Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 3. Juli 2017
  • |
  • 280 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-07106-8 (ISBN)
 
The first and only comprehensive reference/solutions manual for managing food safety in low-moisture foods
The first book devoted to an increasingly critical public health issue, Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods reviews the current state of the science on the prevalence and persistence of bacterial pathogens in low-moisture foods and describes proven techniques for preventing food contamination for manufacturers who produce those foods.
Many pathogens, such as Salmonella, due to their enhanced thermal resistance in dry environments, can survive the drying process and may persist for prolonged periods in low-moisture foods, especially when stored in refrigerated environments. Bacterial contamination of low-moisture foods, such as peanut butter, present a vexing challenge to food safety, and especially now, in the wake of widely publicized food safety related events, food processors urgently need up-to-date, practical information on proven measures for containing the risk of contamination. While much has been written on the subject, until now it was scattered throughout the world literature in scientific and industry journals. The need for a comprehensive treatment of the subject has never been greater, and now this book satisfies that need.
* Discusses a wide variety of foods and evaluates multiple processing platforms from the standpoint of process validation of all food safety objectives for finished food products
* Takes a practical approach integrating the latest scientific and technological advances in a handy working resource
* Presents all known sources and risk factors for pathogenic bacteria of concern in the manufacturing environment for low-moisture/water activity products
* Characterizes the persistence and thermal resistance of bacterial pathogens in both the environment and most low-moisture food products
Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods is a much-needed resource for food microbiologists and food industry scientists, as well as managers and executives in companies that produce and use low-moisture foods. It also belongs on the reference shelves of food safety regulatory agencies worldwide.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Richard Podolak, PhD, is Senior Scientist with the Grocery Manufacturers Association, based in Washington DC, USA.
Darryl G. Black, PhD, is Associate Director for Research with Food and Drug Administration, Bedford Park, IL, USA.
1 - Cover [Seite 1]
2 - Title Page [Seite 5]
3 - Copyright [Seite 6]
4 - Contents [Seite 7]
5 - List of Contributors [Seite 13]
6 - Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview [Seite 15]
6.1 - 1.1 Introduction [Seite 15]
6.2 - 1.2 Definition of Low-Moisture Foods (LMF) and Water Activity Controlled Foods [Seite 16]
6.3 - 1.3 Salmonella as a Continuing Challenge and Ongoing Problem in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 18]
6.4 - 1.4 Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella spp. and Other Implicated Microbial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 20]
6.5 - 1.5 Major Safety Concerns in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 30]
6.6 - 1.6 Content and Brief Book Chapter Review [Seite 31]
6.7 - 1.7 Goal of the Book [Seite 35]
6.8 - 1.8 How to Use the Book [Seite 35]
6.9 - References [Seite 36]
7 - Chapter 2 Regulatory Requirements for Low-Moisture Foods - The New Preventive Controls Landscape (FSMA) [Seite 43]
7.1 - 2.1 Introduction [Seite 43]
7.2 - 2.2 FSMA Sanitation and cGMPs [Seite 46]
7.3 - 2.3 FSMA Preventive Controls [Seite 48]
7.4 - 2.4 Process Controls [Seite 49]
7.5 - 2.5 Sanitation Controls [Seite 50]
7.6 - 2.6 Supplier Controls [Seite 51]
7.7 - 2.7 Summary of Requirements for Low-Moisture FSMA Regulated Products [Seite 52]
7.8 - References [Seite 53]
8 - Chapter 3 Potential Sources and Risk Factors [Seite 55]
8.1 - 3.1 Introduction [Seite 55]
8.2 - 3.2 Raw Ingredients Control and Handling [Seite 57]
8.2.1 - 3.2.1 Identifying Vulnerable Ingredients [Seite 57]
8.2.2 - 3.2.2 Supplier Management [Seite 58]
8.2.3 - 3.2.3 Receiving and Transport [Seite 60]
8.2.4 - 3.2.4 Segregation/Isolation of Raw, Vulnerable Ingredients [Seite 61]
8.2.5 - 3.2.5 Assessment of Remediation Practices after Loss of Control (Potential Contamination of Facility) or Assessing Sanitation Practice Effectiveness [Seite 62]
8.3 - 3.3 Pest Control [Seite 63]
8.3.1 - 3.3.1 Integrated Pest Management [Seite 64]
8.3.2 - 3.3.2 Web Resources for More Information [Seite 66]
8.3.3 - 3.3.3 Choosing a Pest Control Partner [Seite 68]
8.4 - 3.4 Salmonella Harborage in the Facility [Seite 69]
8.4.1 - 3.4.1 Sanitation Practices that may Lead to the Spread of Pathogens [Seite 70]
8.4.2 - 3.4.2 Equipment Sources [Seite 72]
8.4.3 - 3.4.3 Hygienic Sources [Seite 73]
8.4.4 - 3.4.4 Management Practices for Cleaning Equipment [Seite 74]
8.4.5 - 3.4.5 Rolling Stock [Seite 75]
8.4.6 - 3.4.6 Raw Materials [Seite 75]
8.5 - 3.5 Conclusions [Seite 76]
8.6 - References [Seite 76]
9 - Chapter 4 Persistence of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 81]
9.1 - 4.1 Introduction [Seite 81]
9.2 - 4.2 Factors Affecting Survival of Salmonella and Other Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 81]
9.2.1 - 4.2.1 Water Activity (aw) [Seite 82]
9.2.2 - 4.2.2 Temperature [Seite 87]
9.2.3 - 4.2.3 pH [Seite 87]
9.2.4 - 4.2.4 Other Factors [Seite 87]
9.3 - 4.3 Recovery of Salmonella Cells Stressed by Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 89]
9.4 - 4.4 Mechanism of Salmonella Survival in Food Product and Processing Environment [Seite 89]
9.4.1 - 4.4.1 Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) [Seite 90]
9.4.2 - 4.4.2 Filamentation [Seite 90]
9.4.3 - 4.4.3 Osmoprotectants [Seite 91]
9.4.4 - 4.4.4 Biofilm Formation [Seite 92]
9.4.5 - 4.4.5 Outer Membrane Porins [Seite 92]
9.4.6 - 4.4.6 Other Mechanisms [Seite 92]
9.4.6.1 - 4.4.6.1 Activation of Genes for ?E or ?S Pathways [Seite 92]
9.5 - 4.5 Other Vegetative Pathogens [Seite 93]
9.6 - 4.6 Summary [Seite 93]
9.7 - References [Seite 94]
10 - Chapter 5 Best Industry Practices to Control Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 101]
10.1 - 5.1 Introduction [Seite 101]
10.2 - 5.2 Sanitation Practices [Seite 103]
10.2.1 - 5.2.1 Dry Cleaning [Seite 103]
10.2.2 - 5.2.2 Wet Cleaning [Seite 106]
10.2.3 - 5.2.3 Cleaning Pattern/Planning [Seite 107]
10.2.4 - 5.2.4 Chemical Selection and Specific Options [Seite 108]
10.2.4.1 - 5.2.4.1 Oxidizers [Seite 110]
10.2.4.2 - 5.2.4.2 Surfactants [Seite 111]
10.2.4.3 - 5.2.4.3 Alcohols [Seite 112]
10.2.5 - 5.2.5 Validation and Verification [Seite 113]
10.2.5.1 - 5.2.5.1 Validation Methods and Considerations [Seite 113]
10.2.5.2 - 5.2.5.2 Verification of Appropriate Cleaning and Sanitization [Seite 114]
10.2.6 - 5.2.6 Facility Equipment and Design [Seite 115]
10.2.6.1 - 5.2.6.1 Hygienic Facility Design [Seite 116]
10.2.6.2 - 5.2.6.2 Facility Condition [Seite 117]
10.2.6.3 - 5.2.6.3 Grounds [Seite 118]
10.2.6.4 - 5.2.6.4 Other Facility Considerations [Seite 119]
10.2.6.5 - 5.2.6.5 Penetration Points [Seite 119]
10.2.6.6 - 5.2.6.6 Contractors [Seite 120]
10.2.6.7 - 5.2.6.7 Employees [Seite 121]
10.2.6.8 - 5.2.6.8 Rolling Stock/Moving Stock [Seite 121]
10.2.6.9 - 5.2.6.9 Waste [Seite 122]
10.2.6.10 - 5.2.6.10 Ingredients [Seite 122]
10.2.6.11 - 5.2.6.11 Vending/Employee Meals [Seite 122]
10.2.6.12 - 5.2.6.12 Personnel Health [Seite 123]
10.2.6.13 - 5.2.6.13 Sanitation [Seite 123]
10.2.7 - 5.2.7 Hygienic Equipment Design [Seite 123]
10.3 - 5.3 Current Good Manufacturing Practice [Seite 126]
10.4 - References [Seite 128]
11 - Chapter 6 Heat Resistance of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 135]
11.1 - 6.1 Introduction [Seite 135]
11.2 - 6.2 Factors Affecting Heat Resistance of Foodborne Pathogens [Seite 136]
11.2.1 - 6.2.1 Strain of Bacteria [Seite 136]
11.2.2 - 6.2.2 Surrogate Organisms for In?Plant Validation [Seite 138]
11.2.3 - 6.2.3 Culture Conditions [Seite 139]
11.2.4 - 6.2.4 Properties of the Food [Seite 142]
11.2.5 - 6.2.5 Inoculation Procedures [Seite 143]
11.2.6 - 6.2.6 Food Storage Conditions [Seite 144]
11.2.7 - 6.2.7 Recovery Conditions [Seite 145]
11.3 - 6.3 Use of Published Heat Resistance Data to Establish Lethal Process Lethality in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 147]
11.4 - 6.4 Summary [Seite 157]
11.5 - References [Seite 157]
12 - Chapter 7 Validation Requirements in Heat-Processed Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 163]
12.1 - 7.1 Introduction [Seite 163]
12.2 - 7.2 Definitions [Seite 164]
12.3 - 7.3 Tasks of Validation [Seite 164]
12.4 - 7.4 Task 1: Assemble a Validation Team [Seite 165]
12.5 - 7.5 Task 2: Identify the Hazard to be Controlled Through Hazard Analysis [Seite 165]
12.6 - 7.6 Task 3: Identify a Validation Approach for the Control Measure [Seite 166]
12.6.1 - 7.6.1 Generally?held Historical Knowledge [Seite 167]
12.6.2 - 7.6.2 Published "Safe Harbor" Processes [Seite 167]
12.6.3 - 7.6.3 Regulatory Documents such as Performance Standards [Seite 170]
12.6.4 - 7.6.4 Published Industry Processing Guidelines [Seite 172]
12.6.5 - 7.6.5 Peer?Reviewed Scientific Literature or Technical Data [Seite 173]
12.6.6 - 7.6.6 Scientifically?Valid Experimental Data such as a Microbiological Challenge Study [Seite 174]
12.6.7 - 7.6.7 Previous Validation Studies [Seite 174]
12.6.8 - 7.6.8 Scientific Pathogen Models [Seite 175]
12.6.9 - 7.6.9 Operational Data and Surveys [Seite 177]
12.7 - 7.7 Task 4: Conduct the In-Production Validation [Seite 177]
12.8 - 7.8 Task 5: Write the Results of the Validation in a Validation Report [Seite 179]
12.9 - 7.10 Task 6: Implement the Control Measure, Monitors and Record Review [Seite 181]
12.10 - 7.11 Task 7: Verify that the Control Measure is Operating as Intended [Seite 182]
12.11 - 7.12 Task 8: Re-evaluate the Control Measure Periodically [Seite 183]
12.12 - 7.13 Conclusion [Seite 184]
12.13 - References [Seite 185]
13 - Chapter 8 Test Methods for Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 189]
13.1 - 8.1 Introduction [Seite 189]
13.2 - 8.2 Sampling Plans [Seite 189]
13.2.1 - 8.2.1 Product Testing [Seite 190]
13.2.2 - 8.2.2 Environmental Monitoring Sampling Plans [Seite 191]
13.2.2.1 - 8.2.2.1 Establishing the Monitoring Plan [Seite 192]
13.2.2.2 - 8.2.2.2 Zone Assignment [Seite 196]
13.2.2.3 - 8.2.2.3 Sampling Frequency [Seite 197]
13.2.2.4 - 8.2.2.4 Track and Trend Results [Seite 197]
13.2.2.5 - 8.2.2.5 Conclusion [Seite 198]
13.3 - 8.3 Types of Methods [Seite 198]
13.3.1 - 8.3.1 Traditional Cultural Methods for Qualitative Analysis [Seite 198]
13.3.2 - 8.3.2 Rapid Methods [Seite 201]
13.3.3 - 8.3.3 Quantitative Methods [Seite 204]
13.3.4 - 8.3.4 Strain Identification Methods [Seite 204]
13.4 - 8.4 Matrices Testing Challenges [Seite 206]
13.5 - 8.5 Conclusion [Seite 208]
13.6 - References [Seite 208]
14 - Chapter 9 Techniques to Determine Thermal Inactivation Kinetics for Pathogenic Bacteria and their Surrogate Organisms in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 211]
14.1 - 9.1 Introduction [Seite 211]
14.2 - 9.2 Kinetics of Microbial Destruction [Seite 212]
14.2.1 - 9.2.1 The D?value [Seite 212]
14.2.2 - 9.2.2 The z?value [Seite 213]
14.2.3 - 9.2.3 Nonlinear Microbial Destruction Kinetics [Seite 214]
14.2.4 - 9.2.4 The F?value [Seite 214]
14.3 - 9.3 Experimental Design and Execution [Seite 214]
14.3.1 - 9.3.1 Selection of the Target Organism [Seite 214]
14.3.2 - 9.3.2 Experimental Matrix (Selection of the Product) [Seite 215]
14.3.3 - 9.3.3 Test Culture Preparation [Seite 216]
14.3.4 - 9.3.4 Product Inoculation [Seite 217]
14.3.5 - 9.3.5 Selection of TDT Sample Container and Heat Transfer (Minimizing Come?Up Times) [Seite 219]
14.3.6 - 9.3.6 TDT Study Design: Selection of Study Parameters (Times and Temperatures to Use) [Seite 221]
14.3.7 - 9.3.7 Conducting the Heat Treatment (Capturing Product Temperature Data) [Seite 222]
14.3.8 - 9.3.8 Recovery and Enumeration of Bacterial Cells Post?Heat Treatment (Including Sublethally Injured Cells) [Seite 224]
14.3.9 - 9.3.9 Data Analysis [Seite 224]
14.4 - References [Seite 229]
15 - Chapter 10 Modeling and Statistical Issues Related to Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods [Seite 233]
15.1 - 10.1 An Introduction to Modeling Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods [Seite 233]
15.2 - 10.2 Developing a Predictive Model for Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods [Seite 234]
15.2.1 - 10.2.1 Primary Models [Seite 236]
15.2.2 - 10.2.2 Criteria for Choosing the Best Applicable Model [Seite 238]
15.2.3 - 10.2.3 Primary Model Fits [Seite 238]
15.2.4 - 10.2.4 Secondary Models [Seite 238]
15.3 - 10.3 Model Validation [Seite 240]
15.4 - 10.4 Models in Risk Assessment [Seite 242]
15.4.1 - 10.4.1 The Risk Assessment Model [Seite 242]
15.4.2 - 10.4.2 The Monte Carlo Analysis [Seite 244]
15.4.3 - 10.4.3 Sensitivity Analysis [Seite 245]
15.4.4 - 10.4.4 Modeling Variability and Uncertainty [Seite 246]
15.4.5 - 10.4.5 Available Tools in Risk Assessment [Seite 247]
15.5 - 10.5 Summary [Seite 248]
15.6 - References [Seite 248]
16 - Chapter 11 Spoilage Microorganisms in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 255]
16.1 - 11.1 Introduction [Seite 255]
16.2 - 11.2 Microorganisms Associated with the Spoilage of Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 255]
16.2.1 - 11.2.1 Halophilic Organisms [Seite 255]
16.2.2 - 11.2.2 Xerophilic Fungi [Seite 256]
16.3 - 11.3 Factors Influencing Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 258]
16.3.1 - 11.3.1 Effect of Solutes [Seite 258]
16.3.2 - 11.3.2 Effect of pH [Seite 259]
16.3.3 - 11.3.3 Effect of Strains and Age of Spores [Seite 260]
16.3.4 - 11.3.4 Effects of Growth Substrate and Medium Composition [Seite 260]
16.3.5 - 11.3.5 Heat Resistance and Aflatoxin Production [Seite 260]
16.4 - 11.4 Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 261]
16.5 - 11.5 Heat Resistance of Yeasts in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 261]
16.6 - 11.6 Preventing and Reducing Spoilage in Low-Moisture Foods [Seite 261]
16.7 - 11.7 Conclusions [Seite 265]
16.8 - References [Seite 265]
17 - Index [Seite 269]
18 - EULA [Seite 278]

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