Microbiology in Dairy Processing

Challenges and Opportunities
 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 14. September 2017
  • |
  • 352 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-11497-0 (ISBN)
 
An authoritative guide to microbiological solutions to common challenges encountered in the industrial processing of milk and the production of milk products
Microbiology in Dairy Processing offers a comprehensive introduction to the most current knowledge and research in dairy technologies and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and dairy associated species in the fermentation of dairy products. The text deals with the industrial processing of milk, the problems solved in the industry, and those still affecting the processes. The authors explore culture methods and species selective growth media, to grow, separate, and characterize LAB and dairy associated species, molecular methods for species identification and strains characterization, Next Generation Sequencing for genome characterization, comparative genomics, phenotyping, and current applications in dairy and non-dairy productions.
In addition, Microbiology in Dairy Processing covers the Lactic Acid Bacteria and dairy associated species (the beneficial microorganisms used in food fermentation processes): culture methods, phenotyping, and proven applications in dairy and non-dairy productions. The text also reviews the potential future exploitation of the culture of novel strains with useful traits such as probiotics, fermentation of sugars, metabolites produced, bacteriocins. This important resource:
* Offers solutions both established and novel to the numerous challenges commonly encountered in the industrial processing of milk and the production of milk products
* Takes a highly practical approach, tackling the problems faced in the workplace by dairy technologists
* Covers the whole chain of dairy processing from milk collection and storage though processing and the production of various cheese types
Written for laboratory technicians and researchers, students learning the protocols for LAB isolation and characterisation, Microbiology in Dairy Processing is the authoritative reference for professionals and students.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 4,70 MB
978-1-119-11497-0 (9781119114970)
1119114977 (1119114977)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Palmiro Poltronieri, PhD, is a Researcher at the Institute of the Sciences of Food Productions (CNR-ISPA), National Research Council of Italy. He obtained his Ph.D. in Cellular and Molecular Biology and Pathology in 1995 at the Institute of Chemical Biology, Medical Faculty of Verona University. Working in the Microbiology laboratory since 1999, he has established collaboration with the principal laboratories working in the field of food microbiology.
1 - Title Page [Seite 7]
2 - Copyright Page [Seite 8]
3 - Contents [Seite 9]
4 - List of contributors [Seite 17]
5 - Foreword [Seite 21]
6 - Preface [Seite 23]
7 - Acknowledgements [Seite 25]
8 - Chapter 1 Milk fat components and milk quality [Seite 27]
8.1 - 1.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 27]
8.1.1 - 1.1.1 Milk fat globules [Seite 28]
8.1.2 - 1.1.2 Milk fat and fatty acid composition [Seite 30]
8.2 - 1.2 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 33]
8.3 - References [Seite 33]
9 - Chapter 2 Spore-forming bacteria in dairy products [Seite 37]
9.1 - 2.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 37]
9.2 - 2.2 THE BACTERIAL SPORE [Seite 39]
9.2.1 - 2.2.1 Structure and chemical composition of bacterial spores [Seite 40]
9.2.1.1 - 2.2.1.1 Exosporium [Seite 40]
9.2.1.2 - 2.2.1.2 Spore coat [Seite 40]
9.2.1.3 - 2.2.1.3 Outer spore membrane [Seite 41]
9.2.1.4 - 2.2.1.4 Cortex and germ cell wall [Seite 41]
9.2.1.5 - 2.2.1.5 Inner spore membrane [Seite 41]
9.2.1.6 - 2.2.1.6 The core spore [Seite 41]
9.2.2 - 2.2.2 Spore resistance [Seite 42]
9.2.3 - 2.2.3 Life cycle of spore?forming bacteria [Seite 43]
9.3 - 2.3 SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA IMPORTANT FOR THE DAIRY INDUSTRY [Seite 44]
9.3.1 - 2.3.1 Class Bacilli [Seite 44]
9.3.1.1 - 2.3.1.1 Bacillus genus [Seite 45]
9.3.1.2 - 2.3.1.2 Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus genera [Seite 50]
9.3.1.3 - 2.3.1.3 Paenibacillus genus [Seite 51]
9.3.2 - 2.3.2 Class Clostridia [Seite 51]
9.3.2.1 - 2.3.2.1 Clostridium botulinum [Seite 52]
9.3.2.2 - 2.3.2.2 Clostridium perfringens [Seite 54]
9.3.2.3 - 2.3.2.3 Clostridium tyrobutyricum and related species [Seite 54]
9.4 - 2.4 CONTROL STRATEGIES TO PREVENT POISONING AND SPOILAGE OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS BY SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA [Seite 56]
9.5 - 2.5 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 57]
9.6 - References [Seite 58]
10 - Chapter 3 Psychrotrophic bacteria [Seite 63]
10.1 - 3.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 63]
10.2 - 3.2 SOURCES OF PSYCHROTROPHIC BACTERIA CONTAMINATION OF MILK [Seite 64]
10.3 - 3.3 IMPORTANT SPOILAGE PSYCHROTROPHIC BACTERIA IN MILK [Seite 68]
10.4 - 3.4 MOLECULAR TOOLS TO CHARACTERIZE PSYCHROTROPHIC BACTERIA [Seite 69]
10.5 - 3.5 INFLUENCE OF PSYCHROTROPHIC CONTAMINATION OF RAW MILK ON DAIRY PRODUCT QUALITY [Seite 71]
10.5.1 - 3.5.1 Bacterial proteases and proteolytic changes in milk [Seite 72]
10.5.2 - 3.5.2 Bacterial lipases and phospholipases and their significance in milk [Seite 75]
10.6 - 3.6 REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES [Seite 78]
10.7 - 3.7 CONTROL OF PSYCHROTROPHIC BACTERIA AND RELATED ENZYMES [Seite 79]
10.8 - 3.8 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 80]
10.9 - References [Seite 80]
11 - Chapter 4 Stabilization of milk quality by heat treatments [Seite 89]
11.1 - 4.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 89]
11.2 - 4.2 THERMAL TREATMENTS OF MILK [Seite 89]
11.2.1 - 4.2.1 Thermization [Seite 89]
11.2.2 - 4.2.2 Pasteurization [Seite 90]
11.2.3 - 4.2.3 Grade A pasteurized milk [Seite 92]
11.3 - 4.3 MILK STERILIZATION [Seite 93]
11.3.1 - 4.3.1 Control of proper time/temperature setting for safety of milk and milk products [Seite 93]
11.4 - 4.4 DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH UNPASTEURIZED MILK, OR POST-PASTEURIZATION DAIRY-PROCESSING CONTAMINATION [Seite 94]
11.5 - 4.5 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 94]
11.6 - References [Seite 94]
12 - Chapter 5 Genomics of LAB and dairy-associated species [Seite 97]
12.1 - 5.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 97]
12.2 - 5.2 GENOMICS OF LAB AND DAIRY-ASSOCIATED SPECIES [Seite 97]
12.2.1 - 5.2.1 Next?generation sequencing of strains, dairy starter genomics and metagenomics [Seite 98]
12.2.2 - 5.2.2 Pacific Bioscience single-molecule real-time sequencing technology [Seite 99]
12.2.3 - 5.2.3 Illumina MySeq and HiSeq 2000 [Seite 99]
12.2.4 - 5.2.4 Ion Torrent platform [Seite 99]
12.3 - 5.3 NGS PLATFORM APPLIED TO SEQUENCING OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES [Seite 100]
12.3.1 - 5.3.1 Pangenomics [Seite 100]
12.3.2 - 5.3.2 Omic technologies: transcriptomics, proteomics, functional genomics, systems biology [Seite 101]
12.4 - 5.4 METABOLOMICS AND PROTEOMICS [Seite 102]
12.4.1 - 5.4.1 Subcellular localisation (SLC): secretion systems for secreted proteins [Seite 103]
12.4.2 - 5.4.2 Interactome for cell adhesion and pathogen exclusion [Seite 104]
12.4.3 - 5.4.3 LAB peptidome [Seite 105]
12.5 - 5.5 COMPARATIVE GENOMICS OF DAIRY-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA: THE LACTOBACILLUS GENUS COMPLEX, STREPTOCOCCI/LACTOCOCCI, ENTEROCOCCI, PROPIONIBACTERIA AND BIFIDOBACTERIA [Seite 105]
12.5.1 - 5.5.1 Comparative genomics of Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. casei [Seite 109]
12.5.2 - 5.5.2 Lb. casei core genome and ecotype differences in dairy adapted strains [Seite 110]
12.6 - 5.6 CLUSTERED REGULARLY Interspaced Short PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR) IN ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY [Seite 110]
12.7 - 5.7 REGULATION IN CARBON METABOLISM [Seite 111]
12.7.1 - 5.7.1 Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation in carbon metabolism [Seite 111]
12.7.2 - 5.7.2 Two-component systems and phosphorylation in sugar substrate regulation [Seite 112]
12.7.3 - 5.7.3 Regulatory RNAs and alternative sigma factors in gene expression [Seite 113]
12.8 - 5.8 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 114]
12.9 - References [Seite 114]
13 - Chapter 6 Metabolism and biochemistry of LAB and dairy-associated species [Seite 123]
13.1 - 6.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 123]
13.2 - 6.2 CARBOHYDRATE SUBSTRATES, GLYCOLYSIS AND ENERGY PRODUCTION [Seite 124]
13.2.1 - 6.2.1 Pentose phosphate pathway [Seite 125]
13.2.2 - 6.2.2 Citrate fermentation [Seite 125]
13.3 - 6.3 PROTEOLYSIS, PROTEIN SUBSTRATES AND AMINO ACID AVAILABILITY INFLUENCING GENE EXPRESSION [Seite 126]
13.3.1 - 6.3.1 Cell-envelope proteinases: the Prt system [Seite 127]
13.3.2 - 6.3.2 Oligopeptide permeases and other transporters for peptides and amino acids [Seite 127]
13.3.3 - 6.3.3 Peptidolysis and free amino acids [Seite 128]
13.3.4 - 6.3.4 Peptidolysis and catabolite repression [Seite 131]
13.3.5 - 6.3.5 Amino acid biosynthesis and auxotrophy [Seite 131]
13.4 - 6.4 LIPOLYSIS, LIPASES, ESTERASES [Seite 132]
13.5 - 6.5 AROMA AND FLAVOUR PRODUCTS OF METABOLISM [Seite 133]
13.5.1 - 6.5.1 Aldehydes, alcohols and carboxylic acids [Seite 136]
13.5.2 - 6.5.2 Amino acids as precursor flavour compounds [Seite 138]
13.6 - 6.6 NONENZYMATIC PRODUCTION OF FLAVOURS [Seite 139]
13.7 - 6.7 METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF FLAVOURS IN DAIRY PRODUCTS: HPLC, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS ANALYSIS (GC/MS) [Seite 140]
13.8 - 6.8 NATURAL BIODIVERSITY OF STRAINS IN DAIRY PRODUCTIONS [Seite 141]
13.9 - 6.9 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 142]
13.10 - References [Seite 143]
14 - Chapter 7 Growth needs and culture media for LAB and dairy-associated species [Seite 149]
14.1 - 7.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 149]
14.2 - 7.2 ESTABLISHED CULTURE MEDIA FOR LACTOBACILLI [Seite 149]
14.2.1 - 7.2.1 Rogosa agar [Seite 150]
14.2.2 - 7.2.2 MRS medium [Seite 151]
14.2.3 - 7.2.3 Skim milk and whey agar [Seite 151]
14.3 - 7.3 M17 MEDIUM FOR SELECTION AND ENUMERATION OF LACTOCOCCI AND STREPTOCOCCI [Seite 152]
14.3.1 - 7.3.1 St. thermophilus agar [Seite 152]
14.4 - 7.4 SELECTIVE MEDIA FOR LACTOBACILLI [Seite 153]
14.4.1 - 7.4.1 MRS vancomycin [Seite 153]
14.4.2 - 7.4.2 Additional selective agents [Seite 154]
14.4.3 - 7.4.3 MRSV plus selective agents for Lb. casei group enumeration [Seite 155]
14.4.4 - 7.4.4 MRS-salicin, MRS-sorbitol, MRS-ribose, MRS gluconate agar [Seite 155]
14.4.5 - 7.4.5 MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin agar [Seite 155]
14.4.6 - 7.4.6 MMV medium for Lb. casei group enumeration [Seite 156]
14.4.7 - 7.4.7 MRS containing fructose (MRSF) [Seite 156]
14.4.8 - 7.4.8 mMRS-BPB [Seite 157]
14.4.9 - 7.4.9 MRS-NNLP agar and chromogenic agars for complex communities [Seite 157]
14.4.10 - 7.4.10 Homofermentative-heterofermentative differential medium [Seite 157]
14.5 - 7.5 MEDIA FOR THE ISOLATION OF BIFIDOBACTERIA [Seite 158]
14.5.1 - 7.5.1 MRS-NNLP agar [Seite 159]
14.5.2 - 7.5.2 BSM, WSP, TOS-MUP [Seite 159]
14.5.3 - 7.5.3 MRS-ABC [Seite 160]
14.6 - 7.6 PHENOTYPING [Seite 160]
14.7 - 7.7 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 161]
14.8 - References [Seite 161]
15 - Chapter 8 LAB species and strain identification [Seite 165]
15.1 - 8.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 165]
15.2 - 8.2 GENOTYPIC FINGERPRINTING METHODS [Seite 166]
15.3 - 8.3 CULTURE-DEPENDENT APPROACHES [Seite 168]
15.3.1 - 8.3.1 Random amplification of polymorphic DNA [Seite 168]
15.3.2 - 8.3.2 ARDRA and RFLP [Seite 169]
15.3.3 - 8.3.3 Ribotyping [Seite 169]
15.3.4 - 8.3.4 Repetitive element sequence-based PCR [Seite 170]
15.3.5 - 8.3.5 Amplified fragment length polymorphism [Seite 171]
15.3.6 - 8.3.6 Pulsed field gel electrophoresis [Seite 171]
15.4 - 8.4 NON-GENOTYPIC FINGERPRINTING METHODS [Seite 172]
15.5 - 8.5 CULTURE-INDEPENDENT APPROACHES [Seite 173]
15.5.1 - 8.5.1 Culture-independent methods for qualitative analysis of dairy foods microbiota [Seite 173]
15.5.2 - 8.5.2 Culture-independent methods for quantitative analysis of dairy foods microbiota [Seite 176]
15.6 - 8.6 NOVEL HIGH-THROUGHPUT TECHNIQUES: SEQUENCING AND METAGENOMICS [Seite 177]
15.7 - 8.7 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 178]
15.8 - References [Seite 178]
16 - Chapter 9 LAB strains with bacteriocin synthesis genes and their applications [Seite 187]
16.1 - 9.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 187]
16.2 - 9.2 BACTERIOCINS FROM LAB [Seite 187]
16.3 - 9.3 POTENTIAL FOR USE OF LAB BACTERIOCINS AS FOOD PRESERVATIVES [Seite 190]
16.4 - 9.4 BACTERIOCINS PRODUCED BY DAIRY LAB [Seite 191]
16.5 - 9.5 IDENTIFICATION OF LAB-PRODUCING BACTERIOCINS [Seite 194]
16.6 - 9.6 A NOVEL APPROACH FOR SCREENING LAB BACTERIOCINS [Seite 196]
16.7 - 9.7 BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR BACTERIOCIN ENGINEERING [Seite 197]
16.8 - 9.8 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 198]
16.9 - References [Seite 198]
17 - Chapter 10 Starter strains and adjunct non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) in dairy products [Seite 203]
17.1 - 10.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 203]
17.2 - 10.2 CONTROLLED FERMENTATION [Seite 203]
17.2.1 - 10.2.1 Natural versus selected lactic acid bacteria starters [Seite 204]
17.2.2 - 10.2.2 Starter strains: selection parameter approaches and strain concept [Seite 205]
17.2.3 - 10.2.3 Starter culture formulation [Seite 206]
17.3 - 10.3 ADJUNCT NON-STARTER LACTIC ACID BACTERIA [Seite 207]
17.3.1 - 10.3.1 Biodiversity and adaptation to cheese environment [Seite 207]
17.3.2 - 10.3.2 Prospective in industrial application [Seite 208]
17.3.3 - 10.3.3 Biopreservation and health benefits [Seite 209]
17.4 - 10.4 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 211]
17.5 - References [Seite 211]
18 - Chapter 11 Milk fat: stability, separation and technological transformation [Seite 217]
18.1 - 11.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 217]
18.1.1 - 11.1.1 Composition and physical state of milk fat [Seite 218]
18.1.2 - 11.1.2 Melting point of milk fat [Seite 220]
18.2 - 11.2 PHYSICAL INSTABILITY OF MILK FAT [Seite 220]
18.3 - 11.3 MILK FAT SEPARATION [Seite 221]
18.3.1 - 11.3.1 Flocculation or natural creaming [Seite 221]
18.3.2 - 11.3.2 Milk fat separation by centrifugation [Seite 223]
18.4 - 11.4 PARTIAL COALESCENCE [Seite 225]
18.4.1 - 11.4.1 General aspects [Seite 225]
18.4.2 - 11.4.2 Barrier against coalescence [Seite 227]
18.4.2.1 - 11.4.2.1 Low molecular mass surfactants [Seite 227]
18.4.2.2 - 11.4.2.2 Large sized surfactants (casein micelle) [Seite 228]
18.4.2.3 - 11.4.2.3 Polymeric surfactants (proteins and polysaccharides) [Seite 229]
18.4.2.4 - 11.4.2.4 Mixed films [Seite 229]
18.5 - 11.5 FOAM IN MILK AND CREAM [Seite 230]
18.5.1 - 11.5.1 General aspects [Seite 230]
18.5.1.1 - 11.5.1.1 Foam formation without surfactants [Seite 230]
18.5.1.2 - 11.5.1.2 Foam formation with surfactants [Seite 231]
18.5.1.3 - 11.5.1.3 Drainage of dispersion liquid in foam [Seite 232]
18.5.2 - 11.5.2 Foam from cream containing more than 30% milk fat [Seite 233]
18.6 - 11.6 WHIPPED CREAM AND BUTTER [Seite 235]
18.6.1 - 11.6.1 Technological factors affecting whipped cream and butter production [Seite 235]
18.7 - 11.7 CHURNING PROCESS [Seite 236]
18.7.1 - 11.7.1 Type of cream [Seite 236]
18.7.2 - 11.7.2 Physical (crystallization) and biological maturation of cream before churning [Seite 238]
18.7.3 - 11.7.3 Churning technology [Seite 241]
18.7.4 - 11.7.4 Continuous churning [Seite 242]
18.7.5 - 11.7.5 Moulding and packaging [Seite 243]
18.8 - 11.8 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 243]
18.9 - References [Seite 244]
19 - Chapter 12 Biological traits of lactic acid bacteria: industrial relevance and new perspectives in dairy applications [Seite 245]
19.1 - 12.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 245]
19.2 - 12.2 SELECTING FERMENTING BACTERIA FOR THEIR ABILITY TO HAVE A RESPIRATORY METABOLISM [Seite 246]
19.3 - 12.3 SELECTING GALACTOSE-POSITIVE YOGURT CULTURES: WORKING "AGAINST THE NATURAL EVOLUTION OF THE SPECIES" [Seite 247]
19.4 - 12.4 ACCELERATING THE MILK ACIDIFICATION PROCESS BY SELECTING PROTEINASE-POSITIVE STRAINS [Seite 248]
19.5 - 12.5 ACCELERATING THE MILK ACIDIFICATION PROCESS BY SELECTING UREASE-NEGATIVE S. thermophilus STRAINS [Seite 250]
19.6 - 12.6 PROTECTIVE CULTURES FOR DAIRY APPLICATIONS: "WORK BUT PLEASE DO NOT GROW AND DO NOT MODIFY THE SENSORY PROFILE OF THE PRODUCT" [Seite 251]
19.7 - 12.7 SELECTION OF STARTER CULTURE FREE OF TRANSFERABLE ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE MECHANISMS [Seite 253]
19.8 - 12.8 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 254]
19.9 - References [Seite 255]
20 - Chapter 13 Lactic acid bacteria bacteriophages in dairy products: problems and solutions [Seite 259]
20.1 - 13.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 259]
20.2 - 13.2 PHAGE CLASSIFICATION [Seite 260]
20.3 - 13.3 PHAGE-HOST INTERACTIONS [Seite 262]
20.4 - 13.4 SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION [Seite 264]
20.4.1 - 13.4.1 Milk and cheese whey [Seite 264]
20.4.2 - 13.4.2 Dairy cultures [Seite 265]
20.4.2.1 - 13.4.2.1 The lysogenic state [Seite 265]
20.5 - 13.5 PHAGE DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION [Seite 266]
20.6 - 13.6 METHODS TO CONTROL PHAGE CONTAMINATION [Seite 268]
20.6.1 - 13.6.1 Phage inactivation by physical treatments [Seite 268]
20.6.2 - 13.6.2 Phage inactivation by chemical treatments [Seite 270]
20.6.3 - 13.6.3 Phage control by biological approaches [Seite 271]
20.7 - 13.7 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 272]
20.8 - References [Seite 272]
21 - Chapter 14 Lactic acid bacteria: a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules in dairy products [Seite 277]
21.1 - 14.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 277]
21.2 - 14.2 VITAMINS [Seite 279]
21.2.1 - 14.2.1 Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin [Seite 280]
21.2.2 - 14.2.2 Vitamin B9 or Folate [Seite 281]
21.2.3 - 14.2.3 Vitamin B12 or cobalamin [Seite 282]
21.2.4 - 14.2.4 Vitamin K: menaquinone [Seite 283]
21.2.5 - 14.2.5 Other B-group vitamins [Seite 284]
21.3 - 14.3 MINERALS [Seite 284]
21.4 - 14.4 BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS [Seite 287]
21.4.1 - 14.4.1 Anti-hypertensive peptides [Seite 288]
21.4.2 - 14.4.2 Antioxidative peptides [Seite 289]
21.4.3 - 14.4.3 Bioactive amines [Seite 291]
21.4.4 - 14.4.4 Immune system affecting peptides [Seite 293]
21.4.5 - 14.4.5 Opioid peptides [Seite 293]
21.4.6 - 14.4.6 Metal-binding peptides [Seite 294]
21.4.7 - 14.4.7 Conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linolenic acid [Seite 294]
21.5 - 14.5 LOW-CALORIE SWEETENERS [Seite 295]
21.6 - 14.6 EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES (EPS) [Seite 297]
21.7 - 14.7 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 299]
21.8 - References [Seite 299]
22 - Chapter 15 Dairy technologies in yogurt production [Seite 305]
22.1 - 15.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 305]
22.2 - 15.2 YOGURT TYPES [Seite 306]
22.3 - 15.3 YOGURT MANUFACTURING PROCESS [Seite 307]
22.3.1 - 15.3.1 Initial treatment of milk [Seite 307]
22.3.2 - 15.3.2 Standardization of milk components - fat and SNF content [Seite 309]
22.3.3 - 15.3.3 Homogenization [Seite 310]
22.3.4 - 15.3.4 Heat treatment [Seite 312]
22.3.5 - 15.3.5 Fermentation process [Seite 314]
22.3.5.1 - 15.3.5.1 Monitoring of fermentation process - prediction of fermentation evolution [Seite 316]
22.3.6 - 15.3.6 Post-fermentation processing [Seite 318]
22.3.6.1 - 15.3.6.1 Cooling - addition of additives [Seite 318]
22.3.6.2 - 15.3.6.2 Addition of fruit [Seite 318]
22.3.6.3 - 15.3.6.3 Packaging [Seite 320]
22.3.7 - 15.3.7 Quality control of yogurt production [Seite 320]
22.4 - 15.4 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 321]
22.5 - References [Seite 321]
23 - Chapter 16 Milk protein composition and sequence differences in milk and fermented dairy products affecting digestion and tolerance to dairy products [Seite 325]
23.1 - 16.1 INTRODUCTION [Seite 325]
23.2 - 16.2 CASEINS [Seite 327]
23.2.1 - 16.2.1 Gene polymorphisms in ?-casein genes [Seite 328]
23.2.2 - 16.2.2 Gene polymorphisms in ?-casein gene [Seite 329]
23.3 - 16.3 PROTEOLYTIC RELEASE OF BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES IN FERMENTED MILK AND CHEESE [Seite 330]
23.4 - 16.4 MINOR MILK PROTEINS [Seite 331]
23.4.1 - 16.4.1 Lactoferrin [Seite 331]
23.4.2 - 16.4.2 ?-Lactoglobulin (?-LG) [Seite 332]
23.4.3 - 16.4.3 ?-Lactalbumin (?-LA) [Seite 332]
23.5 - 16.5 PROTEINS WITH BIOACTIVE ROLES [Seite 333]
23.6 - 16.6 MFGM-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS [Seite 334]
23.7 - 16.7 COW'S MILK PROTEIN ALLERGY (CMPA) [Seite 334]
23.8 - 16.8 CONCLUSIONS [Seite 335]
23.9 - References [Seite 335]
24 - Index [Seite 341]
25 - EULA [Seite 348]

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