Seascape Ecology

Taking Lanscape Ecology into the Sea
 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. Oktober 2017
  • |
  • 528 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-08445-7 (ISBN)
 
Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-science in the application of landscape ecology to the seas and provides guidance for future research priorities. The first book devoted exclusively to this rapidly emerging and increasingly important discipline, it is comprised of contributions from researchers at the forefront of seascape ecology working around the world. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management.
A growing number of marine scientists, geographers, and marine managers are asking questions about the marine environment that are best addressed with a landscape ecology perspective. Seascape Ecology represents the first serious effort to fill the gap in the literature on the subject. Key topics and features of interest include:
* The origins and history of seascape ecology and various approaches to spatial patterning in the sea
* The links between seascape patterns and ecological processes, with special attention paid to the roles played by seagrasses and salt marshes and animal movements through seascapes
* Human influences on seascape ecology--includes models for assessing human-seascape interactions
* A special epilogue in which three eminent scientists who have been instrumental in shaping the course of landscape ecology offer their insights and perspectives
Seascape Ecology is a must-read for researchers and professionals in an array of disciplines, including marine biology, environmental science, geosciences, marine and coastal management, and environmental protection. It is also an excellent supplementary text for university courses in those fields.
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 13,53 MB
978-1-119-08445-7 (9781119084457)
1119084458 (1119084458)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Simon J. Pittman is a marine ecologist with a Ph.D. in Geographical Sciences from the University of Queensland, Australia. As a scientist with one foot in academia and the other in government, he has taught and mentored graduate students, managed research projects informing management, as well as writing for marine science journals, academic books, and scientific reports. He is Director of Seascape Analytics Ltd., working as a senior scientist for the Biogeography Branch of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Dr. Pittman is an Associate Researcher at Plymouth University's Marine Institute, and Affiliate Faculty of Oregon State University and the University of the Virgin Islands.
1 - Cover [Seite 1]
2 - Title Page [Seite 5]
3 - Copyright [Seite 6]
4 - Contents [Seite 7]
5 - Contributors [Seite 15]
6 - Foreword [Seite 19]
7 - Preface [Seite 23]
8 - Part I Spatial Patterning in the Sea [Seite 27]
8.1 - Chapter 1 Introducing Seascape Ecology [Seite 29]
8.1.1 - 1.1 Introduction [Seite 29]
8.1.2 - 1.2 Landscape Ecology and the Emergence of Seascape Ecology [Seite 30]
8.1.3 - 1.3 What is a Seascape? [Seite 32]
8.1.3.1 - 1.3.1 The Patch?Matrix and Patch?Mosaic Models of Seascape Structure [Seite 34]
8.1.3.2 - 1.3.2 The Spatial Gradient Model of Seascape Structure [Seite 37]
8.1.3.3 - 1.3.3 Combining Spatial Gradients and Patch Mosaics [Seite 38]
8.1.3.4 - 1.3.4 Chemical Seascapes and Ocean Soundscapes [Seite 39]
8.1.4 - 1.4 Why Scale Matters in Seascape Ecology [Seite 40]
8.1.5 - 1.5 Seascape Ecology can Inform Marine Stewardship [Seite 42]
8.1.6 - 1.6 Conclusions and Future Directions [Seite 44]
8.1.7 - References [Seite 45]
8.2 - Chapter 2 Mapping and Quantifying Seascape Patterns [Seite 53]
8.2.1 - 2.1 Introduction [Seite 53]
8.2.2 - 2.2 Defining Seascape Applications [Seite 56]
8.2.3 - 2.3 Identifying Scales for Seascape Mapping [Seite 57]
8.2.4 - 2.4 Sensor Selection for Seascape Mapping [Seite 58]
8.2.4.1 - 2.4.1 Passive and Active Sensors [Seite 59]
8.2.4.2 - 2.4.2 Environmental Conditions Limiting Passive and Active Sensors [Seite 61]
8.2.5 - 2.5 Representing Patterns in Seascape Maps [Seite 62]
8.2.5.1 - 2.5.1 The Continuous Gradient Concept [Seite 63]
8.2.5.2 - 2.5.2 The Patch?Mosaic Model [Seite 66]
8.2.5.3 - 2.5.3 Spatial Surrogates (Proxies) [Seite 68]
8.2.6 - 2.6 Quantifying Seascape Structure [Seite 69]
8.2.6.1 - 2.6.1 Sensitivity to Scale [Seite 69]
8.2.7 - 2.7 Applications of Seascape Maps and Spatial Pattern Metrics [Seite 71]
8.2.7.1 - 2.7.1 Understanding Uncertainty in Seascape Maps [Seite 73]
8.2.8 - 2.8 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 73]
8.2.9 - References [Seite 74]
8.3 - Chapter 3 Pelagic Seascapes [Seite 83]
8.3.1 - 3.1 Introduction [Seite 83]
8.3.2 - 3.2 Pattern and Process in the Pelagic Realm [Seite 84]
8.3.2.1 - 3.2.1 Broad?scale Biogeographic Provinces [Seite 84]
8.3.2.2 - 3.2.2 Finer Scale Patchiness and Patch Dynamics [Seite 87]
8.3.2.3 - 3.2.3 Ecoclines and Ecotones in Pelagic Seascapes [Seite 88]
8.3.2.4 - 3.2.4 Beneath the Surface: the Vertical Dimension of Pelagic Seascapes [Seite 90]
8.3.3 - 3.3 Spatial Pattern Metrics for Pelagic Seascapes [Seite 92]
8.3.3.1 - 3.3.1 Patch Mosaic Metrics [Seite 93]
8.3.3.2 - 3.3.2 Surface Model Metrics - Identifying Ecoclines and Ecotones [Seite 93]
8.3.3.3 - 3.3.3 Lagrangian Approaches [Seite 95]
8.3.4 - 3.4 Spatial Ecoinformatics in the Pelagic Realm: from Physics to Predators [Seite 97]
8.3.4.1 - 3.4.1 Broad?scale Migrations across Pelagic Seascapes [Seite 97]
8.3.4.2 - 3.4.2 Linking Animal Movements to the Spatial Patterning of Pelagic Seascapes [Seite 98]
8.3.4.3 - 3.4.3 Incorporating the Vertical Dimension in Spatial Ecoinformatics [Seite 99]
8.3.5 - 3.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 100]
8.3.6 - 3.6 Glossary [Seite 101]
8.3.7 - References [Seite 102]
8.4 - Chapter 4 Scale and Scaling in Seascape Ecology [Seite 115]
8.4.1 - 4.1 Introduction [Seite 115]
8.4.1.1 - 4.1.1 The Development of the Concept of Scale in the Twentieth Century [Seite 116]
8.4.1.2 - 4.1.2 Prevalence and Usage of 'Scale' in the Scientific Literature [Seite 117]
8.4.1.3 - 4.1.3 Definition of Scale [Seite 119]
8.4.2 - 4.2 Expressions of Scale [Seite 120]
8.4.2.1 - 4.2.1 Graphical Expression of Scale [Seite 120]
8.4.2.2 - 4.2.2 Graphical Expression of Scale in Research Planning [Seite 122]
8.4.2.3 - 4.2.3 Formal Expression of Scale: Scope, Similarity and Power Laws [Seite 125]
8.4.2.4 - 4.2.4 Scaling Manoeuvres [Seite 127]
8.4.2.5 - 4.2.5 Ratio of Rates in Research Planning [Seite 129]
8.4.3 - 4.3 Spatial and Temporal Scaling in Estimating Uncertainty [Seite 132]
8.4.4 - 4.4 Spatial and Temporal Scaling in the Pelagic and Benthic Realms [Seite 133]
8.4.5 - 4.5 Looking to the Future: Scaling Concepts and Practice in Seascape Ecology [Seite 134]
8.4.5.1 - 4.5.1 From Useful Fictions to Calculation [Seite 134]
8.4.5.2 - 4.5.2 From Comparative to Confirmatory Modes of Investigation [Seite 134]
8.4.5.3 - 4.5.3 From Hypothesis Testing to Likelihood [Seite 136]
8.4.5.4 - 4.5.4 From Scaling on a Mosaic to Scaling on the Continuum [Seite 137]
8.4.6 - 4.6 From Ceteris Paribus to Dimensional Thinking [Seite 137]
8.4.7 - 4.7 Acknowledgements [Seite 138]
8.4.8 - References [Seite 138]
9 - Part II Linking Seascape Patterns and Ecological Processes [Seite 145]
9.1 - Chapter 5 Ecological Consequences of Seagrass and Salt?Marsh Seascape Patterning on Marine Fauna [Seite 147]
9.1.1 - 5.1 Introduction [Seite 147]
9.1.1.1 - 5.1.1 Seagrasses and Salt Marshes: Global Distributions and Ecosystem Functions [Seite 148]
9.1.2 - 5.2 Structural Processes and Change in Coastal Seascapes [Seite 148]
9.1.2.1 - 5.2.1 Processes Creating and Maintaining Seagrass Seascapes [Seite 151]
9.1.2.2 - 5.2.2 Processes Creating and Maintaining Salt?Marsh Seascapes [Seite 151]
9.1.2.2.1 - 5.2.2.1 Tidal Channel Networks in Salt Marshes [Seite 154]
9.1.3 - 5.3 Ecological Consequences of Seascape Structure [Seite 154]
9.1.3.1 - 5.3.1 Seagrass Patch?size Effects on Epifauna and Fish [Seite 154]
9.1.3.2 - 5.3.2 Patch Edges: Conceptual Framework and Application [Seite 156]
9.1.3.2.1 - 5.3.2.1 Seagrass Edge Effects on Faunal Recruitment and Distribution [Seite 158]
9.1.3.3 - 5.3.3 Effects of Salt?Marsh Patch Size, Edges and Connectivity on Faunal Patterns and Processes [Seite 159]
9.1.3.4 - 5.3.4 Faunal Linkages between Salt Marshes and Seagrass Meadows [Seite 161]
9.1.4 - 5.4 Challenges and Opportunities in Seascape Ecology [Seite 164]
9.1.5 - References [Seite 166]
9.2 - Chapter 6 Seascape Patch Dynamics [Seite 179]
9.2.1 - 6.1 Introduction [Seite 179]
9.2.2 - 6.2 From Patch Dynamics to Seascape Ecology [Seite 181]
9.2.3 - 6.3 Scale [Seite 184]
9.2.4 - 6.4 Factors Influencing Seascape Patchiness [Seite 186]
9.2.5 - 6.5 Mapping and Quantifying Seascape Change [Seite 189]
9.2.5.1 - 6.5.1 Habitat Mapping for Change Analysis [Seite 190]
9.2.5.2 - 6.5.2 Characterization of Spatial Patterns [Seite 192]
9.2.5.2.1 - 6.5.2.1 Continuous Metrics and Surface Analysis [Seite 193]
9.2.5.2.2 - 6.5.2.2 Metrics, Scale and Sensitivity Analysis [Seite 194]
9.2.5.2.3 - 6.5.2.3 Quantifying Seascape Change [Seite 194]
9.2.5.3 - 6.5.3 Seascape Habitat Loss versus Fragmentation [Seite 196]
9.2.5.4 - 6.5.4 Seascape Modelling [Seite 199]
9.2.6 - 6.6 The Future of Seascape Dynamics Research [Seite 201]
9.2.7 - References [Seite 203]
9.3 - Chapter 7 Animal Movements through the Seascape: Integrating Movement Ecology with Seascape Ecology [Seite 215]
9.3.1 - 7.1 Introduction [Seite 215]
9.3.1.1 - 7.1.1 Why Animal Movement is Central to Seascape Ecology [Seite 217]
9.3.1.2 - 7.1.2 Advances in Movement Ecology and its Application in Marine Systems [Seite 219]
9.3.1.3 - 7.1.3 Tracking and Mapping Capabilities [Seite 220]
9.3.2 - 7.2 Using Animal Movements to Scale Ecological Studies [Seite 222]
9.3.2.1 - 7.2.1 Building Movement Scales into Conceptual and Operational Frameworks [Seite 225]
9.3.2.1.1 - 7.2.1.1 Component 1: Build a Conceptual Model [Seite 225]
9.3.2.1.2 - 7.2.1.2 Component 2: Selecting Scale [Seite 225]
9.3.2.1.3 - 7.2.1.3 Component 3: Tools Identification [Seite 227]
9.3.3 - 7.3 Advances in the Visualisation and Quantification of Space?use Patterns [Seite 227]
9.3.3.1 - 7.3.1 Estimating and Mapping Utilisation Distributions [Seite 227]
9.3.3.2 - 7.3.2 Analysing Spatiotemporal Utilisation Patterns [Seite 230]
9.3.3.3 - 7.3.3 Visualizing Movement Patterns across Three Spatial Dimensions [Seite 232]
9.3.4 - 7.4 Linking Animal Movement Patterns to Seascape Patterns [Seite 234]
9.3.4.1 - 7.4.1 Linking Individual Movement Trajectories to Seascape Structure [Seite 235]
9.3.4.2 - 7.4.2 Individual Movement and Seascape Connectivity [Seite 237]
9.3.4.3 - 7.4.3 Linking Species Interactions and Physiology with Movements across Seascapes [Seite 238]
9.3.4.4 - 7.4.4 Experimental Seascapes to Investigate Animal Response to Seascape Patterns [Seite 240]
9.3.4.5 - 7.4.5 Mechanistic Models [Seite 241]
9.3.5 - 7.5 Implications of Animal?Seascape Understanding for Marine Stewardship [Seite 241]
9.3.6 - References [Seite 243]
9.4 - Chapter 8 Using Individual?based Models to Explore Seascape Ecology [Seite 255]
9.4.1 - 8.1 Introduction [Seite 255]
9.4.1.1 - 8.1.1 What are IBMs? [Seite 255]
9.4.2 - 8.2 Why use IBMs to Study Seascape Ecology? [Seite 257]
9.4.2.1 - 8.2.1 The Effects of Habitat Structure on Populations are Consequences of Organismal Behavior [Seite 257]
9.4.2.2 - 8.2.2 IBMs Allow for Extensive Manipulation of Seascapes [Seite 261]
9.4.2.3 - 8.2.3 IBMs can be Used to Test for Ecological Effects of Habitat Configuration versus Habitat Amount [Seite 265]
9.4.2.4 - 8.2.4 IBMs Allow Tests of How Seascape Change Influences Ecological Processes [Seite 267]
9.4.2.5 - 8.2.5 IBMs Allow the Coupling of Processes Operating over Different Scales [Seite 271]
9.4.3 - 8.3 Data for Parameterizing Seascape Ecology IBMs [Seite 272]
9.4.3.1 - 8.3.1 Parameterization [Seite 272]
9.4.3.2 - 8.3.2 Movement and Habitat Selection [Seite 273]
9.4.3.3 - 8.3.3 Seascape and Habitat Structure [Seite 274]
9.4.3.4 - 8.3.4 Other Factors [Seite 275]
9.4.4 - 8.4 Challenges and Future Directions in Using IBMs to Explore Seascapes [Seite 275]
9.4.5 - References [Seite 277]
10 - Part III Seascape Connectivity [Seite 285]
10.1 - Chapter 9 Connectivity in Coastal Seascapes [Seite 287]
10.1.1 - 9.1 Introduction [Seite 287]
10.1.2 - 9.2 Global Synthesis of Connectivity Research [Seite 287]
10.1.2.1 - 9.2.1 Research Theme [Seite 289]
10.1.2.2 - 9.2.2 Geographical Distribution [Seite 290]
10.1.2.3 - 9.2.3 Biological and Functional Consequences [Seite 292]
10.1.2.4 - 9.2.4 Connectivity is Scale Dependent [Seite 293]
10.1.3 - 9.3 Quantifying Connectivity: Advances in Key Tools and Techniques [Seite 294]
10.1.3.1 - 9.3.1 Tags and Telemetry [Seite 294]
10.1.3.2 - 9.3.2 Ecogeochemical Markers [Seite 295]
10.1.3.3 - 9.3.3 Genetics [Seite 295]
10.1.4 - 9.4 Application of Seascape Connectivity to Coastal Seascapes: Focal Topics [Seite 296]
10.1.4.1 - 9.4.1 Focal Topic 1: Fish Movements Connecting Tropical Coastal Seascapes [Seite 296]
10.1.4.2 - 9.4.2 Focal Topic 2: Connectivity across the Land?Sea Interface [Seite 299]
10.1.5 - 9.5 Integrating Connectivity into Marine Spatial Planning [Seite 301]
10.1.6 - 9.6 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 305]
10.1.7 - References [Seite 306]
10.2 - Chapter 10 Networks for Quantifying and Analysing Seascape Connectivity [Seite 319]
10.2.1 - 10.1 Introduction [Seite 319]
10.2.1.1 - 10.1.1 Structural Connectivity [Seite 321]
10.2.1.2 - 10.1.2 Functional Connectivity [Seite 322]
10.2.1.3 - 10.1.3 Realised Connectivity [Seite 322]
10.2.2 - 10.2 Network Models of Connectivity: Representing Pattern and Process [Seite 323]
10.2.2.1 - 10.2.1 Defining Nodes and Links [Seite 323]
10.2.3 - 10.3 Modelling Marine Population Connectivity [Seite 326]
10.2.3.1 - 10.3.1 Empirical Estimates of Marine Population Connectivity [Seite 327]
10.2.4 - 10.4 Network Analysis of Marine Population Connectivity [Seite 329]
10.2.4.1 - 10.4.1 Node and Neighbourhood?level Metrics [Seite 331]
10.2.4.2 - 10.4.2 Components, Subgraphs and Clusters [Seite 332]
10.2.4.3 - 10.4.3 Graph?level Metrics [Seite 332]
10.2.4.4 - 10.4.4 Insights from Classic Networks [Seite 333]
10.2.4.5 - 10.4.5 Planar Networks [Seite 334]
10.2.4.6 - 10.4.6 Random Networks [Seite 334]
10.2.4.7 - 10.4.7 Scale?free Networks [Seite 334]
10.2.4.8 - 10.4.8 Small?world Networks [Seite 335]
10.2.5 - 10.5 Case Study in Marine Connectivity: Hawaiian Islands [Seite 335]
10.2.6 - 10.6 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 338]
10.2.7 - 10.7 Acknowledgements [Seite 339]
10.2.8 - References [Seite 339]
10.3 - Chapter 11 Linking Landscape and Seascape Conditions: Science, Tools and Management [Seite 345]
10.3.1 - 11.1 Introduction [Seite 345]
10.3.2 - 11.2 Landscape Ecology as a Guiding Framework for Integrated Land?Sea Management [Seite 348]
10.3.3 - 11.3 Modelling and Evaluating the Connections between Land and Sea [Seite 350]
10.3.3.1 - 11.3.1 Measuring Threat Exposure from Land?based Sources [Seite 350]
10.3.3.2 - 11.3.2 Spatial Modelling of Land?Sea Processes [Seite 351]
10.3.3.2.1 - 11.3.2.1 Spatial Proxies [Seite 351]
10.3.3.2.2 - 11.3.2.2 Hydrological Models [Seite 351]
10.3.3.2.3 - 11.3.2.3 Nearshore Dynamics [Seite 352]
10.3.3.2.4 - 11.3.2.4 Ecological Response and Social?Ecological Systems Models [Seite 353]
10.3.3.3 - 11.3.3 Decision Analysis and Support [Seite 355]
10.3.4 - 11.4 Case Studies [Seite 356]
10.3.4.1 - 11.4.1 Hawai'i [Seite 356]
10.3.4.1.1 - 11.4.1.1 Estimating Spatial Patterns of Erosion from Land Cover Change and Exposure of Reefs in Maui [Seite 357]
10.3.4.2 - 11.4.2 Caribbean [Seite 360]
10.3.4.2.1 - 11.4.2.1 Summit to Sea Runoff Modelling for St John, US Virgin Islands [Seite 360]
10.3.4.2.2 - 11.4.2.2 Land?Sea Decision Support Modelling for the Northeast Marine Corridor, Puerto Rico [Seite 362]
10.3.4.3 - 11.4.3 Australia [Seite 365]
10.3.4.3.1 - 11.4.3.1 Edgecumbe Bay Receiving Waters (Gregory and Eden Lassie Creek Sub?basins) [Seite 368]
10.3.5 - 11.5 Towards Applying Landscape Ecology to Land?Sea Modelling and Management [Seite 373]
10.3.6 - References [Seite 376]
11 - Part IV People and Seascapes [Seite 391]
11.1 - Chapter 12 Advancing a Holistic Systems Approach in Applied Seascape Ecology [Seite 393]
11.1.1 - 12.1 Introduction [Seite 393]
11.1.1.1 - 12.1.1 What can Landscape Ecology Offer? [Seite 395]
11.1.1.2 - 12.1.2 A Shift towards a more Holistic Systems Approach for Marine Stewardship [Seite 396]
11.1.2 - 12.2 People as Part of the Seascape [Seite 399]
11.1.3 - 12.3 How Holistic Systems Science can Help Seascape Ecology [Seite 401]
11.1.3.1 - 12.3.1 Properties of an Ecological Systems Approach [Seite 402]
11.1.3.2 - 12.3.2 The Rise of Whole?of?System Modelling [Seite 403]
11.1.4 - 12.4 Connecting Seascape Patterns to Human Health, Livelihoods and Wellbeing [Seite 405]
11.1.5 - 12.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 407]
11.1.6 - References [Seite 410]
11.2 - Chapter 13 Human Ecology at Sea: Modelling and Mapping Human?Seascape Interactions [Seite 417]
11.2.1 - 13.1 Introduction [Seite 417]
11.2.2 - 13.2 Seascape Ecology, Spatial Patterns and Scale [Seite 419]
11.2.2.1 - 13.2.1 Scale and Scaling [Seite 421]
11.2.3 - 13.3 Human Use Data Types and Geographical Information Systems [Seite 422]
11.2.3.1 - 13.3.1 Mapping Human Behaviour across the Seascape [Seite 423]
11.2.3.1.1 - 13.3.1.1 Remote Sensing [Seite 424]
11.2.3.1.2 - 13.3.1.2 Participatory Mapping and Spatial Analysis [Seite 427]
11.2.3.1.3 - 13.3.1.3 Social Sensing [Seite 428]
11.2.3.1.4 - 13.3.1.4 Mapping Ecosystem Services [Seite 428]
11.2.4 - 13.4 Modelling Human?Seascape Interactions with a Systems Approach [Seite 429]
11.2.4.1 - 13.4.1 Custom?built Statistical Models [Seite 431]
11.2.4.2 - 13.4.2 Predefined Statistical Routines [Seite 432]
11.2.4.3 - 13.4.3 Discrete Choice Models [Seite 433]
11.2.4.4 - 13.4.4 Simulation Modelling [Seite 434]
11.2.4.5 - 13.4.5 Agent?based Models [Seite 437]
11.2.4.6 - 13.4.6 Pattern?oriented Modelling [Seite 438]
11.2.5 - 13.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 441]
11.2.6 - References [Seite 444]
11.3 - Chapter 14 Applying Landscape Ecology for the Design and Evaluation of Marine Protected Area Networks [Seite 455]
11.3.1 - 14.1 Introduction [Seite 455]
11.3.2 - 14.2 Applying Landscape Ecology Principles in the Marine Environment [Seite 456]
11.3.3 - 14.3 Case Study: Applying Landscape Ecology to Evaluate a Network of MPAs in California [Seite 464]
11.3.3.1 - 14.3.1 California Seafloor Data Sets [Seite 465]
11.3.3.2 - 14.3.2 MPA Goal: Habitat Replication and Representativeness [Seite 467]
11.3.3.3 - 14.3.3 MPA Goal: Protect Diversity and Abundance of Marine Life [Seite 468]
11.3.3.4 - 14.3.4 MPA Goal: Reduce Movement across Boundaries [Seite 470]
11.3.4 - 14.4 Synthesis [Seite 474]
11.3.4.1 - 14.4.1 Mapping Technologies [Seite 474]
11.3.4.2 - 14.4.2 MPA Effects on Biodiversity and Populations [Seite 475]
11.3.4.3 - 14.4.3 Scale of Interaction between Species and Environment [Seite 475]
11.3.4.4 - 14.4.4 Across?System Interactions [Seite 476]
11.3.4.5 - 14.4.5 Population Connectivity [Seite 476]
11.3.5 - 14.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 477]
11.3.6 - References [Seite 478]
11.4 - Chapter 15 Seascape Economics: Valuing Ecosystem Services across the Seascape [Seite 491]
11.4.1 - 15.1 Introduction [Seite 491]
11.4.2 - 15.2 Habitat Connectivity and Seascape Goods and Services [Seite 493]
11.4.3 - 15.3 Valuing Seascape Goods and Services [Seite 494]
11.4.4 - 15.4 Example of a Mangrove?Coral Reef Seascape [Seite 498]
11.4.5 - 15.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities [Seite 502]
11.4.6 - References [Seite 504]
12 - Part V Epilogue [Seite 509]
12.1 - Chapter 16 Landscape Ecologists' Perspectives on Seascape Ecology [Seite 511]
12.1.1 - 16.1 Introduction [Seite 511]
12.1.1.1 - 16.2 From Landscapes to Seascapes (and Back Again) [Seite 511]
12.1.1.2 - 16.3 Seascape Ecology and Landscape Ecology: Distinct, Related and Synergistic [Seite 513]
12.1.1.3 - 16.3.1 Landscape Ecology [Seite 514]
12.1.1.4 - 16.3.2 Seascape Ecology [Seite 514]
12.1.1.5 - 16.3.3 How can Landscape and Seascape Ecology Interact with Each Other? [Seite 515]
12.1.1.6 - 16.4 Seascape Ecology [Seite 517]
12.1.2 - References [Seite 519]
13 - Index [Seite 521]
14 - EULA [Seite 528]

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