts of HILIC
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • II - Club Drugs
  • A - General Aspects
  • 36 - Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Abuse and Dependence
  • GENERAL ASPECTS
  • Introduction
  • Therapeutic Indications
  • Manufacturing GHB
  • Routes of Administration
  • Epidemiology of GHB Abuse, Misuse, and Dependence
  • MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ASPECTS
  • Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of GHB
  • Molecular Basis of GHB Addiction
  • STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS
  • Acute and Chronic Effects
  • Tolerance and Dependence (Including Withdrawal Symptoms and Craving)
  • Recent Developments and Research Needed
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • B - Molecular and Cellular Aspects
  • 37 - Effects of Club Drugs on Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Systems: Use of [18F]FDOPA, [99mTc]TRODAT-1, and [I*]ADAM
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CLUB DRUGS AND THEIR IMAGING APPLICATIONS
  • Cocaine
  • Imaging of Endogenous DA in Cocaine Abusers
  • Imaging of DA Transporters
  • Imaging of Induced Excessive Presynaptic DA Release in Cocaine Abusers
  • Imaging of DA Synthesis: DOPA Decarboxylase
  • Imaging of SERTs
  • METHAMPHETAMINE
  • Imaging of DA Transporters
  • Imaging of DA Synthesis: DOPA Decarboxylase
  • KETAMINE
  • Imaging of DA Synthesis: DOPA Decarboxylase
  • Imaging of SERTs
  • ADVANCED MULTIMODALITIES OF MOLECULAR IMAGING: PET VERSUS QAR
  • Small Animal PET
  • Quantitative Autoradiography
  • NEUROIMAGING WITH SELECTED RADIOTRACERS
  • IMAGING OF DA SYNTHESIS
  • [18F]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine
  • Imaging of DA Transporter with [99mTc]TRODAT-1
  • IMAGING OF SERTS WITH [I*]ADAM
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 38 - MDMA and Glutamate: Implications for Hippocampal Neurotoxicity
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANISMS OF MDMA 5-HT TOXICITY
  • MDMA AND GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID TOXICITY
  • MDMA AND HIPPOCAMPAL GLUTAMATE
  • POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF MDMA GABA TOXICITY
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT MDMA ABUSE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 39 - MDMA (Ecstasy) and Gene Expression in the Brain: An Overview of Microarray and Candidate Gene Studies Assessing Transcriptional Changes in Rodents
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ACUTE MDMA ADMINISTRATION
  • REPEATED AND CHRONIC MDMA ADMINISTRATION
  • MDMA SELF-ADMINISTRATION
  • PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO MDMA
  • MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR EVENTS TRIGGERED BY EXPOSURE TO MDMA
  • Early Response to MDMA Administration (Up to 2 Hours)
  • Later Response to MDMA Administration (More than 8 Hours)
  • Long-Term Response to MDMA Administration (Several Days to Weeks)
  • APPLICATION TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts about Drugs of Abuse
  • Key Facts about Neurotransmission
  • Key Facts about Gene Expression
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 40 - Mitochondrial Trails in the Neurotoxic Mechanisms of MDMA
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN FUNCTION
  • Studies Linking Mitochondrial ETC Impairment to MDMA-Induced Neurotoxicity
  • Changes in ATP Levels
  • Production of Reactive Oxygen Species
  • THE OUTER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE ENZYME MAO
  • MDMA and MAO: Implications for Drug Neurotoxicity
  • MITOCHONDRIAL FUSION/FISSION
  • Studies Linking MDMA's Neuronal Effects to Alterations on Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission Equilibrium
  • NEURONAL MITOCHONDRIAL TRAFFICKING
  • Studies Linking MDMA's Neuronal Effects to Alterations in Mitochondrial Neuronal Trafficking
  • MITOCHONDRIAL REGULATORS AND APOPTOTIC PATHWAYS
  • Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptosis Triggered by MDMA
  • Role of Bcl-2 Superfamily of Proteins in Mediating MDMA-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis
  • Cytochrome c and Caspase Activation in MDMA-Induced Neuronal Death
  • Smac/DIABLO Involvement in MDMA-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis
  • AIF Involvement in MDMA-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT MITOCHONDRIA
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 41 - Flunitrazepam-Membrane Binding: A Sensor for Drug-Induced GABAA-R and Membrane Structure Changes
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Flunitrazepam Manufacture, Consumption, Use, and Misuse
  • Flunitrazepam Binding: a Structural Sensor of GABAA-R Protein and Membrane
  • GABAA Receptor Structure
  • GABAA-R Function
  • Modulation of [3H]-FNZ-Specific Binding: Allosteric Effects on GABAA-R
  • Modulation of [3H]-FNZ Nonspecific Binding: Effects on Membrane Structure and Dynamics
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT FNZ BINDING
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 42 - Neurotoxicity due to Repeated Comas Following Excessive Use of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MODE OF ACTION
  • INTOXICATIONS AND COMA
  • GHB-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY
  • Animal Studies
  • Human Studies
  • GHB, GENERAL ANESTHESIA, AND NEUROTOXICITY
  • OTHER SEDATIVE SUBSTANCES
  • DISCUSSION
  • ACCOUNTABILITY
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • C - Structural and Functional Aspects
  • 43 - The Behavioral Effects of MDMA in Humans Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MDMA'S CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF ACTION
  • A BRIEF HISTORY OF MDMA USE AND LEGAL CONTROL
  • CONCERNS ABOUT MDMA USE
  • HUMAN BEHAVIORAL PHARMACOLOGY STUDIES OF ACUTE MDMA EFFECTS
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
  • SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS
  • PSYCHOMOTOR AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ON STANDARDIZED COMPUTER TASKS
  • EFFECTS ON SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PROCESSING AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT MDMA AND ITS RECREATIONAL USE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 44 - Recreational Use of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Hippocampal Memory: A Focus on Imaging
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ACUTE PHARMACOLOGY OF MDMA AND POTENTIAL HARMFUL EFFECTS ON THE SEROTONERGIC SYSTEM
  • CHALLENGES IN THE INVESTIGATION OF HUMAN RECREATIONAL ECSTASY USERS
  • NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN RECREATIONAL ECSTASY USERS
  • IMAGING AND MOLECULAR GENETIC IMAGING PERSPECTIVES
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF RECREATIONAL ECSTASY USE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 45 - Catalepsy and Comparing Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate, 1,4-Butanediol, and Gamma-Butyrolactone
  • INTRODUCTION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF GHB AS A SUBSTANCE OF ABUSE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 46 - Epidemiology of Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Use and Misuse and Characteristics of GHB-Dependent Inpatients
  • GENERAL ASPECTS
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence of Use in the General Population
  • Prevalence of Use among Nightlife Visitors
  • Epidemiology of GHB Addiction
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF GHB USE
  • Setting and Characterization Recreational GHB Use
  • Setting and Characterization of Problematic GHB Use
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF GHB-DEPENDENT INPATIENTS
  • Characterization of GHB-Dependent Inpatients
  • Results of the Dutch GHB-Monitor
  • Lessons Learned and Future Research
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • D - Methods
  • 47 - Assays for MDMA and Its Metabolites
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MATRICES
  • SAMPLE PREPARATION
  • ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MDMA AND ITS METABOLITES
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
  • Gas Chromatography
  • Capillary Electrophoresis
  • Miscellaneous
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF MDMA
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 48 - Assays for Flunitrazepam
  • SAMPLES AND ANALYTES
  • Pharmacokinetic Data
  • Blood Samples
  • Urine Samples
  • Hair Samples
  • Oral Fluid
  • SAMPLE PREPARATION
  • ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
  • Immunoassays
  • Gas Chromatography
  • Liquid Chromatography
  • LC-DAD
  • LC-MS AND LC-MS/MS
  • CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS AND CAPILLARY ELECTROCHROMATOGRAPHY
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT CONJUGATED METABOLITES HYDROLYSIS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 49 - Detection of GHB by Optical Methods
  • INTRODUCTION
  • A COLORIMETRIC SENSOR ARRAY FOR THE DETECTION OF GHB
  • A FLUORESCENT SENSOR FOR THE DETECTION OF GHB
  • COMMERCIAL KITS FOR THE DETECTION OF GHB
  • Drink Safe Coaster
  • EZ Test Kits
  • Scott Kit
  • A FLUORESCENT SENSOR FOR THE PRODRUG OF GHB-GBL
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF GHB AND GBL OPTICAL SENSORS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • III - Dissociative Drugs
  • A - General Aspects
  • 50 - Ketamine Analgesia
  • INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND RECENT INTEREST
  • CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY
  • Chemical Structure
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • KETAMINE FOR TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC PAIN
  • Mechanism of Action
  • NMDA Receptor
  • Opioid Receptors
  • Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms and the IRR Receptor
  • Endogenous Pain Modulation
  • Clinical Trials
  • Imaging Studies
  • Cognitive Dysfunction
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR DRUG ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Chronic Pain
  • Key Facts of Analgesia
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 51 - The Plant Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae)-Chemistry and Pharmacology
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CHEMISTRY
  • PHARMACOLOGY
  • Binding Mode Studies of Salvinorin A
  • Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity of Salvinorin A
  • Current Use and Misuse of Salvia divinorum
  • Applications Toward Addiction and Substance Misuse
  • CONCLUSION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF THE KOR
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • B - Molecular and Cellular Aspects
  • 52 - Pathophysiology of Ketamine Neurotoxicity: An Overview
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANISM OF ACTION
  • CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • KETAMINE METABOLISM
  • GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS
  • NEUROPATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE KETAMINE
  • EXCITOTOXICITY
  • KETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 53 - Neurometabolic Profiling of Ketamine: Changes in Neurotransmitter Pools
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GLUTAMATE AND GLUTAMINE
  • DOPAMINE
  • ACETYLCHOLINE
  • GABA
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 54 - Impact of Early Life Ketamine Exposure on the Developing Brain and Cognitive Sequelae: A Discussion of Apoptotic Neurodegeneration Mechanisms
  • INTRODUCTION
  • KETAMINE PHARMACOLOGY
  • USE OF KETAMINE IN PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA
  • SIDE EFFECTS AND LIMITATIONS OF USING KETAMINE
  • KETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY IN THE DEVELOPING BRAIN AND THE RESULTING COGNITIVE DEFICITS
  • MOLECULAR MECHANISMS FOR KETAMINE-INDUCED NEUROAPOPTOSIS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF KETAMINE'S USE AS AN ANESTHETIC, ANALGESIC, AND ANTIDEPRESSANT
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 55 - Phencyclidine (Also Called Angel Dust or PCP) and the Firing Activity of Neurons
  • EFFECTS OF PCP ON ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM ACTIVITY
  • EFFECTS OF SYSTEMIC PCP ON NEURONAL FIRING
  • EFFECTS OF LOCALLY APPLIED PCP ON NEURONAL FIRING
  • A ROLE OF TONIC MPFC ACTIVATION IN PCP-INDUCED BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES
  • NEURAL MECHANISMS MEDIATING PCP-INDUCED EXCITATION OF MPFC NEURONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF PCP
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 56 - Phencyclidine (Angel Dust, PCP) and Fos Immunoreactivity
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SEROTONERGIC AND CHOLINERGIC INNERVATIONS ARE INVOLVED IN PCP-INDUCED HYPERLOCOMOTION
  • LACK OF PCP-INDUCED HYPERLOCOMOTION AND MOTOR IMPAIRMENT IN GLUN2D KNOCK OUT MICE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts About Angel Dust
  • Key Facts About NMDA Receptors
  • Key Facts About Fos
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 57 - Effect of Phencyclidine on Neuregulin Expression, Cortical Interneurons, and Redox Dysregulation
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EFFECT OF PCP ON NEUREGULIN-1 EXPRESSION AND CORTICAL INTERNEURONS
  • PCP-INDUCED REDOX DYSREGULATION IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • PV INTERNEURONS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF FREE RADICALS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Cortical Inhibition
  • Key Facts of PCP and Redox Dysregulation
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 58 - Involvement of Glutamate Transporters in Neuropathology of Phencyclidine Abuse
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES AND EXPRESSION CHANGES OF GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTER
  • PCP Administration During Adulthood
  • PCP Administration Perinatally
  • Combined Administration of Neonatal Polyriboinosinic-Polyribocytidylic acid and Adolescent PCP
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL LOCALIZATION AND REGULATION OF GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS, AND THE EFFICACY OF A GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTER INHIBITOR
  • Localization of Glutamate Transporters in the Brain
  • Regulation of Glial Glutamate Transporters in the Brain
  • Inhibitors of Glutamate Transporter
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTION/DEPENDENCE AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Glial Glutamate and Aspartate Transporter
  • Key Facts of Poly I:C
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • C - Structural and Functional Aspects
  • 59 - Antidepressant and Abuse Potential of Ketamine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • KETAMINE AS AN ANTIDEPRESSANT-BETTING ON THE WRONG HORSE?
  • Chemical Structure and Mechanisms of Action
  • Antidepressant-What Does the Evidence Say?
  • Why Methodology is Crucial in Ketamine Research
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • Prevalence and Symptoms
  • Neurobiological Changes after Long-Term Abuse of Ketamine
  • Impairment of Cognitive Functions after Chronic Use
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts on Major Depression
  • Key Facts on Bipolar Affective Disorder
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 60 - Ketamine and the Dissociatives: Comparisons with Schizophrenia
  • INTRODUCTION
  • KETAMINE
  • PSYCHOMIMETIC EFFECTS
  • GLUTAMATE AND DOPAMINE ACTION
  • OTHER NEUROTRANSMITTER ACTION
  • EXCITOTOXICITY
  • ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNATURES
  • CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 61 - Ketamine Mediates Psychosis through the Medial Septum, Hippocampus, and Nucleus Accumbens
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Ketamine in Humans
  • General Anesthetic, Psychotomimetic, and Antidepressant
  • Brain Areas and Activities Affected by Subanesthetic Ketamine
  • Schizophrenia
  • KETAMINE IN ANIMALS
  • Ketamine-Induced Psychosis-Relevant Behaviors and Symptoms
  • Septohippocampal-Accumbens Circuit and Ketamine-Induced Behaviors
  • The Septohippocampal-Accumbens System
  • Septohippocampal System and Behavioral Hyperactivity
  • Septohippocampal System and Prepulse Inhibition
  • Septohippocampal System and Gating of Hippocampal Auditory-Evoked Potentials
  • Gamma Activity in the Hippocampus
  • Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area
  • Medial Septal Lesion or Inactivation Attenuates Psychosis-Related Effects of an NMDA Receptor Antagonist
  • Other Brain Areas Involved in Ketamine's Psychosis-Related Behaviors
  • Frontal Cortex
  • Entorhinal Cortex and Amygdala
  • Medial Thalamus
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts on Measurements of Psychosis-Related Behaviors in Animals
  • Key Facts on the Involvement of the Septohippocampal-Accumbens System in Psychosis-Related Behaviors
  • Key Facts of Septohippocampal-Accumbens System Manipulations that Suppress Psychosis-Related Behaviors
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 62 - Recreational Use of Ketamine and Its Interaction with NMDA Receptors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NMDA RECEPTOR OVERVIEW
  • KETAMINE CHARACTERIZATION
  • KETAMINE PHARMACOLOGY
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • KETAMINE AND HUMAN ABUSE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 63 - Ketamine Usage at Subanesthetic Doses and Psychoactive Effects
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY AND PHARMACOLOGY
  • SUBANESTHETIC USE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • PSYCHOACTIVE EFFECTS
  • CONCLUSION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT SUBANESTHETIC KETAMINE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 64 - The Acute and Chronic Effects of Ketamine as Revealed by Noninvasive Brain Imaging
  • INTRODUCTION
  • METHODS
  • Noninvasive Levels of Observation
  • Anatomical MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • Task fMRI
  • Resting-State fMRI
  • Positron Emission Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • RESULTS
  • Animal Studies
  • Human Study
  • MRS in Schizophrenia
  • MRS in Depression
  • Acute Effect of a Subanesthesia Dose of Ketamine Infusion
  • Positron Emission Tomography
  • Functional MRI
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Delayed Ketamine Effects
  • Monitoring Acute and Delayed Effects
  • Regional Specificity in the Context of Receptor Fingerprints and Functional Neuroanatomy
  • Chronic Effect of Ketamine Use
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • CONCLUSION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts About Ketamine
  • Key Facts About MRI
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 65 - Psychosis Induced by Phencyclidine (Also Called PCP or Angel Dust)
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • TREATMENT
  • COURSE AND PROGNOSIS
  • ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND PHARMACOLOGY
  • Pharmacology of PCP-Induced Psychosis
  • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ACUTE AND CHRONIC PCP EXPOSURE
  • EFFECTS OF PCP EXPOSURE ON NEUROTRANSMISSION
  • Effects on Glutamatergic and ?-Aminoubutyric Acid (GABA)ergic Neurotransmission
  • Effects of PCP on Dopaminergic Neurotransmission
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Dysfunctions of the PFC and Related Brain Regions in PCP-induced Psychosis and Schizophrenia
  • Possibility of Dysfunction in the Hippocampal-Prefrontal Pathway
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP)-INDUCED PSYCHOSIS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 66 - Serotonin Projections, the Dorsal and Median Raphe Nuclei, and Phencyclidine (Also Called Angel Dust or PCP)
  • INTRODUCTION: PHENCYCLIDINE
  • SEROTONIN AND ITS PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE
  • CENTRAL SEROTONERGIC NEURONS AND PROJECTIONS
  • SEROTONIN RECEPTORS IN THE CNS
  • ANIMAL MODELS MIMICKING ILLICIT DRUG-INDUCED BEHAVIORS
  • EFFECTS OF RAPHE LESIONS ON BRAIN SEROTONIN CONCENTRATIONS AND THE ACTION OF PHENCYCLIDINE
  • LOCALIZATION OF THE ROLE OF BRAIN SEROTONIN PROJECTIONS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS, MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX, AND AMYGDALA IN PHENCYCLID...
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF SEROTONIN IN PSYCHOSIS THROUGH THE STUDY OF PHENCYCLIDINE EFFECTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 67 - Phencyclidine (PCP)-Induced Deficits in Novel Object Recognition
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Novel Object Recognition (NOR)
  • PCP MODELS OF COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
  • Pharmacological Prevention and Reversal of PCP-Induced NOR Deficit by Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs
  • PCP-Induced Neuropathology That Contributes to NOR Deficit
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT PHENCYCLIDINE AND NOVEL OBJECT RECOGNITION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • DISCLOSURES/ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 68 - Behavioral and Psychological Effects of Salvia divinorum: A Focus on Self-Reported Subjective Acute Behavioral Effects and Laboratory Studies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PREVALENCE AND USE PATTERNS FOR SALVIA DIVINORUM
  • SELF-REPORTED SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS OF SALVIA DIVINORUM
  • OBSERVED ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF SALVIA DIVINORUM
  • HUMAN SUBJECTS LABORATORY STUDIES WITH SALVINORIN A
  • SUMMARY OF RESEARCH
  • Rewarding Effects of Salvia divinorum and SA
  • Adverse Events with Salvia divinorum Use
  • APPLICATION TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF SALVIA DIVINORUM
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 69 - The Widely Available Hallucinogenic Plant Salvia divinorum and Its Main Component, Salvinorin A: A Unique ?-Opioid Receptor (KOP-r) Agonist with Powerful Behavioral and Neurobiological Effects
  • INTRODUCTION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT THE ?-OPIOID RECEPTOR (KOP-R)/DYNORPHIN SYSTEM
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • D - Methods
  • 70 - Enzyme Immunoassay for Salvinorin A (a Main Component in Salvia divinorum)
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Synthesis of a Sal B-BSA Conjugate and Direct Determination of the Hapten-Carrier Protein Conjugates with MALDI-TOF-MS
  • Production and Characteristics of mAbs Against Sal A
  • Establishment of icELISA Using Anti-Sal A mAb
  • Variation and Accuracy of the icELISA Using Anti-Sal A mAb 3D5
  • Analysis of S. divinorum and Several Lamiaceae Plants with icELISA Using Anti-Sal A mAb 3D5
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT SALVINORIN A
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • IV - Hallucinogens
  • A - General Aspects
  • 71 - Hallucinogenic Plants in the Mediterranean Countries
  • PHALARIS AQUATICA
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT PHALARIS AQUATICA
  • PEGANUM HARMALA
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT PEGANUM HARMALA
  • ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA AND ANADENANTHERA PEREGRINA
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA AND ANADENANTHERA PEREGRINA
  • PLANTS CONTAINING ATROPINE AND SCOPOLAMINE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT PLANTS CONTAINING ATROPINE AND SCOPOLAMINE
  • MANDRAGORA OFFICINARUM
  • ATROPA BELLADONNA
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • HYOSCYAMUS NIGER
  • DATURA STRAMONIUM
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • 72 - Use of LSD by Mental Health Professionals
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SELF-EXPERIMENTS WITH MESCALINE IN THE FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA
  • LSD RESEARCH IN THE FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA
  • THE PSYCHIATRIC DEPARTMENT OF THE GENERAL UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN PRAGUE
  • Context
  • Theoretical Orientation
  • Research
  • Impact
  • PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC IN SADSKÁ
  • Context
  • Theoretical Orientation
  • Research
  • Impact
  • PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN PRAGUE
  • Context
  • Theoretical Orientation
  • Research
  • Impact
  • PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL IN KROMERÍZ
  • Context
  • Theoretical Orientation
  • Research
  • Impact
  • REFLECTIONS OF THOSE INVOLVED IN LSD SELF-EXPERIMENTATION
  • RENEWED HALLUCINOGEN RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Mescaline
  • LSD
  • Self-Experimentation
  • Psychedelic Approach
  • Psycholytic Approach
  • Psychomimetic Approach
  • Experimental Approach
  • Entheogenetic Approach
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 73 - Neurobiology of the Effects of Psilocybin in Relation to Its Potential Therapeutic Targets
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Characteristics of Psilocybin and Its Position Among Other Hallucinogens
  • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
  • Pro-Psychotic Potential of Psilocybin
  • NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSILOCYBIN'S ACTION
  • The Mechanism of Action of Psilocybin in the Brain
  • Psilocybin as a Model of Psychosis
  • THERAPEUTIC TARGETS
  • Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Potential
  • Dependence Treatment
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Cluster Headache
  • NEW INSIGHTS
  • Brain Imaging Data from Recent Studies
  • Psilocybin and Brain Entropy
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Altered States of Consciousness
  • Model of Psychosis
  • Terminal Depression
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Cluster Headache
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 74 - A Profile of Those Who Use Hallucinogenic Mushrooms
  • INTRODUCTION
  • RECREATIONAL USE
  • SELF-MEDICATION
  • ACCIDENTAL INGESTION
  • SUMMARY/DISCUSSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOM USE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • B - Molecular and Cellular Aspects
  • 75 - Molecular and Cellular Basis of Hallucinogen Action
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORICAL POINT OF VIEW
  • CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
  • RECEPTOR TARGET
  • SIGNALING MECHANISMS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF HALLUCINOGEN ACTION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 76 - Hallucinogens: Circuits, Behavior, and Translational Models
  • NEURONAL CIRCUITS
  • TRANSCRIPTOME FINGERPRINT AS HALLUCINOGEN PREDICTOR
  • BEHAVIOR MODELS
  • CLINICAL POTENTIAL
  • Alcoholism
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Cluster Headache
  • NEW HALLUCINOGENS AND THEIR POTENTIAL RISK
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF HALLUCINOGEN ACTION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 77 - Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Effects of Psychedelic Drugs
  • DISCOVERY OF ADULT NEUROGENESIS
  • THE ANATOMY OF HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS
  • REGULATION OF NEUROGENESIS IN THE DG
  • SEROTONERGIC INNERVATION IN THE DG
  • SEROTONIN AND NEUROGENESIS IN THE DG
  • EFFECTS OF PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS ON HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS
  • Psilocybin
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy)
  • Cannabinoids
  • Phencyclidine
  • THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ALTERED HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS INDUCED BY PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS
  • SUMMARY
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS AND HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • C - Structural and Functional Aspects
  • 78 - Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mystical Experiences
  • INTRODUCTION: LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE IN THE CONTEXT OF OTHER PSYCHEDELIC AGENTS
  • PHARMACOKINETIC ASPECTS OF LSD AND OTHER PSYCHEDELICS
  • THE PSYCHEDELIC TRIP
  • RISKS OF PSYCHEDELIC DRUG USE
  • PSYCHEDELIC MYSTICAL EXPERIENCES
  • MECHANISMS OF LSD ACTION
  • DISCOVERY OF THE PSYCHEDELIC PROPERTIES OF LSD
  • LSD AND A "MODEL PSYCHOSIS"
  • LSD AS A CHEMICAL CATALYST FOR CHANGE
  • LSD, MYSTICISM, AND SOCIETY
  • LSD AND MYSTICAL EXPERIENCES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
  • TWO SIDES OF LSD
  • APPLICATIONS TO ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • 79 - Tolerance to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Overview, Correlates, and Clinical Implications
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TOLERANCE TO LSD IN HUMANS
  • Tolerance to LSD's Psychedelic Effect
  • Tachyphylaxis to LSD's Psychedelic Effect
  • Tolerance to LSD's Somatic Effects
  • Withdrawal and Recovery from Tolerance to LSD
  • Concluding Remarks on Tolerance to LSD in Humans
  • TOLERANCE TO LSD IN ANIMALS
  • Tolerance to LSD-Induced Shaking Behavior in Mammals
  • Tolerance to LSD-Induced Limb Flicking in Cats
  • Tolerance to LSD-Induced Hallucinogenic Pausing in Rats
  • Concluding Remarks on Tolerance to LSD in Animals
  • POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF TOLERANCE TO LSD
  • Pharmacokinetic Adaptations
  • Pharmacodynamic Adaptations
  • Learning-Related Adaptations
  • Concluding Remarks on Mechanisms of Tolerance to LSD
  • PATHOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS OF REPEATED LSD ADMINISTRATION
  • Concluding Remarks on Clinical Implications of Repeated LSD Administration
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF LSD
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 80 - Schizophrenia Modeling Using Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
  • THE HISTORY OF LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE, SEROTONIN, AND MENTAL DISEASE
  • HUMAN MODELS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA AND PSYCHOSIS USING LSD
  • EARLY ANIMAL MODELS
  • CURRENT RODENT MODELS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA OR PSYCHOSIS USING LSD
  • SUMMARY
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 81 - Psilocybin and Peak Experiences
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PEAK EXPERIENCES
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PSILOCYBIN
  • EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
  • NATURALISTIC INVESTIGATIONS
  • LONG-TERM EFFECTS
  • MECHANISMS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER HALLUCINOGENS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • CONCLUSION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF PSILOCYBIN HISTORY
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 82 - Psilocybin as an Inducer of Ego Death and Similar Experiences of Religious Provenance
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SCHIZOPHRENIA-LIKE PSYCHOSIS AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES
  • THE PHENOMENON OF EGO DEATH
  • POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF EGO DEATH PRACTICING FOR SOCIAL LIFE
  • PSILOCYBIN-INDUCED PSYCHOSIS AND EGO DEATH
  • PSILOCYBIN-INDUCED COGNITIVE DEFICITS AND ITS ONEIROGENIC ACTIVITY
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF SCIENTIFIC INTEREST ON PSILOCYBIN AS AN ADJUVANT IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND RELIGIOUS PRACTICES
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 83 - Psilocybin, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, Mescaline, and Drug-Induced Synesthesia
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DRUG-INDUCED SYNESTHETIC EXPERIENCES AND OTHER HALLUCINOGENIC EFFECTS
  • THE CAUSAL ROLE OF SEROTONIN RECEPTORS IN HALLUCINOGENIC EFFECTS
  • THE MECHANISMS OF DRUG-INDUCED SYNESTHESIA
  • INHIBITION AND EMBODIED COGNITION
  • CONCLUSION
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Functional Connectivity
  • Key Facts of 5-HT2A Receptors
  • Key Facts of the Therapeutic Effects of Hallucinogens
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • D - Methods
  • 84 - Assays for Detection of Fungal Hallucinogens Such as Psilocybin and Psilocin
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PREPARATION OF FUNGAL SAMPLES
  • PRELIMINARY QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
  • PURIFICATION AND ISOLATION
  • PREPARATION AND PRELIMINARY PURIFICATION OF BODY FLUID SAMPLES
  • DERIVATIZATION OF A SAMPLE
  • QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT PSILOCIN/PSILOCYBIN ISOLATION FROM NATURAL SOURCES AND FINDINGS REGARDING THEIR BIOSYNTHESIS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • V - Anabolic Steroids, Inhalants and Solvents
  • A - General Aspects
  • 85 - Inhalant Use Disorders in the United States
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INHALANT USE IN THE UNITED STATES
  • ACUTE INHALANT INTOXICATION
  • INHALANT USE DISORDER
  • NATURAL HISTORY OF INHALANT USE DISORDER
  • CORRELATES OF INHALANT USE
  • PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
  • Commonly Abused Inhalants and Modes of Use
  • Toxicokinetic Findings
  • Neurobiological Effects
  • Behavioral Effects of Exposure
  • Reinforcing Effects
  • NEUROPATHOLOGY AND OTHER ORGAN PATHOLOGY
  • SCREENING AND ASSESSMENT
  • TREATMENT
  • PREVENTION
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF INHALANT USE IN THE UNITED STATES
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • B - Molecular and Cellular Aspects
  • 86 - The Neuropathology of Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid Abuse: Altered Development of the Reciprocal Hypothalamic Neural Circuit Controlling Aggressive Behavior
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Adolescence, Aggression, and AAS: from Humans to Animals
  • Adolescence
  • Aggression
  • AAS
  • Reciprocal Hypothalamic Neural Circuitry Controlling Aggression
  • Hypothalamic Interactions
  • Neuropathology of Adolescent AAS: Altered Development of the Reciprocal Hypothalamic Neural Circuit Controlling Aggression
  • Hypothalamic and Extrahypothalamic Interactions
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Anabolic Steroid Abuse
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 87 - Addiction to, Neurobiology of, and Genetics of Inhalants
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANISMS OF ACTION
  • GENETIC MARKERS FOR INHALANT ABUSE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF INHALANT ADDICTION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 88 - The Effects of Abused Inhalants on Neurons Within the Addiction Neurocircuitry of the Brain
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITION AND CLASSES OF ABUSED INHALANTS
  • PATTERNS OF ABUSED INHALANT USE
  • PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH USE OF ABUSED INHALANTS
  • NEUROBEHAVIORAL REPERCUSSIONS OF ABUSED INHALANTS
  • MOLECULAR TARGETS OF ABUSED INHALANTS
  • EFFECTS OF ABUSED INHALANTS ON NEURONS IN THE ADDICTION NEUROCIRCUITRY
  • Glutamatergic Neurons in the PFC
  • VTA DA Neurons
  • Medium Spiny Neurons of the NAc
  • SUMMARY
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSES
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts of Abused Inhalants
  • Key Facts of DA
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • C - Structural and Functional Aspects
  • 89 - Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Stroke
  • STROKE
  • General Considerations
  • Classification and Etiological Subtypes of Ischemic Stroke
  • Stroke in Young Patients
  • ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS
  • Structure, Main Function, and Consumption
  • History of AAS
  • Current Status of AAS Consumption
  • STROKE AND AAS
  • Relevant Effects of AAS That May Increase Stroke Risk
  • Direct Effects on Cardiac Function
  • Vascular Indirect Effects: Proatherogenic and Prothrombotic Effects
  • AAS Usage and Impact on Stroke Pathogenesis
  • STROKE ASSOCIATED WITH OTHER DRUG ADDICTIONS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF STROKE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 90 - Testosterone and Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TESTOSTERONE: NEUROTOXIC OR NEUROPROTECTANT AGENT?
  • TESTOSTERONE AND NSDA NEUROTOXICITY: BACKGROUND
  • TESTOSTERONE OR ESTROGEN?
  • TESTOSTERONE: MODULATION OF STRIATAL DOPAMINERGIC FUNCTION
  • Behavioral Effects
  • Transporter Effects
  • Heat-Shock Protein Effects
  • Hyperthermia
  • Infarct Effects
  • TESTOSTERONE: NEUROTOXICITY MECHANISMS AS REVEALED IN OTHER MODELS
  • TESTOSTERONE: INTRACELLULAR VERSUS MEMBRANE EFFECTS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 91 - Acute and Long-Term Toxicity Caused by Addictive Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide and Impact on Neuropathology
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PHARMACOKINETICS OF NITROUS OXIDE
  • RECEPTOR MECHANISM OF ACTION
  • TOXICITY AND ADDICTION TO NITROUS OXIDE
  • DEATH DUE TO NITROUS OXIDE ACUTE INTOXICATION
  • IMPACT OF HYPOXEMIA ON THE BRAIN OR NEUROLOGICAL TISSUE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF NITROUS OXIDE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 92 - Toluene Abuse and White Matter Degeneration
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HUMAN WHITE MATTER DAMAGE DOCUMENTED BY IMAGING AND AUTOPSY
  • IS TOLUENE THE OFFENDING COMPOUND?
  • ANIMAL MODELS OF TOLUENE OR SOLVENT EXPOSURE AND WHITE MATTER
  • PATHOGENESIS OF WHITE MATTER DAMAGE CAUSED BY TOLUENE
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF TOLUENE ABUSE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 93 - Chronic Toluene Exposure and the Hippocampal Structure in Adolescent and Adult Brains
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CHRONIC EFFECT OF TOLUENE EXPOSURE DEPENDS ON THE AGE OF THE ORGANISM TESTED
  • CHRONIC TOLUENE EXPOSURE AND LONG-TERM OUTCOMES
  • ADDICTION AND THE HIPPOCAMPUS
  • TOLUENE ADDICTION AND THE HIPPOCAMPUS
  • CHRONIC TOLUENE MISUSE AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS
  • DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES OF HIPPOCAMPAL AREAS TO CHRONIC TOLUENE EXPOSURE
  • IMMEDIATE AND PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF CHRONIC TOLUENE EXPOSURE IN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF TOLUENE EFFECTS ON THE HIPPOCAMPAL STRUCTURE
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • VI - International Aspects
  • 94 - Addictions in India
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TRADITIONAL SUBSTANCES OF USE IN INDIA
  • Alcohol
  • Cannabis
  • Opium
  • Tobacco
  • CHANGING SCENARIO IN THE LAST HALF CENTURY
  • Newer Opioids
  • Club Drugs
  • Volatile Solvents
  • Amphetamine-Type Stimulants
  • Technology Addiction
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS IN INDIA
  • National-Level Community-Based Studies
  • Prevalence among the Treatment-Seeking Population
  • Prevalence in Non-Treatment-Seeking Population
  • ADDICTION RESEARCH IN INDIA
  • Research on Clinical Aspects
  • Biological Research
  • Research in Treatment-Related Areas
  • CONTROL MEASURES IN INDIA
  • CONCLUSION
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts About the Drug Abuse Monitoring System (DAMS)
  • Key Facts About Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST)
  • Key Facts About Brief Interventions
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 95 - Correlates and Gender Differentials of Opium Use Among Tribal Communities
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TRADITIONAL BELIEFS OF TRIBES
  • HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON SUBSTANCE USE
  • SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS
  • OPIUM USE AND GENDER DIFFERENTIALS
  • CORRELATES OF OPIUM USE
  • AGE OF INITIATION
  • RISK OF OPIUM USE
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • 96 - Genetic Aspects of Smoking Behavior in the Japanese Population
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NICOTINE-METABOLIZING ENZYMES
  • NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS
  • DOPAMINE PATHWAY
  • MISCELLANEOUS
  • GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS AND POLYMORPHISMS IN SMOKING BEHAVIORS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS OF THE MEASUREMENT OF NICOTINE ADDICTION
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 97 - New Designer Drugs in Japan
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE PREVALENCE OF NEW DESIGNER DRUGS AND THEIR LEGAL STATUS IN JAPAN
  • Drug Controls in Japan
  • Prevalence of New Designer Drugs Before 2007
  • Prevalence of New Designer Drugs After 2007
  • Changes in the Structures of Synthetic Cannabinoids and Cathinones After the Introduction of Generic Scheduling
  • Recent Emergence of Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Other New Psychoactive Substances
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SHARING REGARDING NEW PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 98 - Addictions in South America
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PRODUCTION
  • Cocaine
  • Marijuana
  • Opioids
  • Designer Drugs
  • TRAFFICKING AND DISTRIBUTION
  • Cocaine
  • Marijuana
  • Opioids
  • Designer Drugs
  • CONSUMPTION
  • Cocaine
  • Marijuana
  • Opioids
  • Designer Drugs
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS
  • Harmful Consumption
  • Risky Consumption
  • DEVIDA
  • Black Tar Heroin
  • VRAEM
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • 99 - Inhalant Drug Use and Street Youth: Ethnographic Insights from Mexico City*
  • NORMALCY OF INHALANTS IN MEXICO CITY
  • SOLVENTS AND GLUES
  • INHALANT USE AND YOUTH
  • THE "TASTE" FOR "THAT JUNK"
  • VICIO AND INHALANT FIENDS
  • APPLICATION TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE USE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT INHALANT DRUG USE
  • Key Facts About a Medical Anthropology of Inhalant Use
  • Key Facts About Harm Reduction Policies
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 100 - Illegal Stimulants Use in Brazil: Epidemiological Aspects and Possible Reasons for High Consumption of Crack/Cocaine and Amphetamine-type Stimulants
  • INTRODUCTION
  • RESULTS
  • Snorted Cocaine Consumption
  • Smoked Cocaine Consumption
  • Consumption of Cocaine in the Previous Year (Age Group 15-59years)
  • Cocaine Dependence
  • Associated Factors
  • ATS Consumption
  • FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • KEY FACTS ABOUT COCAINE USE IN BRAZIL
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 101 - Addiction in Thailand
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ALCOHOL
  • TOBACCO
  • METHAMPHETAMINE
  • CANNABIS, KRATOM, INHALANTS, OPIOIDS
  • APPLICATIONS TO OTHER ADDICTIONS AND SUBSTANCE MISUSE
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 102 - Misuse of Benzodiazepines in France
  • INTRODUCTION
  • OVERVIEW OF BENZODIAZEPINE USE IN EUROPE AND IN FRANCE
  • PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL VIEW OF BENZODIAZEPINE EXPOSURE IN FRANCE
  • Modalities of Prescription and Delivery of Marketed BZD in France
  • French Population Exposed to BZDs and Main Characteristics of BZD Users
  • Adverse Effects of Benzodiazepine Exposure
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF BENZODIAZEPINE USE AMONG POPULATION SUBGROUPS
  • BZD Use among Elderly Individuals
  • BZD Use among Opiate Maintenance Treatment Users
  • BZD Detoxification
  • BZD DIVERSION IN FRANCE
  • Methods of Obtaining BZD
  • Monitoring of BZD Abuse Using a Multi-indicator Approach
  • Illustration with Flunitrazepam
  • Illustration with Clonazepam
  • Illustration with Clorazepate
  • Illustration with Zolpidem
  • INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES TO REDUCE BENZODIAZEPINE MISUSE IN FRANCE
  • CONCLUSION
  • KEY FACTS
  • Key Facts About Benzodiazepine Exposure in France
  • Keys Facts About Benzodiazepine Prescription in France
  • Keys Fact of Benzodiazepine Diversion in France
  • SUMMARY POINTS
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Dateiformat: PDF
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

170,17 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
Hinweis: Die Auswahl des von Ihnen gewünschten Dateiformats und des Kopierschutzes erfolgt erst im System des E-Book Anbieters
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