Helicopter Flight Dynamics

Including a Treatment of Tiltrotor Aircraft
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. September 2018
  • |
  • 856 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-40102-5 (ISBN)
 
The Book The behaviour of helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft is so complex that understanding the physical mechanisms at work in trim, stability and response, and thus the prediction of Flying Qualities, requires a framework of analytical and numerical modelling and simulation. Good Flying Qualities are vital for ensuring that mission performance is achievable with safety and, in the first and second editions of Helicopter Flight Dynamics, a comprehensive treatment of design criteria was presented, relating to both normal and degraded Flying Qualities. Fully embracing the consequences of Degraded Flying Qualities during the design phase will contribute positively to safety. In this third edition, two new Chapters are included. Chapter 9 takes the reader on a journey from the origins of the story of Flying Qualities, tracing key contributions to the developing maturity and to the current position. Chapter 10 provides a comprehensive treatment of the Flight Dynamics of tiltrotor aircraft; informed by research activities and the limited data on operational aircraft. Many of the unique behavioural characteristics of tiltrotors are revealed for the first time in this book. The accurate prediction and assessment of Flying Qualities draws on the modelling and simulation discipline on the one hand and testing practice on the other. Checking predictions in flight requires clearly defined mission tasks, derived from realistic performance requirements. High fidelity simulations also form the basis for the design of stability and control augmentation systems, essential for conferring Level 1 Flying Qualities. The integrated description of flight dynamic modelling, simulation and flying qualities of rotorcraft forms the subject of this book, which will be of interest to engineers practising and honing their skills in research laboratories, academia and manufacturing industries, test pilots and flight test engineers, and as a reference for graduate and postgraduate students in aerospace engineering.
3. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • |
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • Überarbeitete Ausgabe
  • 33,70 MB
978-1-119-40102-5 (9781119401025)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
The Author

The wonder of flight, and things that flew, led Gareth Padfield to study aeronautical engineering at the University of London, and later learning to fly both aeroplanes and helicopters. His career has been spent in the aviation industry, government research and in academia and has involved all aspects of flight dynamics - flight testing, modelling and simulation, flying qualities and flight control. He has held senior management and leadership roles in Government service (Chief Rotorcraft Scientist) and Academia (Head of School of Engineering) and has always endeavoured to keep his technical skills active as a practitioner.

Gareth's current role is Emeritus Professor of Aerospace Engineering at The University of Liverpool where he supports staff and students in their endeavours. He also operates a consultancy company, Flight Stability and Control, undertaking a variety of specialist projects for the aviation industry, and delivering short courses in Europe, the USA and the Far East.

Gareth Padfield is a Chartered Engineer, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Royal Aeronautical Society. He is an honorary member of the American Helicopter Society's Modelling and Simulation and Handling Qualities Technical Committees and he has served on the UK's Defence Scientific Advisory Council.

While Helicopter Flight Dynamics is primarily for practising engineers, his 'other' book, So You Want to be an Engineer, (ISBN: 978-0-9929017-2-1) is primarily for students and early practitioners; it is available as a pdf on researchgate.net.

Gareth is also a musician and songwriter, recognising the close connection between creativity in engineering and creativity in music; both require a mix of disciplined and free thinking that, in the right combination, can work wonders and unmask mysteries.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Series Preface
  • Preface to Third Edition
  • Preface to Second Edition
  • Preface to First Edition
  • Acknowledgements
  • Notation
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 Simulation Modelling
  • 1.2 Flying Qualities
  • 1.3 Missing Topics
  • 1.4 Simple Guide to the Book
  • Chapter 2 Helicopter and Tiltrotor Flight Dynamics - An Introductory Tour
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Four Reference Points
  • 2.2.1 The Mission and Piloting Tasks
  • 2.2.2 The Operational Environment
  • 2.2.3 The Vehicle Configuration, Dynamics, and Flight Envelope
  • Rotor Controls
  • Two Distinct Flight Regimes
  • Rotor Stall Boundaries
  • 2.2.4 The Pilot and Pilot-Vehicle Interface
  • 2.2.5 Résumé of the Four Reference Points
  • 2.3 Modelling Helicopter/Tiltrotor Flight Dynamics
  • 2.3.1 The Problem Domain
  • 2.3.2 Multiple Interacting Subsystems
  • 2.3.3 Trim, Stability, and Response
  • 2.3.4 The Flapping Rotor in a Vacuum
  • 2.3.5 The Flapping Rotor in Air - Aerodynamic Damping
  • 2.3.6 Flapping Derivatives
  • 2.3.7 The Fundamental 90° Phase Shift
  • 2.3.8 Hub Moments and Rotor/Fuselage Coupling
  • 2.3.9 Linearization in General
  • 2.3.10 Stability and Control Résumé
  • 2.3.11 The Static Stability Derivative Mw
  • 2.3.12 Rotor Thrust, Inflow, Zw, and Vertical Gust Response in Hover
  • 2.3.13 Gust Response in Forward Flight
  • 2.3.14 Vector-Differential Form of Equations of Motion
  • 2.3.15 Validation
  • 2.3.16 Inverse Simulation
  • 2.3.17 Modelling Review
  • 2.4 Flying Qualities
  • 2.4.1 Pilot Opinion
  • 2.4.2 Quantifying Quality Objectively
  • 2.4.3 Frequency and Amplitude - Exposing the Natural Dimensions
  • 2.4.4 Stability - Early Surprises Compared with Aeroplanes
  • 2.4.5 Pilot-in-the-Loop Control
  • Attacking a Manoeuvre
  • 2.4.6 Bandwidth - A Parameter for All Seasons?
  • 2.4.7 Flying a Mission Task Element
  • 2.4.8 The Cliff Edge and Carefree Handling
  • 2.4.9 Agility Factor
  • 2.4.10 Pilot's Workload
  • 2.4.11 Inceptors and Displays
  • 2.4.12 Operational Benefits of Flying Qualities
  • 2.4.13 Flying Qualities Review
  • 2.5 Design for Flying Qualities
  • Stability and Control Augmentation
  • 2.5.1 Impurity of Primary Response
  • 2.5.2 Strong Cross-Couplings
  • 2.5.3 Response Degradation at Flight Envelope Limits
  • 2.5.4 Poor Stability
  • 2.5.5 The Rotor as a Control Filter
  • 2.5.6 Artificial Stability
  • 2.6 Tiltrotor Flight Dynamics
  • 2.7 Chapter Review
  • Chapter 3 Modelling Helicopter Flight Dynamics: Building a Simulation Model
  • 3.1 Introduction and Scope
  • 3.2 The Formulation of Helicopter Forces and Moments in Level 1 Modelling
  • 3.2.1 Main Rotor
  • Blade Flapping Dynamics - Introduction
  • The Centre-Spring Equivalent Rotor
  • Multiblade Coordinates
  • Rotor Forces and Moments
  • Rotor Torque
  • Rotor Inflow
  • Momentum Theory for Axial Flight
  • Momentum Theory in Forward Flight
  • Local-Differential Momentum Theory and Dynamic Inflow
  • Rotor Flapping-Further Considerations of the Centre-Spring Approximation
  • Rotor in-Plane Motion: Lead-Lag
  • Rotor Blade Pitch
  • Ground Effect on Inflow and Induced Power
  • 3.2.2 The Tail Rotor
  • 3.2.3 Fuselage and Empennage
  • The Fuselage Aerodynamic Forces and Moments
  • The Empennage Aerodynamic Forces and Moments
  • 3.2.4 Powerplant and Rotor Governor
  • 3.2.5 Flight Control System
  • Pitch and Roll Control
  • Yaw Control
  • Heave Control
  • 3.3 Integrated Equations of Motion of the Helicopter
  • 3.4 Beyond Level 1 Modelling
  • 3.4.1 Rotor Aerodynamics and Dynamics
  • Rotor Aerodynamics
  • Modelling Section Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment
  • Modelling Local Incidence
  • Rotor Dynamics
  • 3.4.2 Interactional Aerodynamics
  • 3.5 Chapter 3 Epilogue
  • Appendix 3A Frames of Reference and Coordinate Transformations
  • 3A.1 The Inertial Motion of the Aircraft
  • 3A.2 The Orientation Problem - Angular Coordinates of the Aircraft
  • 3A.3 Components of Gravitational Acceleration along the Aircraft Axes
  • 3A.4 The Rotor System - Kinematics of a Blade Element
  • 3A.5 Rotor Reference Planes - Hub, Tip Path, and No-Feathering
  • Chapter 4 Modelling Helicopter Flight Dynamics: Trim and Stability Analysis
  • 4.1 Introduction and Scope
  • 4.2 Trim Analysis
  • 4.2.1 The General Trim Problem
  • 4.2.2 Longitudinal Partial Trim
  • 4.2.3 Lateral/Directional Partial Trim
  • 4.2.4 Rotorspeed/Torque Partial Trim
  • 4.2.5 Balance of Forces and Moments
  • 4.2.6 Control Angles to Support the Forces and Moments
  • 4.3 Stability Analysis
  • 4.3.1 Linearization
  • 4.3.2 The Derivatives
  • The Translational Velocity Derivatives
  • The Derivatives Xu, Yv, Xv, and Yu (Mv and Lu)
  • The Derivatives Mu and Mw
  • The Derivatives Mw, Mv, and Mv
  • The Derivative Zw
  • The Derivatives Lv, Nv
  • The Derivatives Nu, Nw, Lu, Lw
  • The Angular Velocity Derivatives
  • The Derivatives Xq, Yp
  • The Derivatives Mq, Lp, Mp, Lq
  • The Derivatives Nr, Lr, Np
  • The Control Derivatives
  • The Derivatives Z 0, Z 1s
  • The Derivatives M 0, L 0
  • The Derivatives M 1s, M 1c, L 1s, L 1c
  • The Derivatives Y OT, L OT, N OT
  • The Effects of Nonuniform Rotor Inflow on Damping and Control Derivatives
  • Some Reflections on Derivatives
  • 4.3.3 The Natural Modes of Motion
  • The Longitudinal Modes
  • The Lateral/Directional Modes
  • Comparison with Flight
  • Appendix 4A The Analysis of Linear Dynamic Systems (with Special Reference to 6-Dof Helicopter Flight)
  • Appendix 4B The Three Case Helicopters: Lynx, Bo105 and Puma
  • 4B.1 Aircraft Configuration Parameters
  • The RAE (DRA) Research Lynx, ZD559
  • The DLR Research Bo105, S123
  • The RAE (DRA) Research Puma, XW241
  • Fuselage Aerodynamic Characteristics
  • Lynx
  • Bo105
  • Puma
  • Empennage Aerodynamic Characteristics
  • Lynx
  • Bo105
  • Puma
  • 4B.2 Stability and Control Derivatives
  • 4B.3 Tables of Stability and Control Derivatives and System Eigenvalues
  • Appendix 4C The Trim Orientation Problem
  • Chapter 5 Modelling Helicopter Flight Dynamics: Stability Under Constraint and Response Analysis
  • 5.1 Introduction and Scope
  • 5.2 Stability Under Constraint
  • 5.2.1 Attitude Constraint
  • 5.2.2 Flight Path Constraint
  • Longitudinal Motion
  • Lateral Motion
  • 5.3 Analysis of Response to Controls
  • 5.3.1 General
  • 5.3.2 Heave Response to Collective Control Inputs
  • Response to Collective in Hover
  • Response to Collective in Forward Flight
  • 5.3.3 Pitch and Roll Response to Cyclic Pitch Control Inputs
  • Response to Step Inputs in Hover - General Features
  • Effects of Rotor Dynamics
  • Step Responses in Hover - Effect of Key Rotor Parameters
  • Response Variations with Forward Speed
  • Stability Versus Agility - Contribution of the Horizontal Tailplane
  • Comparison with Flight
  • 5.3.4 Yaw/Roll Response to Pedal Control Inputs
  • 5.4 Response to Atmospheric Disturbances
  • Modelling Atmospheric Disturbances
  • Modelling Helicopter Response
  • Ride Qualities
  • Appendix 5A Speed Stability Below Minimum Power
  • A Forgotten Problem?
  • Chapter 6 Flying Qualities: Objective Assessment and Criteria Development
  • 6.1 General Introduction to Flying Qualities
  • 6.2 Introduction and Scope: The Objective Measurement of Quality
  • 6.3 Roll Axis Response Criteria
  • 6.3.1 Task Margin and Manoeuvre Quickness
  • 6.3.2 Moderate to Large Amplitude/Low to Moderate Frequency: Quickness and Control Power
  • 6.3.3 Small Amplitude/Moderate to High Frequency: Bandwidth
  • Early Efforts in the Time Domain
  • Bandwidth
  • Phase Delay
  • Bandwidth/Phase Delay Boundaries
  • Civil Applications
  • The Measurement of Bandwidth
  • Estimating bw and p
  • Control Sensitivity
  • 6.3.4 Small Amplitude/Low to Moderate Frequency: Dynamic Stability
  • 6.3.5 Trim and Quasi-Static Stability
  • 6.4 Pitch Axis Response Criteria
  • 6.4.1 Moderate to Large Amplitude/Low to Moderate Frequency: Quickness and Control Power
  • 6.4.2 Small Amplitude/Moderate to High Frequency: Bandwidth
  • 6.4.3 Small Amplitude/Low to Moderate Frequency: Dynamic Stability
  • 6.4.4 Trim and Quasi-Static Stability
  • 6.5 Heave Axis Response Criteria
  • 6.5.1 Criteria for Hover and Low-Speed Flight
  • 6.5.2 Criteria for Torque and Rotorspeed During Vertical Axis Manoeuvres
  • 6.5.3 Heave Response Criteria in Forward Flight
  • 6.5.4 Heave Response Characteristics in Steep Descent
  • 6.6 Yaw Axis Response Criteria
  • 6.6.1 Moderate to Large Amplitude/Low to Moderate Frequency: Quickness and Control Power
  • 6.6.2 Small Amplitude/Moderate to High Frequency: Bandwidth
  • 6.6.3 Small Amplitude/Low to Moderate Frequency: Dynamic Stability
  • 6.6.4 Trim and Quasi-Static Stability
  • 6.7 Cross-Coupling Criteria
  • 6.7.1 Pitch-to-Roll and Roll-to-Pitch Couplings
  • 6.7.2 Collective to Yaw Coupling
  • 6.7.3 Sideslip to Pitch and Roll Coupling
  • 6.8 Multi-Axis Response Criteria and Novel-Response Types
  • 6.8.1 Multi-Axis Response Criteria
  • 6.8.2 Novel Response Types
  • 6.9 Objective Criteria Revisited
  • Chapter 7 Flying Qualities: Subjective Assessment and Other Topics
  • 7.1 Introduction and Scope
  • 7.2 The Subjective Assessment of Flying Quality
  • 7.2.1 Pilot Handling Qualities Ratings - HQRs
  • 7.2.2 Conducting a Handling Qualities Experiment
  • Designing a Mission Task Element
  • Evaluating Roll Axis Handling Characteristics
  • 7.3 Special Flying Qualities
  • 7.3.1 Agility
  • Agility as a Military Attribute
  • The Agility Factor
  • Relating Agility to Handling Qualities Parameters
  • 7.3.2 The Integration of Controls and Displays for Flight in Degraded Visual Environments
  • Flight in DVE
  • Pilotage Functions
  • Flying in DVE
  • The Usable Cue Environment
  • UCE Augmentation with Overlaid Symbology
  • 7.3.3 Carefree Flying Qualities
  • 7.4 Pilot's Controllers
  • 7.5 The Contribution of Flying Qualities to Operational Effectiveness and the Safety of Flight
  • Chapter 8 Flying Qualities: Forms of Degradation
  • 8.1 Introduction and Scope
  • 8.2 Flight in Degraded Visual Environments
  • 8.2.1 Recapping the Usable Cue Environment
  • 8.2.2 Visual Perception in Flight Control - Optical Flow and Motion Parallax
  • 8.2.3 Time to Contact
  • Optical Tau,
  • 8.2.4 Control in the Deceleration-to-Stop Manoeuvre
  • 8.2.5 Tau-Coupling - A Paradigm for Safety in Action
  • 8.2.6 Terrain-Following Flight in Degraded Visibility
  • on the Rising Curve
  • 8.2.7 What Now for Tau?
  • 8.3 Handling Qualities Degradation through Flight System Failures
  • 8.3.1 Methodology for Quantifying Flying Qualities Following Flight Function Failures
  • 8.3.2 Loss of Control Function
  • Tail Rotor Failures
  • 8.3.3 Malfunction of Control - Hard-Over Failures
  • 8.3.4 Degradation of Control Function - Actuator Rate Limiting
  • 8.4 Encounters with Atmospheric Disturbances
  • 8.4.1 Helicopter Response to Aircraft Vortex Wakes
  • The Wake Vortex
  • Hazard Severity Criteria
  • Analysis of Encounters - Attitude Response
  • Analysis of Encounters - Vertical Response
  • 8.4.2 Severity of Transient Response
  • 8.5 Chapter Review
  • Appendix 8A HELIFLIGHT, HELIFLIGHT-R, and FLIGHTLAB at the University of Liverpool
  • 8A.1 FLIGHTLAB
  • 8A.2 Immersive Cockpit Environment
  • 8A.3 HELIFLIGHT-R
  • Chapter 9 Flying Qualities: The Story of an Idea
  • 9.1 Introduction and Scope
  • 9.2 Historical Context of Rotorcraft Flying Qualities
  • 9.2.1 The Early Years
  • Some Highlights from the 1940s-1950s
  • 9.2.2 The Middle Years - Some Highlights from the 1960s-1970s
  • 9.3 Handling Qualities as a Performance Metric - The Development of ADS-33
  • 9.3.1 The Evolution of a Design Standard - The Importance of Process
  • 9.3.2 Some Critical Innovations in ADS-33
  • 9.4 The UK MoD Approach
  • 9.5 Roll Control
  • A Driver for Rotor Design
  • 9.6 Helicopter Agility
  • 9.6.1 ADS-33 Tailoring and Applications
  • 9.6.2 Handling Qualities as a Safety Net
  • The Pilot as a System Component
  • 9.7 The Future Challenges for Rotorcraft Handling Qualities Engineering
  • Chapter 10 Tiltrotor Aircraft: Modelling and Flying Qualities
  • 10.1 Introduction and Scope
  • 10.2 Modelling and Simulation of Tiltrotor Aircraft Flight Dynamics
  • 10.2.1 Building a Simulation Model
  • Multi-Body Dynamic Modelling
  • Axes Systems
  • Gimbal Rotors
  • FXV-15 Model Components and Data
  • Gimballed Proprotor Family
  • Wing Family
  • Fuselage Family
  • Empennage Family
  • Power Plant and Transmission Family
  • Flight Control System Family
  • 10.2.2 Interactional Aerodynamics in Low-Speed Flight
  • 10.2.3 Vortex Ring State and the Consequences for Tiltrotor Aircraft
  • 10.2.4 Trim, Linearisation, and Stability
  • 10.2.5 Response Analysis
  • 10.3 The Flying Qualities of Tiltrotor Aircraft
  • 10.3.1 General
  • 10.3.2 Developing Tiltrotor Mission Task Elements
  • Acceleration-Deceleration Characteristics
  • Flexibility of Operation
  • Tolerance in the Transition Programme
  • Control Margin
  • Trim Changes
  • Rate of Pitch Control Movement
  • 10.3.3 Flying Qualities of Tiltrotors
  • Clues from the Eigenvalues
  • 10.3.4 Agility and Closed-Loop Stability of Tiltrotors
  • Lateral-Directional Agility and Closed-Loop Stability
  • Longitudinal Pitch-Heave Agility and Closed-Loop Stability
  • 10.3.5 Flying Qualities during the Conversion
  • 10.3.6 Improving Tiltrotor Flying Qualities with Stability and Control Augmentation
  • Rate Stabilisation
  • V-22 Power Management and Control
  • Unification of Flying Qualities
  • Flying Qualities of Large Civil Tiltrotor Aircraft
  • 10.4 Load Alleviation versus Flying Qualities for Tiltrotor Aircraft
  • 10.4.1 Drawing on the V-22 Experience
  • Transient Driveshaft and Rotor Mast Torque
  • Proprotor Flapping
  • Oscillatory Yoke In-plane/Chordwise Bending
  • Nacelle Conversion Actuator Loads
  • 10.4.2 Load Alleviation for the European Civil Tiltrotor
  • Modelling for SLA - Oscillatory Yoke (Chordwise) Bending Moments
  • Control Laws for SLA
  • 10.5 Chapter Epilogue
  • Tempus Fugit for Tiltrotors
  • Appendix 10A Flightlab Axes Systems and Gimbal Flapping Dynamics
  • 10A.1 FLIGHTLAB Axes Systems
  • 10A.2 Gimbal Flapping Dynamics
  • Appendix 10B The XV-15 Tiltrotor
  • Aircraft Configuration Parameters
  • XV-15 3-view
  • XV-15 Control Ranges and Gearings
  • 10C.2 FXV-15 Stability and Control Derivative and Eigenvalue Tables
  • Helicopter Mode (Matrices Shown with and without (nointf) Aerodynamic Interactions)
  • Conversion Mode
  • Airplane Mode
  • Appendix 10D Proprotor Gimbal Dynamics in Airplane Mode
  • Appendix 10E Tiltrotor Directional Instability Through Constrained Roll Motion: An Elusive, Paradoxical Dynamic
  • 10E.1 Background and the Effective Directional Stability
  • 10E.2 Application to Tiltrotors
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

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