Introduction to Research in the Health Sciences E-Book

 
 
Churchill Livingstone (Verlag)
  • 6. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 22. August 2013
  • |
  • 256 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-4669-8 (ISBN)
 

This popular textbook provides a concise, but comprehensive, overview of health research as an integrated, problem-solving process. It bridges the gap between health research methods and evidence-based clinical practice, making it an essential tool for students embarking on research. Practitioners also benefit from guidance on interpreting the ever-expanding published research in clinical and scientific journals, to ensure their practice is up to date and evidence-based and to help patients understand information obtained online.

      • Uses simple language and demystifies research jargon
      • Covers both quantitative and qualitative research methodology, taking a very practical approach
      • Gives examples directly related to the health sciences
      • Each chapter contains a self-assessment test so that the reader can be sure they know all the important points
      • Provides an extensive glossary for better understanding of the language of research

      Online interactive self-assessment tests:

      • Multiple choice questions
      • True or false questions
      • Short answer questions

      Log on to evolve.elsevier.com/Polgar/research and register to access the above assets.

      • Englisch
      • London
      • |
      • Großbritannien
      Elsevier Health Sciences
      • 3,30 MB
      978-0-7020-4669-8 (9780702046698)
      0702046698 (0702046698)
      weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
      • Front Cover
      • Dedication
      • Introduction to Research in the Health Sciences
      • Copyright
      • Contents
      • Preface
      • Acknowledgements
      • Section 1 - Methodological foundations of health research
      • Chapter 1 - Foundations of health research
      • Introduction
      • Knowledge and methods
      • The scientific method
      • Positivist paradigm
      • Post-positivist paradigms
      • Pragmatism: the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods
      • Summary
      • Chapter 2 - Quantitative and qualitative methods
      • Introduction
      • The social construction of reality
      • Contrasting qualitative and quantitative methods
      • The integration of quantitative and qualitative methods
      • Summary
      • Chapter 3 - The research process
      • Introduction
      • Sequential steps of the research process
      • The structure of a research paper
      • The style of research publications
      • The publication process
      • Research and evidence-based health care
      • Summary
      • Section 2 - Research planning
      • Chapter 4 - The formulation of research questions
      • Introduction
      • Identifying research problems
      • Literature reviews and research
      • Formulating the research question
      • Methodological considerations
      • Ethical issues and procedures
      • Aims and hypotheses
      • Research proposals
      • Summary
      • Chapter 5 - Sampling methods and external validity
      • Introduction
      • What is sampled in a study
      • Basic issues in sampling
      • Representative samples
      • Sample size
      • Sampling issues in qualitative research
      • Purposive sampling
      • External validity and sampling
      • Summary
      • Chapter 6 - Ethics
      • Introduction
      • Philosophical principles
      • Resources
      • Summary
      • Section 3 - Research designs
      • Chapter 7 - Experimental designs and randomized controlled trials
      • Introduction
      • The concept of causality
      • Confounding and bias in research studies
      • The use of control groups in applied health research
      • Assignment of participants into groups
      • Types of experimental designs
      • Randomized controlled trials
      • Controlled research involving human participants
      • The external validity of experiments and RCTs
      • Summary
      • Chapter 8 - Surveys and quasi-experimental designs
      • Introduction
      • Non-experimental research designs
      • Surveys
      • Epidemiology
      • Designs for comparing groups
      • Quasi-experimental designs
      • The internal and external validity of naturalistic designs
      • Summary
      • Chapter 9 - Single case (n=1) designs
      • Introduction
      • AB designs
      • ABAB designs
      • Multiple baseline designs
      • Interpretation of the results for n=1 designs
      • The validity of n=1 designs
      • Summary
      • Chapter 10 - Qualitative research
      • Introduction
      • Research problems and questions
      • Approaches to qualitative research
      • What defines qualitative research?
      • An example of qualitative research
      • Summary
      • Section 4 - Data collection
      • Chapter 11 - Questionnaires
      • Introduction
      • Questionnaire construction
      • Questions and questionnaire formats
      • The overall structure of questionnaires
      • Summary
      • Chapter 12 - Interviewing techniques
      • Introduction
      • Interviewing models
      • Methods of conducting interviews
      • The interview process
      • Methods of recording interview information
      • The analysis of interview data
      • Summary
      • Chapter 13 - Observation
      • Introduction
      • Overview of different approaches to observation
      • Observer roles
      • Observation in qualitative research
      • Observation in quantitative research
      • Summary
      • Chapter 14 - Measurement
      • Introduction
      • Operational definitions and measurement
      • Objective and subjective measures
      • Desirable properties of measurement tools and procedures
      • Standardized measures and tests
      • What makes a good test?
      • Measurement scale types
      • Levels of measurement
      • Summary
      • Section 5 - Descriptive statistics
      • Chapter 15 - Organization and presentation of data
      • Introduction
      • The organization and presentation of nominal or ordinal data
      • Organization and presentation of interval or ratio data
      • Descriptive statistics for discontinuous data
      • Summary
      • Chapter 16 - Measures of central tendency and variability
      • Introduction
      • Measures of central tendency
      • Comparison of the mode, median and mean
      • Measures of variability
      • Summary
      • Chapter 17 - Standard scores and normal distributions
      • Introduction
      • Standard scores (z scores)
      • Normal distributions
      • Calculations of areas under the normal curve
      • Standard normal curves for the comparison of distributions
      • Summary
      • Chapter 18 - Correlation
      • Introduction
      • Correlation
      • Correlation coefficients
      • Uses of correlations in the health sciences
      • Correlation and causation
      • Summary
      • Section 6 - Data analysis and inference
      • Chapter 19 - Probability and confidence intervals
      • Introduction
      • Probability
      • Sampling distributions
      • Sampling distribution of the mean
      • Calculating confidence intervals
      • Confidence intervals using the t distribution
      • Confidence intervals in health research
      • Summary
      • Chapter 20 - Hypothesis testing: selection and use of statistical tests
      • Introduction
      • The logic of hypothesis testing
      • Steps in hypothesis testing
      • Illustrations of hypothesis testing
      • The relationship between descriptive and inferential statistics
      • Selection of the appropriate inferential test
      • The ?2 test
      • ?2 and contingency tables
      • Statistical packages
      • Chapter 21 - Effect size and the interpretation of evidence
      • Introduction
      • Effect size
      • Confidence intervals and effect size
      • How to optimize statistical inferences
      • How to interpret null (non-significant) results
      • Statistical power analysis
      • Clinical decision-making
      • Overview of conducting data analysis
      • Summary
      • Chapter 22 - Qualitative data analysis
      • Introduction
      • Understanding meaning in everyday life
      • Coding qualitative data
      • Content analysis
      • Thematic analysis, 'verstehen' and grounded theory
      • Interpretation and social context
      • The accuracy of qualitative data analysis
      • Summary
      • Section 7 - Evaluation and dissemination of research results
      • Chapter 23 - Critical evaluation of published research
      • Introduction
      • Guidelines for critical appraisal of research publications
      • Critical evaluation of the introduction in a research paper
      • Critical evaluation of the methods section in a research paper
      • Critical evaluation of the results section in a research paper
      • Critical evaluation of the discussion section in a research paper
      • Summary
      • Chapter 24 - Synthesis: systematic reviews and meta-analyses
      • Introduction
      • Basic principles
      • Narrative reviews of research evidence
      • Systematic reviews
      • Meta-analysis
      • Validity of systematic reviews
      • The Cochrane Collaboration
      • Summary
      • Glossary of research terms
      • References and further reading
      • Appendix A: z scores and associated areas between z and mean and beyond
      • Appendix B: t distribution
      • Appendix C: Chi-square (?2)
      • Index

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