Development of Online Hybrid Testing

Theory and Applications to Structural Engineering
Butterworth-Heinemann (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 14. September 2015
  • |
  • 240 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803392-0 (ISBN)

Development of Online Hybrid Testing: Theory and Applications to Structural Engineering provides comprehensive treatments of several topics pertinent to substructure online hybrid tests. Emphasis has been placed on explaining the three frameworks:

  • the host-station framework,
  • separated model framework and
  • peer to peer framework

These have been developed within the Internet environment and are particularly suitable for distributed hybrid testing. In order to help readers to understand the essence of online hybrid testing and further to build up their own systems, an engineering practice has been introduced at the end of this book with the source code appended. Development of Online Hybrid Testing: Theory and Applications to Structural Engineering is primarily written for readers with some background in structural dynamics, finite elements, and computer science. Material that has previously only appeared in journal articles has been consolidated and simplified which provides the reader with a perspective of the state-of-the-art.

  • Presents basics and implementations of time integration algorithms for online hybrid tests, along with the applications for real engineering projects
  • Includes current progress on the development of substructure online hybrid tests as a means of investigating the seismic behaviour of large-scale structures
  • Provides source code for the example tests
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 10,75 MB
978-0-12-803392-0 (9780128033920)
0128033924 (0128033924)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Development of Online Hybrid Testing: Theory and Applications to Structural Engineering
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • 1.1. Background, Objective, and Challenge
  • 1.2. Organization
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Basics of the Online Hybrid Test
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Basic Concepts and Applications
  • 2.2.1. Test Methodology
  • 2.2.2. Research Applications
  • 2.2.3. Advantages and Constraints
  • 2.3. Implementation and Major Components
  • 2.3.1. Implementation
  • 2.3.2. Major Components [27]
  • 2.4. Single DOF Structure with Explicit Scheme
  • 2.4.1. Test Structure
  • 2.4.2. Test Method
  • 2.4.3. Test Results
  • 2.5. Substructure Test with OS Scheme
  • 2.5.1. Test Structure
  • 2.5.2. Test Method
  • 2.5.3. Test Results
  • 2.6. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Time Integration Algorithms for the Online Hybrid Test
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Principle of Time Integration Algorithms and Properties
  • 3.3. Development of Time Integration Algorithms
  • 3.3.1. Linear Multi-Step Methods
  • 3.3.2. Newmark's Family Methods
  • 3.3.3. Collocation Methods
  • 3.3.4. a-Family Methods
  • 3.3.5. ?-Family Methods
  • 3.3.6. Mixed Implicit-Explicit Methods
  • 3.4. Numerical Characteristics of Time Integration Algorithms
  • 3.4.1. Spectral Stability
  • 3.4.2. Accuracy Analysis
  • 3.5. Analysis of Typical Time Integration Algorithms
  • 3.5.1. Central Difference Method
  • 3.5.2. Newmark's Method
  • 3.5.3. HHT-a Method
  • 3.5.4. Generalized-a Method
  • 3.5.5. Implicit-Explicit Method
  • 3.5.6. Modal Truncation Technique
  • 3.5.7. Integral Form of Existing Algorithms
  • 3.5.8. State Space Procedure
  • 3.6. Applications for an Online Hybrid Test
  • 3.6.1. Applications of Central Difference Method
  • 3.6.2. Hardware-Dependent Iterative Scheme
  • 3.6.3. Newton Iterative Scheme Based on HHT-a Method
  • 3.6.4. a-OS Method
  • 3.6.5. Predictor-Corrector Implementation of Generalized-a Method (IPC-?)
  • 3.6.6. Ghaboussi Predictor-Corrector Method
  • 3.7. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4: The Online Hybrid Test Using Mixed Control
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Presentation of the Online Test System
  • 4.2.1. Loading System
  • Quasi-Static Jacks and Hydraulic Pump Systems
  • Controllers
  • Combination of PC for Control and PC for Operation
  • Characteristics of Mixed Control
  • 4.2.2. Base-Isolated Structure Model
  • 4.2.3. Test Setup
  • 4.3. Displacement-Force Combined Control
  • 4.3.1. Static Test for Combined Control
  • 4.3.2. Algorithm of Online Test Using Displacement-Force Combined Control
  • 4.3.3. The Online Test Using Displacement-Force Combined Control
  • 4.4. Force-Displacement Switching Control
  • 4.4.1. Static Test for Displacement-Force Switching Control
  • 4.4.2. Algorithm of Displacement-Force Switching Control
  • 4.4.3. Online Test Using Displacement-Force Switching Control
  • 4.5. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 5: An Internet Online Hybrid Test Using Host-Station Framework
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Presentation of the Internet Online Test System
  • 5.2.1. System Framework
  • 5.2.2. Internet Data Exchange Interface
  • Data Exchange Solution
  • Generic Data Format
  • Validation of Interface
  • Data Exchange Algorithm
  • Practical Environment Using Interface
  • 5.3. Accommodation with Implicit Finite Element Program
  • 5.3.1. Importance of Stiffness Prediction
  • 5.3.2. Proposed Prediction Method
  • 5.4. Internet Online Test of Base-isolated Structure
  • 5.4.1. Base-Isolated Structure Model
  • 5.4.2. Test Setup and Test Specimen
  • 5.4.3. Test Results
  • 5.5. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Internet Online Hybrid Test Using Separated-Model Framework
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Development of Separated-model Framework
  • 6.2.1. Design of Separated-Model Framework
  • 6.2.2. System Implementation
  • 6.2.3. High-Speed Data Exchange Scheme Using a Socket Mechanism
  • 6.2.4. Incorporation of FEM Programs Using Restart Capability
  • 6.3. Preliminary Investigations of Separated-model Framework
  • 6.3.1. Seismic Simulation of a One-Story Braced Frame
  • 6.3.2. Seismic Simulation of a Three-Story Braced Frame
  • 6.4. Distributed Online Hybrid Test on a Base-isolated Building
  • 6.4.1. Prototype Structure
  • 6.4.2. Numerical Simulation of Superstructure
  • 6.4.3. Specimen for Base-Isolation Layer
  • 6.4.4. Specimen for Retaining Walls
  • 6.4.5. Test Environment Design
  • 6.4.6. Elastic Properties of Structure
  • 6.4.7. Pushover Analysis
  • 6.4.8. Quasi-Static Test
  • 6.4.9. Earthquake Response Simulation
  • 6.4.10. Time Efficiency of Experiment
  • 6.5. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7: An Internet Online Hybrid Test Using Peer-to-Peer Framework
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Development of P2P Framework
  • 7.2.1. Design of P2P Framework
  • 7.2.2. Iteration by Quasi-Newton Method
  • 7.2.3. P2P Internet Online Hybrid Test Scheme
  • 7.2.4. Incorporation of General-Purpose FEM Program
  • 7.3. Verification Test of Base-isolated Structure
  • 7.3.1. Structure Model and Substructuring
  • 7.3.2. Internet Online Hybrid Test Environment
  • 7.3.3. Test Setup and Test Specimen
  • 7.3.4. Test Results
  • 7.4. Convergence Criteria on P2P Internet Online Hybrid Test System Involving Structural Nonlinearities
  • 7.4.1. Introduction
  • 7.4.2. Investigation of Convergence Criteria and Tolerance
  • 7.4.3. Examination on Type of Divisions into Substructures
  • 7.4.4. Number of DOF on Boundaries
  • 7.4.5. Investigation on Initial Stiffness
  • 7.4.6. Summary
  • 7.5. Numerical Characteristics of P2P Predictor-Corrector Procedure
  • 7.5.1. Introduction
  • 7.5.2. Recursive Matrix of Two-Round Quasi-Newton Test Scheme
  • 7.5.3. Stability Characteristics
  • 7.5.4. Accuracy Characteristics
  • 7.6. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Application of an Online Hybrid Test in Engineering Practice
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Application Example of a Conventional Online Hybrid Test
  • 8.2.1. Project Brief
  • 8.2.2. Prototype and Substructures
  • 8.2.3. Dynamics of the Retrofitted Structure
  • 8.2.4. Configuration of the Hybrid Test System
  • 8.2.5. Loading Scheme
  • 8.2.6. Input Ground Motions and Intensity
  • 8.2.7. Measurement Scheme
  • 8.2.8. Test Results
  • 8.3. Application Example of P2P Internet Online Hybrid Test
  • 8.3.1. Project Brief
  • 8.3.2. Target Structure
  • 8.3.3. Substructures
  • 8.3.4. Improved Test Scheme of P2P Framework
  • 8.3.5. Numerical Analyses by P2P Framework
  • 8.3.6. Distributed Test Environment
  • 8.3.7. Implementation of Tested Substructures
  • 8.3.8. Distributed Test
  • 8.3.9. Verification of P2P Framework
  • 8.3.10. Efficiency of P2P Framework
  • 8.3.11. Practical Evaluation of Collapse Limit of the Frame
  • 8.3.12. Complex Behavior of Column Bases
  • 8.4. Summary and Conclusions
  • Chapter 9: Summary and Conclusions
  • 9.1. Time Integration Algorithms
  • 9.2. Online Hybrid Test Using Mixed Control
  • 9.3. Internet Online Hybrid Test Using Host-Station Framework
  • 9.4. Separated-Model Framework and Its Demonstration Examples
  • 9.5. P2P Framework and Its Preliminary Demonstration Test
  • 9.6. The Application of Online Hybrid Test in Engineering Practice
  • Appendix A: List of Exiting Time Integration Algorithms
  • Appendix B: Implementation of the OS Method
  • Index
Chapter 2

Basics of the Online Hybrid Test


In this chapter, the basics of the online hybrid test, which mainly include the components of the test system, the capacities of the online hybrid test, and the procedures commonly adopted for online hybrid test, are introduced. This chapter is to provide users who are new to the online hybrid test with a general introduction to this technique. After reading this chapter, the readers are expected to have the fundamentals to plan a simple online hybrid test and understand how physical and computational components work together during the execution of an online hybrid test.


Test method

Test procedure

Test application

Development history



Major components

Chapter Outline

2.1 Introduction   11

2.2 Basic Concepts and Applications   12

2.2.1 Test Methodology   12

2.2.2 Research Applications   13

2.2.3 Advantages and Constraints   15

2.3 Implementation and Major Components   17

2.3.1 Implementation   17

2.3.2 Major Components   18

2.4 Single DOF Structure with Explicit Scheme   19

2.4.1 Test Structure   19

2.4.2 Test Method   20

2.4.3 Test Results   22

2.5 Substructure Test with OS Scheme   23

2.5.1 Test Structure   23

2.5.2 Test Method   23

2.5.3 Test Results   24

2.6 Conclusions   25

References   25

2.1 Introduction

The seismic performance of structural systems under earthquake loading is no doubt an area requiring extensive research. In fact, many research bodies all over the world have been engaged in investigating the seismic response of various types of structural systems. In general, research on the seismic performance of structural systems can be classified into two groups: analytical research and experimental research. Because of innovation in the fields of electronics and the mechanics, the progress of those two groups of research has been remarkable. It is now by no means difficult to simulate the static and dynamic earthquake response of complex structural systems using numerical techniques, such as the finite element method. The development of experimental hardware has also made it feasible to conduct large-scale static and dynamic tests with careful test control.

About 40 years ago, a new type of research techniques to study earthquake response behavior of structural systems was developed. This technique is unique because it combines the experiment and numerical analysis, and utilizes the benefits of both experimental and analytical research. With this technique, one can directly simulate the earthquake response of structural systems with respect to the time domain, but without using a shake table device. This technique has been designated with various names: computer actuator online test, hybrid experiment, pseudodynamic test, or online computer test control method. Recently it is more often designated as hybrid simulation. In this book, this technique is designated as the online hybrid test control method, and simply referred to as the online hybrid test.

2.2 Basic Concepts and Applications

2.2.1 Test Methodology

The basic idea of the online hybrid test method is quite simple if one is familiar with the procedures involved in conventional quasi-static testing and numerical time integration techniques used in dynamic analysis of structures. First, the structure to be tested is idealized as a discrete-parameter system that has a limited number of degrees of freedom (DOF), each of which is controlled by an actuator in a quasi-static manner. This is why the online hybrid test is also referred as the pseudodynamic test. Consider, for example, the four-story frame shown in Fig. 2.1a. Since the axial stiffness of the floor beams is usually much higher than the flexural stiffness of the columns and the response of the frame under a horizontal base motion is expected to be dominated by the inertia forces developed at the floor levels, one can idealize the structure as a 4-DOF system, as shown in Fig. 2.1b. The equations of motion for this structure can thus be expressed as:



in which M and C are the mass and damping matrices of the structure, v and a are the vectors of nodal velocities and accelerations, r is the nodal restoring force vector, and f is the external excitation. For a linearly elastic system, =Kd, where K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and d is the vector of nodal displacements. If the structure is subjected to a horizontal ground acceleration ag, =-M1ag, where {1} is a unit vector.

Figure 2.1 Online hybrid testing of a two-bay frame. (a) Two-bay frame, (b) discretized model.

Once the structural model is discretized, its equations of motion are solved by means of a direct step-by-step integration scheme in an online hybrid test, with the mass and viscous damping properties of the structure modeled analytically. In every time step of a test, the displacement response computed for each DOF is imposed on the structure in a quasi-static fashion by means of actuators, and the restoring forces, r, developed by the structure are measured with load transducers and are used to compute the response in the next time step. Hence, one can see that the online hybrid test method is essentially similar in concept to dynamic structural analysis, except that the stiffness properties of the structure are directly measured from the structural specimen during a test. Since the inertia effects are modeled analytically, such a test can be conducted in a quasi-static fashion with conventional testing equipment. The details of this method have been summarized by Mahin and Shing [1].

2.2.2 Research Applications

A most desirable feature of the online hybrid test method is its versatility. It can be used to evaluate the earthquake performance of large full-scale structures [2-5], small-scale structures [6], and structural subassemblies and components [7-10]. Both the planar and three-dimensional response of a structure can be investigated with this method [11,12]. Even though the shaking table test method has been known as the most direct experimental technique to simulate the earthquake response of structures, it has some limitations, such as the size and weight of a structure that can be tested. Furthermore, the cost of a table goes up rapidly with its size, capacity, and number of DOF. On the other hand, an online hybrid test can be carried out with a large-scale structure because of the relatively slow rate of load application. For a given hydraulic power capacity, a slow-moving actuator can have a larger-diameter piston and, thereby, produce a larger force than a fast-moving actuator.

The physical limitations of an online hybrid test system are, however, the number and capacities of actuators that are available, and the dimensions and load capacities of reaction systems that are used to support the structural specimen and the actuators. However, the capacity of such a system can be expanded gradually to meet any changing needs. When compared with conventional quasi-static tests, the online hybrid test method can be considered as a major enhancement that requires only a small incremental investment. The online hybrid test method is especially attractive for evaluating the earthquake performance of multi-DOF structures and structural subassemblies. While conventional quasi-static testing is useful for comparing the performance of different structural designs under a standardized load history, it does not account for the ductility demand of an earthquake ground motion on a structural specimen or the proper distribution of earthquake-induced forces. Such problems can be resolved with the online hybrid test method, in which the displacement history and pattern applied to a structure are determined from the equations of motion.

With an analytical substructuring procedure, the online hybrid test method can be applied to structural subassemblies. Very often, the damage inflicted upon a structure by seismic excitation is localized in a few critical regions or subassemblies. In such a case, there is no compelling reason to test the entire structural system. One...

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)


Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.

Download (sofort verfügbar)

128,52 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung dieser Web-Seiten erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok