High Performance Polymers and Their Nanocomposites

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  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 4. Dezember 2018
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  • 402 Seiten
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978-1-119-36381-1 (ISBN)
High Performance Polymers and Their Nanocomposites summarizes many of the recent research accomplishments in the area of high performance polymers, such as: high performance polymers-based nanocomposites, liquid crystal polymers, polyamide 4, 6, polyamideimide, polyacrylamide, polyacrylamide-based composites for different applications, polybenzimidazole, polycyclohexylene dimethyl terephthalate, polyetheretherketone, polyetherimide, polyetherketoneketone, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulphide, polyphenylsulfone, polyphthalamide, Polysulfone, self-reinforced polyphenylene, thermoplastic polyimide.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 11,31 MB
978-1-119-36381-1 (9781119363811)

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Visakh P.M. (MSc, MPhil, PhD) is a prolific editor with more than 25 books already published. He is working as an Assistant Professor in Tusur University, Tomsk, Russia. He obtained his PhD, MPhil and MSc degrees from the School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India. He has an h-index of 14 for his journal publications. His research interests include polymer sciences, polymer nanocomposites, bio-nanocomposites, rubber-based nanocomposites and fire-retardant polymers.

Artem Semkin is currently working as a scientist in the Department of Microwave and Quantum Radio Engineering, Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk, Russia. He obtained his PhD from Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics and has published more than 80 publications with an h-index of 6. His areas of research include polymer sciences, photopolymers, liquid crystals, photopolymeric and liquid crystalline compositions.
Preface xv

1 High-Performance Polymer Nanocomposites and Their Applications: State of Art and New Challenges 1
PM Visakh

1.1 Liquid Crystal Polymers 1

1.2 Polyamide 4, 6, (PA4,6) 3

1.3 Polyacrylamide 4

1.4 Effect of Nanostructured Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxone on High Performance Poly(urethane-Imide) 5

1.5 Thermoplastic Polyimide 5

1.6 Performance Properties and Applications of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 7

1.7 Advances in High-Performance Polymers Bearing Phthalazinone Moieties 9

1.8 Poly(ethylene Terephthalate)-PET and Poly(ethylene Naphthalate)-PEN 11

1.9 High-Performance Oil Resistant Blends of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) and Epoxydized Natural Rubber (ENR) 14

1.10 High Performance Unsaturated Polyester/f-MWCNTs Nanocomposites Induced by F- Graphene Nanoplatelets 15

2 Liquid Crystal Polymers 27
Andreea Irina Barzic, Raluca Marinica Albu and Luminita Ioana Buruiana

2.1 Introduction and History 27

2.2 Polymerization 29

2.2.1 Synthesis of Lyotropic LC Polymers 30

2.2.2 Synthesis of Thermotropic LC Polymers 31

2.3 Properties 32

2.3.1 Rheology 32

2.3.2 Dielectric Behavior 35

2.3.3 Magnetic Properties 36

2.3.4 Mechanical Properties 36

2.3.5 Phases and Morphology 39

2.4 Processing 41

2.4.1 Injection Molding 41

2.4.2 Extrusion 42

2.4.3 Free Surface Flow 43

2.4.4 LC Polymer Fiber Spinning 44

2.5 Blends Based on Liquid Crystal Ppolymers 44

2.6 Composites of Liquid Crystal Polymers 46

2.7 Applications 49

2.7.1 LC Polymers as Optoelectronic Materials 49

2.7.2 Liquid Crystalline Polymers in Displays 50

2.7.3 Sensors and Actuators 51

2.8 Environmental Impact and Recycling 52

2.9 Concluding Remarks and Future Trends 54

Acknowledgment 54

3 Polyamide 4,6, (PA4,6) 59
Emel Kuram and Zeynep Munteha Sahin

3.1 Introduction and History 59

3.2 Polymerization and Fabrication 60

3.3 Properties 69

3.4 Chemical Stability 72

3.5 Compounding and Special Additives 72

3.6 Processing 73

3.7 Applications 83

3.8 Blends of Polyamide 4,6, (PA4,6) 84

3.9 Composites of Polyamide 4,6, (PA4,6) 89

3.10 Nanocomposites of Polyamide 4,6, (PA4,6) 90

3.11 Environmental Impact and Recycling 94

3.12 Conclusions 98

4 Polyacrylamide (PAM) 105
Malgorzata Wisniewska

4.1 Introduction and History 105

4.2 Polymerization and Fabrication 107

4.3 Properties 110

4.4 Chemical Stability 111

4.5 Compounding and Special Additives 112

4.6 Processing 113

4.7 Applications 114

4.8 Blends of Polyacrylamide 116

4.9 Composites of Polyacrylamide 118

4.10 Nanocomposites of Polyacrylamide 119

4.11 Environmental Impact and Recycling 121

4.12 Conclusions 122

5 Effect of Nanostructured Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxone on High Performance Poly(urethane-imide) 133
Dhorali Gnanasekaran

5.1 Introduction 134

5.2 Experimental 136

5.3 Results and Discussion 138

5.4 Conclusions 145

6 Thermoplastic Polyimide (TPI) 149
Xiantao Feng and Jialei Liu

6.1 Introduction and History 149

6.2 Polymerization and Fabrication 150

6.2.1 Thermoplastic Polyimides Based on BEPA 150

6.2.2 Thermoplastic Polyimides based on PMDA 153

6.2.3 Thermoplastic Polyimides Based on BTDA 154

6.2.4 Thermoplastic Polyimides Based on ODPA 157

6.2.5 Thermoplastic Polyimides Based on BPDA 157

6.2.6 Thermoplastic Copolyimides 158

6.3 Properties 160

6.3.1 TPI Based on BEPA 160

6.3.2 Thermoplastic Polyimides based on PMDA 163

6.3.3 TPI Based on ODPA 163

6.3.4 Thermoplastic Polyimides Based on BPDA 168

6.3.5 Thermoplastic Copolyimides 170

6.4 Chemical Stability 170

6.4.1 Hydrolytic Stability 170

6.4.2 Oxidative Stability 174

6.5 Compounding 175

6.5.1 Chloromethylation 175

6.5.2 Sulfonation 178

6.5.3 Phosphorylation 178

6.5.4 Bromination 178

6.5.5 Arylation 181

6.6 Processing 181

6.6.1 Injection Molding 181

6.6.2 Compression Molding 182

6.6.3 Extrusion Molding 184

6.6.4 Coating 184

6.6.5 Spinning [40] 186

6.7 Applications 186

6.7.1 Membranes 186

6.7.2 Adhesives 188

6.7.3 Composites 189 Skybond 190

6.7.4 Engineering Plastics 190 VESPEL Plastics 190 ULTEM Plastics [48, 49] 191 AURUM Plastics [50] 192 Ratem Plastics [51] 192

6.8 Blends of Thermoplastic Polyimide (TPI) 193

6.8.1 TPI Blends with TPI 193

6.8.2 Polyamic Acid Blending 195

6.9 Composites of Thermoplastic Polyimide (TPI) 196

6.9.1 LaRC Composites 197

6.9.2 Skybond 202

6.9.3 PAI Polyamide-Imide Composites 205

6.10 Nanocomposites of Thermoplastic Polyimide (TPI) 208

6.10.1 TPI/silver Nanocomposite 208

6.10.2 TPI/Fe-FeO Nanocomposite 210

6.10.3 TPI/Carbon Nanocomposites 211

6.10.4 TPI/CF/TiO2 Nanocomposite 214

6.11 Environmental Impact and Recycling 214

6.12 Conclusions 215

7 Performance Properties and Applications of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) - A Review 221
E. Dhanumalayan and Girish M Joshi

7.1 Introduction 221

7.2 Properties of PTFE 223

7.2.1 Physical Properties of PTFE 223

Surface Properties 223

7.2.2 Tribological Property of PTFE Surface 224

7.2.3 Mechanical Properties of PTFE 226

7.2.4 Chemical Properties of PTFE 228

Solubility of PTFE 228

7.2.5 Thermal Properties of PTFE 228

Thermal transport property of PTFE composites 229

7.2.6 Electrical Properties of PTFE 229

Dielectric property of PTFE 229

7.2.7 Optical and Spectral Properties of PTFE 230

7.3 Processing and Casting Techniques of PTFE 231

7.3.1 Casting of PTFE by Melt-Processing Method 232

7.3.2 Sintering of PTFE 233

7.3.3 Molding Techniques of PTFE 233

7.3.4 Casting of PTFE by Extrusion 236

7.3.5 Solution Blending of PTFE 237

7.3.6 PTFE Coating Methods 238

7.4 Applications of PTFE in Various Fields 238

7.4.1 PTFE in Automotive Industries 238

7.4.2 PTFE in Petrochemical and Power Industries 239

7.4.3 PTFE in Aerospace Industries 240

7.4.4 PTFE in Food Processing Industries 241

7.4.5 PTFE Applications in Chemical Industries 242

7.4.6 PTFE in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications 242

7.4.7 PTFE in Electrical Applications 243

7.4.8 PTFE for Defense Applications 243

7.4.9 Application of PTFE Ice-Phobic Surfaces 243

7.4.10 Application of PTFE in Water and Air Purification Process 244

7.5 Different Forms of PTFE 244

7.5.1 Fine Powder of PTFE for Foaming Applications 244

7.5.2 Granular Form of PTFE 245

7.5.3 Resin Form of PTFE 245

7.5.4 Paste Form of PTFE 245

7.5.5 Emulsion Form of PTFE 246

7.6 Various Grades of PTFE 246

7.6.1 Carbon-Reinforced PTFE 246

7.6.2 Glass Fiber-Reinforced PTFE 247

7.6.3 Bronze-Filled PTFE Composites 247

7.6.4 Graphite Filled PTFE 248

7.6.5 Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2)-Filled PTFE 248

7.7 Nanocomposites of PTFE 248

7.8 Future Prospects of PTFE 254

7.9 Conclusion 256

8 Advances in High-Performance Polymers Bearing Phthalazinone Moieties 267
Jinyan Wang, Cheng Liu, Shouhai Zhang and Xigao Jian

8.1 Introduction 268

8.2 A New Mmonomer: 1, 2-Dihydro-4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2H)-Phthalazinone 269

8.3 Synthesis and Properties of Phthalazinone-Containing Polyarylethers 271

8.3.1 Poly(phthalazinone Ether Sulfone Ketone)s (PPESKs) 271

8.3.2 Poly(phthalazinone Ether Ketone Ketone) (PPEKK) and Its Copolymers 274

8.3.3 Poly(phthalazinone Ether Nitrile Sulfone Ketone)s (PPENSKs) 275

8.3.4 Poly(aryl Ether) Containing Aryl-S-Triazine and Phthalazinone Moieties 279

8.4 Polyamides and Polyimides Containing Phthalazinone Moieties 285

8.5 Phthalazinone-Containing Polyarylates 291

8.6 Phthalazinone-Containing Ppolybenzimidazole 292

8.7 Conclusions and Prospects 293

Acknowledgments 294

9 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-PET and Poly(ethylene naphthalate)-PEN 301
Luigi Sorrentino, Marco D' Auria and Eugenio Amendola

9.1 Introduction 302

9.2 Synthesis of PET and PEN 304

9.2.1 PET Production 312

9.3 Processing of Neat Polymers 313

9.3.1 Materials Feeding 315

9.3.2 Melting and Compounding 316

9.3.3 Venting 316

9.3.4 Metering 316

9.3.5 Temperature Managing 317

9.3.6 Die Forming and Post-Die Treatments 317

9.3.7 Tandem Extruders Cconfiguration 317

9.4 Nanocomposites 318

9.4.1 Isodimensional Nanoparticles 319

9.4.2 Clay Nanoparticles 321

9.4.3 Carbon-Based Nanoparticles 324

9.5 Nanocomposites Production Processes 325

9.5.1 In Situ Polymerization 326

9.5.2 Solution Intercalation (Or Solution Blending) 328

9.5.3 Direct Mixing 329

9.5.4 Melt Compounding (High Shear Mixing) 330

9.5.5 Three Roll Milling 332

9.5.6 Dispersion Aids (Ultrasounds) 333

9.5.7 Solid-State Shear Processing 335

9.5.8 Combined Approaches 336

9.6 Structural and Functional Properties 336

9.6.1 Mechanical Behavior 337

9.6.2 Thermal Resistance 340

9.6.3 Transport Properties 341

9.6.4 Electrical Conductivity 343

9.6.5 Rheological Properties 346

10 High-Performance Oil-Resistant Blends of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR) 361
D.K. Setua and G.B. Nando

10.1 Introduction 362

10.2 Experimental 365

10.3 Result and Discussion 367

10.3.1 Optimization of Curing System for the ENR/EPDM Blends 367

10.3.2 Optimization of Blend Ratio for the ENR/EPDM Blends 369

10.3.3 Optimization of MAH Concentration for Maleation of EPDM 369

10.3.4 Characterization of ENR-MA-G-EPDM Blends 373

10.3.5 Optimization of Processing Temperature for ENR-MA-G-EPDM Blends 375

10.3.6 Compatibility Characteristics of ENR-MA-G-EPDM Blends 375 Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements in Solution 375 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) 377 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Studies 378

10.3.7 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Individual Rubbers and Blends 379 Stress-Strain Properties 379 Determination of Hardness 382 Oil Swelling Studies 383 Aging Studies 385 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 386

10.3.8 Effect of Addition of Carbon Black in ENR/MA-G-EPDM Blend 388

10.4 Summary and Conclusions 388

11 High-Performance Unsaturated Polyester/f-MWCNTs Nanocomposites Induced by f-Graphene Nanoplatelets 393
Shivkumari Panda, Dibakar Behera, Tapan Kumar Bastia and Prasant Rath

11.1 Introduction and History 394

11.1.1 Polymerization 394

11.1.2 Fabrication 395 Hand Lay-Up 395 Spray Lay-Up 397 Compression Molding 397 Filament Winding 398

11.1.3 Chemical Stability of UPE 398

11.1.4 Compounding and Special Additives 398

11.1.5 Applications 401

11.2 Nanocomposites of UPE

11.2.1 Experimental Details 403 Materials 403 Methods 403

11.2.2 Instruments and Measurements 405 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy 405 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 405 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) 406 Contact Angle Determination 406 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis 406 Impact Testing 406 Water Absorption Capacity Determination 406

11.2.3 Results and Discussion 407 FTIR Analysis 407 SEM Analysis 408 TEM Analysis 410 Contact Angle 411 Thermomechanical Properties of UPE/Single Filler and UPE/Hybrid Filler Nanocomposites 412 Water Absorption Capacity 414


Many of the recent research accomplishments in the area of high performance polymers, their preparation, structure-properties and their nanocomposites are summarized in High Performance Polymers and Their Nanocomposites. Among the many topics discussed are liquid crystal polymers, polyamide 4,6 and polyacrylamide, and the influence of nanostructured multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane on surface morphology. Also discussed are thermoplastic polyimide, and polytetrafluoroethylene's performance properties and applications. A review of polymer containing phthalazinone moieties is presented along with a discussion of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) polyesters; high-performance oil-resistant blends of ethylene propylene diene monomer and epoxidized natural rubber; and unsaturated polyester nanocomposites reinforced with functionalized nanofillers.

This book will be a very valuable reference source for university and college faculties, professionals, post-doctoral research fellows, senior graduate students, and researchers from R&D laboratories working in the area of high performance polymers and their nanocomposites. The various chapters in this book are contributed by prominent researchers from industry, academia and government/private research laboratories across the globe, making it an up-to-date record on the major findings and observations in the field.

The first chapter discusses the state-of-the-art of high performance polymer nanocomposites and new challenges relating to them. The second chapter introduces the concepts of liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) and also gives their historical background. Because the method used to obtain these compounds is an important issue, the main synthesis routes are described. In order to understand the solution properties of LCPs some rheological aspects are highlighted, together with some basic characteristics in solid phase, like dielectric behavior, magnetic properties, mechanical resistance and phase morphology. Since the features of LCPs are also affected by the applied processing methodology, basic aspects concerning injection molding, extrusion, free surface flow and LCP fiber spinning are briefly addressed. The practical importance of blends and composites with LCP phase is emphasized in various industrial areas such as optoelectronics, displays, sensors and actuators. Several essential aspects are disclosed regarding the environmental impact of LCPs and concerns about their recycling. Considering the high demand for products based on LCPs, the corresponding market is expected to expand, but efforts still must be made to improve their performance and reduce preparation costs.

Various topics on polyamide 4,6 and its properties are discussed in the third chapter. Polyamide (PA) or nylon is one of the engineering plastics employed in many engineering components. At high temperatures, PA4,6 provides excellent properties such as high stiffness, creep resistance, thermal stability, and fatigue resistance, along with good toughness. Also, PA4,6 shows better chemical resistance to acidic salts, methanol, mineral salts, oils and grease. Its excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures, low friction, excellent resistance to wear and excellent chemical resistance make PA4,6 polymer a good candidate for a broad range of technical applications in electrical, electronic and automotive industries among others. Therefore, studies about the polymerization, properties, chemical stability, processing and applications of PA4,6 are presented in this chapter. The blends, composites and nanocomposites of PA4,6 with other polymers are also mentioned, along with its environmental impact and recycling possibility.

The fourth chapter of this book discusses polyacrylamide and its nanocomposites. Polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers are a synthetic group with a great variety of macromolecular compounds. Polyacrylamide is very soluble in water, with the solution's viscosity being linearly dependent on polymer molecular weight; and PAM amide with weak basic character undergoes hydrolysis, halogenation, methylation and sulfonation reactions. This chapter is mainly divided into two parts. The first part discusses the history of PAM and its polymerization, fabrication, properties, chemical stability, compounding, special additives, processing and applications. Whereas the second part deals with various topics such as blends and composites of PAM, its nanocomposites, environmental impact and recycling.

The effect of nanostructured polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxone (POSS) on high performance poly(urethane-imide) (PUI) is the topic of the fifth chapter, in which the author discusses different research studies related to POSS. Successfully embedding POSS in the PUI membrane through chemical bonding and the vital role of POSS on the surface morphology of prepared membranes were studied. A range of PUI-POSS membranes were prepared by a facile in-situ polymerization reaction based on different loadings of POSS and their surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The thermal stability of PUI-POSS nanocomposite membranes were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The TEM images revealed the dispersion behavior of POSS in the membranes, which was found to be in the range of 10 to 20 nm size. SEM images showed no agglomeration even at the higher content of POSS. Three-dimensional AFM images of the membranes indicated a slight increase in roughness when POSS content was increased. The gel content, fractional free volume (FFV) and density of the PUI-POSS membranes were calculated, and effectively correlated with surface morphology studies. The obtained results showed that the prepared membrane is excellent for gas transport studies.

The next chapter mainly focuses on the polymerization, processing, properties and applications of thermoplastic polyimide (TPI). The polymerization and properties are introduced by their basic polymer units such as BEPA, PMDA, BTDA, ODPA, BTDA, etc. The blends, composites and nanocomposites of TPI are also described in this chapter, including compounding with other molecules of TPI. Its environmental impact and recyclability are briefly discussed at the end of the chapter.

Advances in high performance polymers containing phthalazinone moieties are discussed in the seventh chapter. The authors of the chapter explain that high performance polymer materials have excellent performance in high temperatures and are indispensable in aerospace, electronics, electrical engineering, high-speed rail, and other important high-tech fields. Progress in the synthesis and performance of phthalazinone-containing polyarylethers (including poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) s, poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile sulfone ketone)s, poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone ketone)s, and poly(triaryl triazine ring)s), polyamides, polyimides, polyarylates, and polybenzimidazoles is also reviewed. Because the phenyl-phthalazinone structure is a twisted, non-coplanar, and fused ring, the above polymers are not only heat resistant, but also soluble. The processing methods are diverse and include both thermoforming (molding, extrusion, injection, etc.) and solution processing. Hence, these polymers have a wide range of applications.

In the eitgth chapter, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) polyesters are discussed in a wide range of review studies. The first part of this chapter discusses the synthesis of PET and PEN, PET production, processing of neat polymers, materials feeding, melting, compounding, venting, metering, temperature managing, die forming and post-die treatments, and tandem extruders configuration. The second part of the chapter relates to PET and PEN nanocomposites, in which the authors explain the preparation of polyester-based nanocomposites using different preparation methods, and also characterize them with different types of techniques.

In the ninth chapter, different topics relating to high-performance oil-resistant blends of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) are discussed. Among the many subtopics discussed in the first part of the chapter are optimization of the curing system and blend ratio for the ENR/EPDM blends, the optimization of maleic anhydride (MAH) concentration for maleation of EPDM, and the characterization and compatibility characteristics of ENR-MA-g-EPDM blends and optimization of their processing temperature. The second part of the chapter mainly focuses on characterization methods such as ultrasonic velocity measurements in solution, thermomechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy studies, evaluation of the mechanical properties of individual rubbers and blends, stress-strain properties, determination of hardness, oil swelling and aging studies, and thermogravimetric analysis. Finally, the effect of addition of carbon black in ENR/MA-g-EPDM blend is also explained.

The subject of the final chapter is high performance unsaturated polyester/f-MWCNTs nanocomposites induced by f-graphene nanoplatelets. The focus of the chapter is mainly on the unique properties of unsaturated polyester resin (UPE) as well as preparation of a hybrid UPE nanocomposite incorporated with chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) and functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs) through a solution mixing procedure. The chapter's authors tried to compile the detailed preparation and characterization techniques of both functionalized nanofillers and the hybrid UPE nanocomposites with a focus on the effect of nanofiller...

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