Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition

A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 6. November 2015
  • |
  • 400 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-801003-7 (ISBN)
 

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition is a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study or treat alcohol-related diseases. Experts from across the field of alcohol research explain how alcohol disrupts normal fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolic processes occurring in the liver as well as other parts of the body.

The book discusses how this can lead to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as contribute to the onset of Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. It also explores how alcohol affects nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to anemia and reduced amounts of fat soluble vitamins.

This book explores both the primary and secondary consequences of alcohol consumption. Chapters in the first section investigate the basic science of alcohol metabolism - focusing on how alcohol and its toxic metabolites disrupt and impair normal nutrient regulation at the molecular level. Further chapters explore how alcohol affects many extra-hepatic organs and tissues as well as the secondary consequences of alcohol consumption such as reduced levels of minerals like magnesium, calcium, and trace elements like zinc.


  • Offers a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study alcohol-related diseases and attempt to treat them through nutritional strategies
  • Explores how alcohol and its toxic metabolite acetaldehyde disrupt and impair normal macro and micro nutrient regulation at the molecular level
  • Investigates how alcohol affects and interferes with cell signaling, cell death pathways, calcium homeostasis leading to osteoporosis, oxygen balance, as well as the pathophysiology of alcohol consumption and abuse
  • Englisch
  • New York
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 40,26 MB
978-0-12-801003-7 (9780128010037)
0128010037 (0128010037)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Series Preface
  • Preface
  • Section I - General and introductory aspects
  • Chapter 1 - Nutrients and Liver Metabolism
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Hepatic carbohydrate metabolism
  • Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis
  • Absorptive State
  • Postabsorptive State
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels
  • Hepatic fat metabolism
  • Hepatic Fatty Acid Uptake and Oxidation
  • Regulation of Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation
  • Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis
  • Regulation of Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis
  • Dietary Regulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism
  • Hepatic amino acid metabolism
  • Hepatic Amino Acid Catabolism
  • Regulation of Amino Acid Metabolism
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts Glucose
  • Liver
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Alcohol Metabolism: General Aspects
  • Introduction
  • Alcohol metabolism
  • The epigenetic changes of alcohol
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts of Alcohol
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Section II - Molecular biology of the cell
  • Chapter 3 - Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Molecular Aspects
  • Abbreviations
  • Overview of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases
  • Human ALDH superfamily
  • Human Alcohol-Metabolizing ALDH
  • Nonalcohol-Metabolizing Human ALDH
  • Modifications of ALDH and biomedical implications
  • Acetylation
  • Phosphorylation
  • S-Nitrosylation
  • Nitration
  • Genomics of the ALDH superfamily
  • Alternative Splicing of Human ALDHs
  • Copy-Number Variation, InDel, and Insertions
  • ALDH polymorphism in alcohol-related diseases
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts on Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Member 2 (ALDH2)
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - Alcohol Intake and Apoptosis: A Review and Examination of Molecular Mechanisms in the Central Nervous System
  • Introduction
  • Cell Death Through Necrosis and Apoptosis
  • Necrosis
  • Apoptosis
  • Ethanol Activated Apoptosis in the CNS
  • Fetal Alcohol Exposure
  • Third Trimester Models
  • First Trimester Models
  • Stem Cell and Slice Culture Models
  • Adolescent Ethanol Models
  • Adult Models
  • Molecular profiling of the effects of ethanol consumption in adolescent rats
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Pathogenic Mechanisms in Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD): Emerging Role of Osteopontin
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • General mechanisms of ALD
  • Alcoholic Liver Steatosis
  • Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Fibrosis
  • Alcohol Metabolism and Oxidative Stress
  • Gut Permeability and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
  • ALD fibrosis - pathogenic mechanisms
  • Overview of Liver Repair
  • Role of Hepatocyte Injury-Death (Damage Associated Molecular Patterns, DAMPs/Other Signals)
  • Immune Cells and Chemokines/Cytokines
  • Contributions From Adipose Tissues and the Gut
  • Role of OPN in ALD
  • Introduction to OPN and its Role in Liver Disease
  • Role of OPN in Chronic Liver Diseases
  • Human
  • Models
  • Role of OPN in ALD
  • Human
  • Models
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts in ALD and Osteopontin
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - The Role of CD36 in the Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Related Disease
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • The structure-function relationship of CD36
  • Functional Binding Domains of CD36
  • Posttranslational Modification of CD36
  • CD36 and FA uptake
  • CD36 Trafficking is Required for CD36-Facilitated FA Uptake
  • Metabolic Consequences of Impaired CD36-Mediated FA Uptake
  • Cardiac CD36 Expression and Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
  • Hepatic CD36 Expression is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
  • CD36 Deficiency Protects Against Alcoholic Steatosis in Mice
  • CD36 and Ca2+ signaling
  • CD36-Mediated Eicosanoid Production and Inflammation
  • A Link between CD36-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling and Alcoholic Liver Disease?
  • CD36 as a pattern recognition receptor
  • TLR4 Plays a Key Role in Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • A Role for CD36-Mediated Pattern Recognition and Signaling in Alcoholic Liver Disease?
  • CD36 in the brain
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts of CD36
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Thiamine Deficiency and Alcoholism Psychopathology
  • Introduction
  • Biochemistry of thiamine pyrophosphate
  • Secondary effects of thiamine deficiency
  • Thiamine deficiency, mood and behavior
  • Thiamine analogs
  • Benfotiamine trial
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Vitamin B Regulation of Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • Effects of chronic alcoholism on the availability of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6
  • Folate
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin B6
  • Interactions of selected B vitamins in hepatic methionine metabolism with implications for alcoholic liver injury
  • Effects of chronic alcohol exposure on methionine metabolic pathways
  • Epidemiology and pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease
  • Regulatory effects of altered reactions in methionine metabolism and its metabolites on mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease
  • The ethanol-fed micropig model for the interaction of ethanol with methionine metabolism, and induction of alcoholic liver ...
  • Effects of SAM in clinical trials of treatment of ALD
  • Relationships of altered methionine metabolism to epigenetic regulation of gene expression in alcoholic liver injury
  • Conclusion
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Interactions Vitamin D - Bone Changes in Alcoholics
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Vitamin D metabolism
  • Vitamin D among alcoholics
  • Vitamin D deficiency and bone metabolism
  • Direct Effects on Bone
  • Effects on Muscle
  • Vitamin D Deficiency, Falls and Fractures
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Brain Alteration
  • Effects of therapy
  • Effects of Abstinence
  • Preclinical Studies and Clinical Trials
  • Conclusion
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Antioxidant Treatment and Alcoholism
  • Importance of the antioxidant systems to the organism
  • Antioxidant status in alcoholism
  • Antioxidant treatment FOR alcoholism
  • a-Tocopherol and Vitamin C
  • Carotenoids
  • Curcumin
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate
  • Ginsenosides
  • GSH and Precursors
  • Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC)
  • Puerarin
  • Quercetin
  • Resveratrol
  • Selenium
  • Silymarin
  • Sulfur-Containing Compounds
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • Disclaimer
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - Selenium Dietary Supplementation and Oxidative Balance in Alcoholism
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Alcohol and malnutrition: selenium supplementation
  • Alcohol and selenium tissue distribution: selenium supplementation
  • Alcohol and oxidative balance: selenium supplementation
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Role of Zinc in Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • Introduction
  • Zinc metabolism and function
  • Occurrence of zinc deficiency in ALD
  • Mechanisms of zinc dyshomeostasis in ALD
  • Inadequate Dietary Zinc Intake
  • Reduced Zinc Absorption From the Intestine
  • Disturbed Zinc Metabolism in the Liver
  • Increased Zinc Excretion From the Urine
  • Beneficial effects of zinc on ALD
  • Attenuation of Alcoholic Steatosis
  • Suppression of Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Inflammation
  • Abrogation of Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Cell Death
  • Extrahepatic Actions of Zinc Against Alcoholic Toxicity
  • Intestinal Permeability and Endotoxemia
  • Adipose Tissues and Adipokines
  • Molecular mechanisms of zinc protection against ALD
  • Inhibition of Oxidative Stress
  • Suppression of ROS Generation
  • Upregulation of Antioxidant Molecules
  • Reactivation of PPAR-a and HNF-4a
  • Hepatic PPAR-a and HNF-4a
  • Intestinal HNF-4a
  • Zinc supplementation in human ALD
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts of Zinc in Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 13 - Interactions Between Alcohol and Folate
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Folates Absorption
  • Liver Uptake
  • Excretion of Folates
  • Folate Metabolism
  • Folate and Alcoholism
  • Historic Background
  • Effect of Ethanol on Intestinal Folate Absorption
  • Effect of Ethanol on Renal Folate Reabsorption and Excretion
  • Effect of Ethanol on Folate Metabolism in the Liver
  • Effect of Ethanol on the Folate Transport to Colon, Pancreas, and Fetus
  • Ethanol, Folate, and Oxidative Stress
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts of Folate and Alcohol
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Effects of Acetaldehyde on Intestinal Barrier Function
  • Introduction
  • The intestinal epithelial barrier and apical junctional complex
  • Generation and metabolism of acetaldehyde in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Ethanol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination
  • Generation of Acetaldehyde and Metabolism
  • Acetaldehyde Metabolism
  • Genetic Variations in Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Metabolism
  • Role of intestinal microbiota in production and metabolism of acetaldehyde
  • Effects of acetaldehyde on intestinal barrier epithelial integrity
  • Mechanisms of acetaldehyde-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction
  • Effects on TJs and/or AJs Integrity
  • Direct Damage to Epithelial Cells
  • Modulation of acetaldehyde-induced intestinal epithelial barrier function
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 15 - Cholesterol Regulation by Leptin in Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Alcohol metabolism
  • Effects of alcohol on lipid metabolism
  • Triglycerides
  • Fatty acids
  • Hepatic lipid metabolism is controlled by several master transcription factors
  • PPAR-a
  • AMPK
  • Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins
  • Cholesterol
  • Effect of Ethanol on Cholesterol Metabolism
  • Bile Acids
  • Obesity, leptin, and ALD
  • Obesity
  • Leptin
  • Prime Involvement of Leptin on Regulation of Lipid Metabolism
  • Effect of Exogenous Leptin on Ethanol-Induced Hypercholesterolemia
  • Possible Other Nutritional Therapies for Alcohol-Induced Hypercholesterolemia
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 16 - The Corticotropin Releasing Factor System and Alcohol Consumption
  • Introduction: alcohol and the brain
  • CRF, urocortins, and the HPA-axis
  • Function of CRF system components revealed by genetic knockouts
  • Effects of EtOH on the HPA-axis
  • Effects of EtOH on the extrahypothalamic CRF system
  • Effects of CRF receptors on EtOH drinking
  • Ucn1 and EtOH drinking
  • Interactions of CRF system, stress, EtOH drinking and dependence
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts of the Corticotropin Releasing Factor System
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 17 - Metabolic Profiling Approaches for Biomarkers of Ethanol Intake
  • Introduction
  • Metabolic profiling
  • Analytical technologies for global metabolic profiling
  • Ethanol exposure studies on animal models
  • Ethanol exposure studies in man
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Alcohol Consumption
  • Ethanol Toxicity
  • Global Metabolic Profiling
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Section III - Genetic machinery and its function
  • Chapter 18 - Gene Expression in Alcoholism: An Overview
  • Introduction
  • Brain serotonin and alcoholism
  • NMDA receptor and alcoholism
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Sweet preference and alcohol dependence
  • Stem cell therapy and alcoholism
  • Genetic risks of alcoholism
  • MicroRNA and alcoholism
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 19 - Cytochrome P4502E1 Gene Polymorphisms and the Risks of Ethanol-Induced Health Problems in Alcoholics
  • The polymorphisms of CYP2E1 gene and the nomenclatures of CYP2E1 alleles
  • The Influence of CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms on the Catalytic Activity of the Enzyme
  • Population Distribution of CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms
  • The polymorphisms of CYP2E1 gene and individual susceptibility to alcohol dependence (AD)
  • The Terminology of Alcohol Dependence, Abuse, Misuse, and Alcoholism
  • Potential Links Between CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Individual Susceptibility to AD
  • Human Epidemiological Studies About the CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Individual Susceptibility to AD
  • Meta-Analysis of the CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to AD
  • CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease (ALD)
  • Potential Links Between CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to ALD
  • Human Epidemiological Studies About the CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Individual Susceptibility to ALD
  • Meta-Analysis of the CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to ALD
  • CYP2E1 gene polymorphism and risks of alcoholic pancreatitis (AP)
  • Potential Links Between CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to AP
  • Human Epidemiological Studies About the CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Individual Susceptibility to AP
  • Meta-Analysis of the CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to AP
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Heavy Drinking
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 20 - Genes Associated with Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Candidate gene studies
  • ADH1B and ADH4
  • CCK
  • CNR1
  • DAT
  • DRD2
  • ENT1
  • FKBP5
  • GABABR1
  • GRIN1
  • 5-HT1A
  • 5-HTR1B
  • LEP
  • MTHFR
  • NGF
  • NPY
  • NQO2
  • NPS
  • NR2B
  • OPRK1
  • SLC6A4
  • TH
  • Genome-wide association study
  • Limitations
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Complex Disease
  • Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Gene Discovery Methods
  • ADH1B Gene
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 21 - Alcohol and Epigenetic Modulations
  • Introduction
  • Epigenetics
  • Methylation of DNA
  • Histone Modifications
  • microRNAs
  • Alcohol effects on epigenetic mechanisms
  • Alcohol Effects on Histone Modifications
  • Histone Acetylation
  • Histone Methylation
  • Alcohol Effects on miRNA Expression
  • Alcohol metabolism influences nutritional status via epigenetic mechanisms
  • SAM Deficiencies Induced by Alcohol Affected Histone Methylation
  • Alcohol Metabolism Evokes an Increase in the Hepatic NADH/NAD+ Ratio, which Inhibits HDAC Activity
  • Acetate Produced by Ethanol Metabolism Induces Hat Activity
  • Future directions
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Epigenetic Modulation
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 22 - The miRNA and Extracellular Vesicles in Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • Introduction
  • Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • MicroRNAs
  • microRNA Expression in Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • miRNA-122
  • miRNA-155
  • miRNA-21
  • miRNA-34a
  • miRNA-217
  • Cell-Specific Effects of Alcohol on miRNAs
  • Mechanism of Abnormal miRNA Expression
  • Extracellular vesicle-associated miRNAs as potential biomarkers for ALD
  • Extracellular Vesicles: Types and Terminology
  • Extracellular Vesicles as Natural Carriers of miRNAs: Physiological and Pathological Roles
  • Extracellular Vesicles-Associated miRNA as Liquid Biopsies
  • EV-Associated miRNAs as Biomarkers in Alcoholic Hepatitis and Other Liver Diseases
  • Employing Suitable EV Isolation and Characterization Methods to Increase Diagnostic Accuracy
  • Future Direction of EV-Associated miRNAs for ALD Diagnosis
  • miRNA-Targeted therapies for ALD
  • miRNA-Level Therapeutics Using Conventional Gene Delivery Vehicles
  • miRNA-Targeted Therapeutics Using Exosomes
  • Opportunities and Suitable Potentials of Exosomes for miRNA-Level Therapeutic
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 23 - Alcohol Metabolism and Epigenetic Methylation and Acetylation
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Alcohol metabolism and epigenetic acetylation
  • Acetaldehyde
  • Acetate
  • Alcohol and methyl metabolism
  • Alcohol and Folate
  • Alcohol and Choline/Betaine
  • Cofactors of Methyl Metabolism and Alcohol
  • Alcohol on Methyltransferase Enzymes and SAM Production
  • Alcohol and DNA- and Histone-Methylation
  • Alcohol affects epigenetic converting enzymes
  • On Histone Code Converting Enzymes
  • On DNA Methylation Enzymes
  • Epigenetic footprint of alcohol induced dysfunction and disease
  • Liver Cancer
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Alcoholism/Alcohol Dependence
  • Transgenerationally Altered DNA Methylation
  • Treatment and biomarkers of alcohol diseases through epigenetic pathway
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 24 - Molecular Mechanisms of Alcohol-Associated Carcinogenesis
  • Introduction
  • Effect of ethanol on DNA
  • Oxidative Stress and DNA Adduct Formation due to Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Acetaldehyde Toxicity Associated with DNA Repair and DNA Adduct Formation
  • Effect of ethanol on epigenetics
  • DNA Methylation
  • Histone Modification
  • Histone Methylation
  • Histone Acetylation
  • Alcohol, retinoids, and cancer
  • The role of estrogens in ethanol mediated breast cancer
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 25 - Molecular Link Between Alcohol and Breast Cancer: the Role of Salsolinol
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Salsolinol derived from alcohol, as a novel causative substance of breast cancer
  • Salsolinol Detected in Blood and Urine in Relation to Alcohol Drinking
  • Salsolinol Possibly Formed in Mammary Gland
  • DNA damage capability of salsolinol
  • Damage to 32P-Labeled DNA Fragments in the Presence of Salsolinol and Metal Ions
  • 8-OxodG Formation in DNA Treated with Salsolinol
  • Oxidative Damage to DNA of Cultured Human Mammary Epithelial Cells MCF-10A Treated with Salsolinol
  • Proposed mechanisms of oxidative DNA damage induced by salsolinol
  • Copper-Mediated DNA Damage Induced by Salsolinol
  • Iron-Mediated DNA Damage Induced by Salsolinol
  • Cell proliferating ability of salsolinol
  • Cell Proliferation in Estrogen-Independent MCF-10A Cells Treated with Salsolinol
  • Cell Proliferation in Estrogen-Dependent MCF-7 Cells Treated with Salsolinol
  • Conclusion
  • Key Facts
  • Salsolinol
  • 8-OxodG
  • Breast Cancer
  • Summary Points
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 26 - Ethanol Impairs Phospholipase D Signaling in Astrocytes
  • Abbreviations
  • Astrocytes
  • Phospholipase D
  • Transphosphatidylation
  • Isoforms of phospholipase D
  • Regulation of phospholipase D
  • Transcriptional Level
  • Small GTPases
  • Protein Kinases
  • Functions of Phospholipase D
  • Formation of Lipid Messengers
  • Vesicle Formation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Interruption of the PLD signaling pathway by ethanol
  • Changes of Gene Expression
  • Formation of Unphysiological Phospholipids
  • Disturbance of Neuronal Function
  • Interruption of Mitogenic Signaling in Astrocytes
  • Induction of Apoptosis
  • In Vivo Studies
  • Conclusions
  • Summary
  • Key Facts
  • Phospholipase D
  • Summary Points
  • Definition of Words
  • References
  • Chapter 27 - Metabolic Changes in Alcohol Gonadotoxicity
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Metabolic changes in males' alcohol gonadotoxicity
  • Metabolic changes in females' alcohol gonadotoxicity
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts of Metabolic Changes in Alcohol Gonadotoxicity
  • Summary Points
  • References
  • Chapter 28 - Molecular Effects of Alcohol on Iron Metabolism
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Overview of iron metabolism
  • Systemic and Cellular Regulation of Iron
  • Iron Homeostasis and Disorders
  • Alcohol and iron: clinical observations and molecular events
  • Exploring the iron-alcohol link for diagnosis and therapeutics
  • Conclusions
  • Key Facts
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Summary Points
  • Definitions of Words and Terms
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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