Sampling and Analysis of Environmental Chemical Pollutants

A Complete Guide
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 15. Dezember 2017
  • |
  • 436 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-803203-9 (ISBN)
 

Sampling and Analysis of Environmental Chemical Pollutants, A Complete Guide, Second Edition promotes the knowledge of data collection fundamentals and offers technically solid procedures and basic techniques that can be applied to daily workflow solutions. The book's organization emphasizes the practical issues facing the project scientist. In focusing the book on data collection techniques that are oriented toward the project objectives, the author clearly distinguishes the important issues from the less relevant ones. Stripping away the layers of inapplicable or irrelevant recommendations, the book centers on the underlying principles of environmental sampling and analytical chemistry and summarizes the universally accepted industry practices and standards.

This Guide is a resource that will help students and practicing professionals alike better understand the issues of environmental data collection, capitalize on years of existing sampling and analysis practices, and become more knowledgeable and efficient in the task at hand.

  • The three phases of environmental chemical data collection (planning, implementation, and assessment) are explained in a logical and concise manner.
  • A discussion on the physical and chemical properties of environmental chemical pollutants promotes the understanding of their fate and transport.
  • A chapter on common analytical chemistry techniques, methods of compound quantitation, and laboratory quality control and quality assurance may be used as a standalone introduction to instrumental analytical chemistry.
  • Eleven case studies demonstrate the application of the Data Quality Objectives process to the development of sampling designs and illustrate specific data interpretation problems.
  • Numerous call-out boxes in each chapter offer practical tips on widely used industry practices, which originate from years of experience in the field.
  • Appendices contain the most frequently used action levels and reference material, calculation aides, and useful field forms and checklists.
  • Authored by an analytical chemist and environmental pollutant expert with more than 30 years of experience in research and industry.


Emma Popek, PhD, is a practicing professional with a broad experience in all aspects of environmental data collection: analytical chemist specializing in oil fingerprinting; environmental laboratory director; field analytical services manager overseeing mobile laboratories in remote locations; and program QA manager in charge of technical documentation, field data collection, and data interpretation and reporting.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
  • 8,44 MB
978-0-12-803203-9 (9780128032039)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Sampling and Analysis of Environmental Chemical Pollutants
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Introduction to the Second Edition
  • 1 The Sample and the Error
  • 1.1 The Concept of Relevant and Valid Data
  • 1.1.1 Planning
  • 1.1.2 Implementation
  • 1.1.3 Assessment
  • 1.2 Importance of a Stepwise Approach
  • 1.3 Seven Steps of the Sample's Life
  • 1.4 Total Error and Its Sources
  • 1.4.1 Sampling Error
  • 1.4.2 Non-sampling Error
  • 1.5 Total Error and Data Usability
  • 1.5.1 Data Quality Indicators and Acceptance Criteria
  • 2 Environmental Chemical Pollutants
  • 2.1 Pollutant Classification
  • 2.2 Physical and Chemical Properties as Fate and Transport Indicators
  • 2.2.1 Molecular Weight, Molecular Structure, and Density
  • 2.2.2 Water Solubility
  • 2.2.3 Vapor Pressure
  • 2.2.4 Henry's Law Constant as a Measure of Volatility
  • 2.2.5 Sorption
  • 2.2.6 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
  • 2.2.7 Natural Attenuation
  • 2.2.8 Pollutant Half-Life
  • 2.3 Volatile Organic Compounds
  • 2.3.1 General Properties
  • 2.3.2 Fate and Transport of VOCs
  • 2.3.2.1 Biodegradation of chlorinated solvents
  • Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation
  • Reductive dechlorination
  • Cometabolism
  • 2.3.3 Common VOC Pollutants
  • 2.3.3.1 Gas-vinyl chloride
  • 2.3.3.2 Water-miscible liquid-acetone
  • 2.3.3.3 Aromatic hydrocarbons-benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes
  • 2.3.3.4 Chlorinated hydrocarbons-carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, trichloroethene, and tetrachloroethene
  • 2.4 Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • 2.4.1 The Stockholm Convention
  • 2.4.2 Organochlorine Pesticides
  • 2.4.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • 2.4.4 Dioxins and Furans
  • 2.4.5 Summary of POPs Toxicity
  • 2.4.5.1 Organochlorine pesticides
  • 2.4.5.2 Dioxins and furans
  • 2.4.5.3 Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • 2.4.5.4 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • 2.5 Toxic Metals
  • 2.6 Action Levels and Regulatory Overview
  • 2.6.1 Action Levels
  • 2.6.2 Effluent Discharge Limitations
  • 2.6.3 Maximum Contaminant Levels
  • 2.6.4 Risk-Based Action Levels
  • 2.6.5 Hazardous Waste Regulatory Levels
  • 2.6.6 PCB Cleanup Levels
  • 3 Bird's Eye View of Project Planning
  • 3.1 What Are Data Quality Objectives?
  • 3.1.1 Step 1-State the Problem
  • 3.1.2 Step 2-Identify the Goal of the Study
  • 3.1.3 Step 3-Identify Information Inputs
  • 3.1.4 Step 4-Define the Boundaries of the Study
  • 3.1.5 Step 5-Develop the Analytic Approach
  • 3.1.6 Step 6-Specify Performance or Acceptance Criteria
  • 3.1.6.1 Step 6A-Probability limits for decision errors
  • Determine the range of contaminant concentrations
  • Choose the null hypothesis
  • Examine the consequences of making an incorrect decision
  • Specify a gray region
  • Assign probability values to points above and below the action level
  • 3.1.6.2 Step 6B-Performance metrics and acceptable levels of uncertainty
  • 3.1.7 Step 7-Develop the Plan for Obtaining Data
  • 3.1.8 DQO Process in Simple Terms
  • 3.2 Sampling Design
  • 3.2.1 Sample Types
  • 3.2.2 Probabilistic Sampling
  • 3.2.3 Judgmental Sampling
  • 3.2.4 PCB Sampling Designs
  • 3.2.4.1 Cleanup verification on a grid for multiple sources
  • 3.2.4.2 Single point source
  • 3.3 Definitive, Screening, and Effective Data
  • 3.4 Data Quality Indicators
  • 3.4.1 Precision
  • 3.4.2 Accuracy
  • 3.4.3 Representativeness
  • 3.4.4 Comparability
  • 3.4.5 Completeness
  • 3.4.5.1 Analytical completeness
  • 3.4.5.2 Sampling completeness
  • 3.4.5.3 Holding time completeness
  • 3.4.6 Sensitivity
  • 3.4.7 Secondary Data Quality Indicators
  • 3.5 Field QC/QA Samples
  • 3.5.1 Trip Blanks
  • 3.5.2 Field Duplicates
  • 3.5.3 Equipment Blanks
  • 3.5.4 Temperature Blanks
  • 3.5.5 Ambient Blanks
  • 3.5.6 Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike Duplicate
  • 3.5.7 QA Samples
  • 3.6 How to Navigate the Analytical Method Maze
  • 3.6.1 Consensus Methods
  • 3.6.2 Methods for Water Compliance Monitoring
  • 3.6.3 Methods for Drinking Water Analysis
  • 3.6.4 Methods for Hazardous Waste Analysis
  • 3.6.5 Contract Laboratory Program
  • 3.6.6 Petroleum Fuel Analysis
  • 3.6.7 Performance-Based Measurement Systems
  • 3.7 Analytical Method and Laboratory Selection
  • 3.8 Cost Estimate
  • 3.9 Planning Documents
  • 3.9.1 QAPP Elements and Format
  • 3.9.2 SAP Format
  • 3.9.3 Laboratory Statement of Work
  • 3.10 Preparedness and Coordination
  • 4 Practical Approach to Sampling
  • 4.1 Seven Steps of the Sampling Process
  • 4.2 Sample Custody and Tracking
  • 4.2.1 Chain-of-Custody Form
  • 4.2.2 Sample Numbering and Labeling
  • 4.2.3 Sample Tracking
  • 4.3 Sample Preservation Methods
  • 4.3.1 Sample Containers
  • 4.3.2 Temperature Control and Chemical Preservation
  • 4.3.3 Holding Time
  • 4.4 Sample Packing and Shipment
  • 4.5 Soil Sampling Designs
  • 4.5.1 Laying Out a Sampling Grid
  • 4.5.1.1 Square grid
  • 4.5.1.2 Hexagonal grid
  • 4.5.2 Sampling From Excavation Pits
  • 4.5.3 Stockpile Sampling
  • 4.5.3.1 Determining stockpile volume
  • Conical or pyramidal stockpile
  • Elongated stockpile
  • 4.5.3.2 Stockpile sampling on a grid
  • 4.6 Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds
  • 4.6.1 Soil With Low VOC Concentrations
  • 4.6.1.1 Sampling with ACDs
  • 4.6.1.2 Sampling into 40-mL preweighed autosampler vials
  • 4.6.2 Soil With High VOC Concentrations
  • 4.6.2.1 Methanol preservation in the field
  • 4.7 Sampling for Semivolatile Organic and Inorganic Compounds
  • 4.7.1 Homogenization and Compositing
  • 4.8 Water Sampling
  • 4.8.1 Reactions in Water Samples
  • 4.8.2 Groundwater Sampling
  • 4.8.2.1 Well stabilization parameters
  • 4.8.2.2 Filtration
  • 4.8.2.3 Conventional sampling
  • Selecting equipment
  • Well volume calculations
  • Sampling supplies
  • Well volume measurements
  • Well purging
  • Sampling with a bailer
  • Postsampling activities
  • 4.8.2.4 Low-flow micropurge technique
  • Well volume measurements
  • Well purging
  • Low-flow micropurge sampling
  • Postsampling activities
  • 4.8.2.5 Field preservation
  • Samples for VOC analysis
  • Samples for inorganic and metals analysis
  • 4.8.2.6 Summary of groundwater sampling
  • 4.8.3 Surface Water Sampling
  • 4.8.3.1 Shallow surface water sampling
  • 4.8.3.2 Deep surface water sampling
  • 4.8.4 Tap Water Sampling
  • 4.9 Surface Sampling With Wipes
  • 4.10 Equipment Decontamination
  • 4.10.1 Decontamination of Water Sampling Equipment
  • 4.10.2 Decontamination of Soil Sampling Equipment
  • 4.11 Field Measurements
  • 4.11.1 Water Quality Parameters
  • 4.11.1.1 Temperature and pH
  • 4.11.1.2 Conductivity
  • 4.11.1.3 Dissolved oxygen
  • 4.11.1.4 Turbidity
  • 4.11.1.5 Oxidation-reduction potential
  • 4.11.2 Organic Vapor Detectors
  • 4.12 Field Screening Methods
  • 4.12.1 Immunoassay and Colorimetric Screening Kits
  • 4.12.2 XRF Screening
  • 4.13 Field Records
  • COC Form
  • Field Notebooks and Sampling Forms
  • Photolog
  • 5 Understanding the Analytical Laboratory
  • 5.1 Requirements for Laboratory Operation
  • 5.2 Laboratory Organization
  • 5.3 The Seven Steps of Laboratory Process
  • 5.3.1 Step 1-Sample Receiving
  • 5.3.2 Step 2-Sample Storage
  • 5.3.3 Step 3-Sample Preparation
  • 5.3.4 Step 4-Sample Analysis
  • 5.3.5 Step 5-Data Reduction, Verification, and Reporting
  • 5.3.5.1 Manual integration of chromatography data
  • 5.3.5.2 Units of measurements
  • 5.3.5.3 Significant figures
  • 5.3.5.4 Rules for rounding off
  • 5.3.5.5 Moisture correction
  • 5.3.6 Step 6-Internal Data Review
  • 5.3.6.1 Tier 1-Technical review
  • 5.3.6.2 Tier 2-Peer or supervisor review
  • 5.3.6.3 Tier 3-QA review
  • 5.3.6.4 Importance of internal review
  • 5.3.7 Step 7-Data Package and EDD Preparation
  • 5.3.7.1 Data management errors
  • 5.4 Compound Quantitation
  • 5.4.1 Detection, Quantitation, and Reporting Limits
  • 5.4.1.1 Instrument detection limit
  • 5.4.1.2 Method detection limit
  • 5.4.1.3 Limit of detection
  • 5.4.1.4 LOQ and LLOQ
  • 5.4.1.5 Reporting limit
  • 5.4.1.6 Contract required quantitation limits
  • 5.4.1.7 Reporting undetected compounds
  • 5.4.2 Importance of Calibration
  • 5.4.2.1 Rules of calibration
  • 5.4.2.2 Internal and external standard calibration
  • External standard calibration
  • Internal standard calibration
  • Calculations of sample concentrations
  • Linear external or internal calibration analytical sequence
  • Linear regression and nonlinear calibration analytical sequence
  • 5.5 Analytical Techniques and Their Applications
  • 5.5.1 Gas Chromatography
  • 5.5.1.1 Detector selectivity and sensitivity
  • 5.5.1.2 Flame ionization detector
  • 5.5.1.3 Photoionization detector
  • 5.5.1.4 Nitrogen-phosphorus detector
  • 5.5.1.5 Electrolytic conductivity detector
  • 5.5.1.6 Electron capture detector
  • 5.5.1.7 Flame photometric detector
  • 5.5.1.8 Mass spectrometer
  • 5.5.2 Liquid Chromatography
  • 5.5.2.1 UV/VIS photometer
  • 5.5.2.2 Diode array detector
  • 5.5.2.3 Fluorometer
  • 5.5.2.4 Mass spectrometer
  • 5.5.2.5 Ion chromatography
  • 5.5.3 Compound Confirmation in Chromatography Methods
  • 5.5.3.1 Qualitative confirmation
  • 5.5.3.2 Quantitative confirmation
  • 5.5.4 Trace Element Analysis
  • 5.5.4.1 Inductively coupled plasma methods
  • 5.5.4.2 Atomic absorption methods
  • Flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption
  • Cold vapor mercury analysis
  • Arsenic and selenium gaseous hydride analysis
  • 5.5.4.3 Laboratory contamination in elemental analysis
  • 5.5.4.4 Subtleties of digestion procedures
  • Total recoverable metals in aqueous samples
  • Dissolved metals in aqueous samples
  • Total metals in aqueous samples
  • Total metals in solid samples
  • Microwave digestion
  • 5.5.4.5 Matrix interference detection techniques
  • Serial dilution test
  • Post-digestion spike addition or recovery test
  • Method of standard additions
  • Internal standards
  • 5.6 Laboratory Quality Assurance
  • 5.6.1 Laboratory Quality Control Samples and Their Meaning
  • 5.6.1.1 Laboratory batch
  • 5.6.1.2 Laboratory blanks
  • 5.6.1.3 Laboratory control samples
  • 5.6.1.4 Matrix spikes
  • 5.6.1.5 Laboratory duplicates
  • 5.6.1.6 Surrogate standards
  • 5.6.1.7 Internal standards
  • 5.6.2 Initial Demonstration of Capability
  • 5.6.3 System and Performance Audits
  • 6 Data Quality Assessment
  • 6.1 Data Evaluation
  • 6.1.1 Data Qualifiers
  • 6.2 The Seven Steps of Data Evaluation
  • 6.2.1 Step 1-Examine Sample Management Records
  • 6.2.2 Step 2-Verify Methods, Analytes, and Reporting Limits
  • 6.2.3 Step 3-Establish Calibration Acceptability
  • 6.2.4 Step 4-Evaluate Laboratory QC Check Sample Results
  • 6.2.5 Step 5-Examine Method Blanks
  • Rule 1
  • Rule 2
  • Rule 3
  • Rule 4
  • 6.2.6 Step 6-Review Sample Results
  • 6.2.7 Step 7-Assess the DQI Parameters
  • 6.2.8 Validation Versus Review
  • 6.2.8.1 Level 4 validation
  • 6.2.8.2 Cursory review
  • 6.3 The Seven Steps of the DQA
  • 6.3.1 Step 1-Verify Type and Quantity of Collected Data
  • 6.3.2 Step 2-Verify Data Package Content
  • 6.3.3 Step 3-Evaluate and Tabulate Data
  • 6.3.4 Step 4-Interpret Field Quality Control Sample Data
  • 6.3.4.1 Trip and equipment blanks
  • 6.3.4.2 Field duplicates
  • Water duplicates
  • Soil duplicates
  • 6.3.5 Step 5-Assess Comparability and Completeness
  • 6.3.5.1 Comparability
  • 6.3.5.2 Completeness
  • 6.3.6 Step 6-Reconcile Data With the DQOs
  • 6.3.6.1 Determination of valid and relevant data quantity
  • 6.3.6.2 Statistical evaluation of data
  • 6.3.7 Step 7-Prepare DQAR
  • Appendix 1 Priority Toxic Pollutants and Priority Substances
  • Appendix 2 Maximum Concentrations of Contaminants for the Toxicity Characteristics
  • Appendix 3 List of California Toxic Substances, Their Soluble Threshold Limit Concentrations, and Total Threshold Limit Con...
  • Appendix 4 PCB Cleanup Levels for Various Matrices
  • Appendix 5 Definitions of Basic Statistical Terms
  • Appendix 6 Example of a Sampling and Analysis Plan Table of Contents
  • Appendix 7 Example of Field Sampling Supplies and Equipment Checklist for Soil Sampling
  • Appendix 8 Example of a Chain-of-Custody Form
  • Appendix 9 Examples of a Custody Seal and a Sample Label
  • Appendix 10 Example of a Sample Tracking Log
  • Appendix 11 Analytical Method References, Containers, Preservation, and Holding Time for Soil Samples
  • Appendix 12 Analytical Method Requirements, Sample Containers, Preservation, and Holding Time for Water Samples
  • Appendix 13 Stockpile Statistics Worksheet
  • Appendix 14 Example of a Sample Container Tracking Log
  • Appendix 15 Example of a Groundwater Sampling Form
  • Appendix 16 Example of a Monitoring Well Sampling Sheet (Micropurge)
  • Appendix 17 Example of a Laboratory Cooler Receipt Form
  • Appendix 18 Gas Chromatography/High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis Data Package Content
  • Appendix 19 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis Data Package Content
  • Appendix 20 Trace Element Analysis Data Package Content
  • Appendix 21 Inorganic Compound Analysis Data Package Content
  • Appendix 22 Calculations Used for Compound Quantitation
  • Appendix 23 Data Evaluation Checklist-Organic Compound Analysis
  • Appendix 24 Data Evaluation Checklist-Trace Element Analysis
  • Appendix 25 Data Evaluation Checklist-Inorganic Compound Analysis
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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