Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composite Materials

Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 15. August 2019
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  • 248 Seiten
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978-1-119-30170-7 (ISBN)
Presents new and innovative bio-based monomers to replace traditional petrochemical-based building blocks Featuring contributions from top experts in the field, this book discusses new developments in the area of bio monomers and green polymeric composite materials. It covers bio monomers, green polymeric composites, composites from renewable resources, bio-sourced polymers, green composites, biodegradation, processing methods, green polymeric gels, and green polymeric membranes. Each chapter in Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials presents the most recent research and technological ideas in a comprehensive style. It examines bio monomers for green polymer and the processing methods for the bio nanocomposites. It covers the preparation, characterization, and applications of bio-polymeric materials based blends, as well as the applications of biopolymeric gels in medical biotechnology. The book also explores the properties and applications of gelatins, pectins, and carrageenans gels. Additionally, it offers a plethora of information on green polymeric membranes; the bio-degradation of green polymeric composites materials; applications of green polymeric composites materials; hydrogels used for biomedical applications; and the use of natural aerogels as thermal insulations. * Introduces readers to the innovative, new bio-based monomers that are taking the place of traditional petrochemical-based building blocks * Covers green polymers, green composites, bio-sourced polymers, bio nanocomposites, biodegradable polymers, green polymer gels, and membranes * Features input from leading researchers immersed in the area of study Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials is suitable for academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and advanced students in the field of bio monomers and green polymeric composites materials.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
P.M. Visakh, MSc, MPhil, PhD, is Assistant Professor at TUSUR University, Tomsk, Russia.

Oguz Bayraktar, MSc, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Ege University, Turkey.

Gopalakrishnan Menon, MSc, PhD, works at the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Tomsk State University, Russia.
List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 Biomonomers for Green Polymers: Introduction 1
P. M. Visakh

1.1 Processing Methods for Bionanocomposites 1

1.2 Biopolymeric Material-based Blends: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 4

1.3 Applications of Biopolymeric Gels in Medical Biotechnology 5

1.4 Introduction to Green Polymeric Membranes 6

1.5 Properties and Applications of Gelatin, Pectin, and Carrageenan Gels 7

1.6 Biodegradation of Green Polymeric Composite Materials 9

1.7 Applications of Green Polymeric Composite Materials 10

1.8 Constituents, Fabrication, Crosslinking, and Clinical Applications of Hydrogels 11

1.9 Natural Aerogels as Thermal Insulation 13

References 14

2 Processing Methods for Bionanocomposites 25
Dipali R. Bagal-Kestwal, M.H. Pan and Been-Huang Chiang

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Classification of NBCs 26

2.2.1 Matrix-based NBCs 26 Polysaccharide Nanocomposites 26 Animal Protein-based Nanocomposites 28 Plant Protein-based Nanocomposites 29

2.2.2 Reinforcement-based NBCs 29 Metal Nanocomposites 30 Inorganic Nanocomposites 31

2.3 General Processing Methods for NBCs 31

2.3.1 Pressure Extrusion 32

2.3.2 Solid-state Shear Pulverization 32

2.3.3 Electrospinning and Co-axial Electrospinning 33

2.3.4 Solution Casting and Evaporation 34

2.3.5 Melt Intercalation Method 34

2.3.6 In Situ Polymerization 35

2.3.7 Drying Techniques (Freeze-drying and Hot Pressing) 35

2.3.8 Polymer Grafting 36

2.4 Properties of NBCs 37

2.5 Future and Applications of NBCs 37

Acknowledgments 37

References 38

3 Biopolymeric Material-based Blends: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 57
Muhammad Abdur Rehman and Zia ur Rehman

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 State of the Art in Biopolymeric Blends 58

3.3 Preparative Methods for Blend Formation 58

3.4 Blend Preparation by the Melting Process 59

3.5 Aqueous Blending Technology 60

3.6 Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic Biopolymeric Blends 63

3.6.1 Biopolymeric Blends of Starch and Polylactic Acid 64 Maleic Anhydride-grafted PLA Chains 65 Polycaprolactone-grafted Polysaccharide Copolymers 65

3.6.2 Hydrolytic Degradability of Biopolymeric Blends 65

3.6.3 Thermodynamics of Miscibility with Additives 66 Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate 66 Dioctyl Maleate 67 Polyvinyl Alcohols 67 Poly(hydroxyester ether) 67 Poly(??-hydroxybutyrate)-co-3-hydroxyvalerate 67 Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) 67

3.6.4 Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) 68 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) 68

3.7 Opportunities and Challenges 68

3.8 Summary 69

References 69

4 Applications of Biopolymeric Gels in Medical Biotechnology 77
Zulal Yalinca and Sukru Tuzmen

4.1 Introduction 77

4.1.1 Historical Background 77

4.1.2 Classification of Hydrogels 77

4.1.3 Preparation Methods of Hydrogels 80 Physical Crosslinked Hydrogels 81 Chemical Crosslinked Hydrogels 81 General Properties of Hydrogels 81

4.2 Types of Biopolymeric Gels 81

4.3 Applications of Biopolymeric Gel 84

4.3.1 Applications of Hydrogels in Drug-delivery Systems 86

4.3.2 Applications of Hydrogels in siRNA and Peptide-based Therapeutics 87

4.3.3 Applications of Hydrogels in Wound Healing, Tissue Engineering, and Regenerative Medicine 88

4.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 88

References 89

5 Introduction to Green Polymeric Membranes 95
Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, Nor Asikin Awang, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh and Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Types of Green Polymeric Membranes 96

5.2.1 Cellulose Polymeric Membranes 96

5.2.2 Chitosan Polymeric Membranes 98

5.3 Properties of Green Polymeric Membranes 100

5.3.1 Film-forming Properties 100

5.3.2 Mechanical Properties 101

5.3.3 Thermal Stability Properties 101

5.3.4 Chemical Stability 102

5.3.5 Hydrophilicity-Hydrophobicity Balance Properties 102

5.4 Applications of Green Polymeric Membranes 103

5.4.1 Heavy Metal Removal 103

5.4.2 Water Purification 105

5.4.3 Dye Removal 107

5.4.4 Biomedical Applications 109

5.4.5 Renewable Energy 110

5.5 Conclusion 111

References 112

6 Properties and Applications of Gelatin, Pectin, and Carrageenan Gels 117
Dipali R. Bagal-Kestwal, M.H. Pan and Been-Huang Chiang

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Gelatin 117

6.2.1 Structural Unit of Gelatin 118

6.2.2 Molecular Structure of Gelatin 118

6.2.3 Properties of Gelatin 119 Thickening Ability 119 Gelling Ability 120 Film-Forming Property 120 Other Properties 120 Microbiological Properties 120

6.2.4 Gelatin Applications 120 Food Applications 121 Cosmetics and Pharmaceutical Applications 121 Other Applications 122

6.3 Pectins 122

6.3.1 Natural Sources of Pectin 122

6.3.2 Structural Unit of Pectin 123

6.3.3 Low Methoxyl Pectins 124

6.3.4 High Methoxyl Pectins 124

6.3.5 Gelation of Pectins 125

6.3.6 Pectin Extraction 125

6.3.7 Pectin Functionality and Applications 126

6.4 Carrageenans 128

6.4.1 Sources 128

6.4.2 Carrageenan Structure 128

6.4.3 Properties of Carrageenans 129

6.4.4 Extraction of Carrageenans 129

6.4.5 Applications of Carrageenans 130

6.5 Future Prospects 132

Acknowledgments 132

References 133

7 Biodegradation of Green Polymeric Composites Materials 141
Karthika M., Nitheesha Shaji, Athira Johnson, Neelakandan M. Santhosh, Deepu A. Gopakumar and Sabu Thomas

7.1 Introduction 141

7.2 Biodegradation of Green Polymers 142

7.2.1 Green Polymers: Definition and Properties 142

7.2.2 Mechanism of Biodegradation 144

7.2.3 Biodegradation of Green Polymers 149

7.3 Biodegradation of Composite Materials 150

7.4 Conclusion 155

References 156

8 Applications of Green Polymeric Composite Materials 161
Bilahari Aryat, V.K. YaduNath, Neelakandan M. Santhosh and Deepu A. Gopakumar

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications of PEG 162

8.2.1 Biological Separations 162

8.2.2 PEG Proteins and PEG Peptides for Medical Applications 163

8.2.3 Poly(lactic acid): Properties and Applications 163 Activity of PEG on Non-fouling Surfaces 164 Tether between Molecules and Surfaces 164 Control of Electro-osmosis 164 PLA as a Viable Biodegradable Polymer 164

8.3 Industrial Applications 165

8.3.1 Biological Applications 170

8.3.2 Biosensors 170

8.3.3 Tissue Engineering 170

8.3.4 Wound-healing Applications 170

8.3.5 Packaging Applications 171

8.4 Conclusion 171

References 172

9 Hydrogels used for Biomedical Applications 175
Nafisa Gull, Shahzad Maqsood Khan, Atif Islam and Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Hydrogels 175

9.3 Short History of Hydrogels 176

9.4 Methods of Fabrication of Hydrogels 176

9.5 Classification of Hydrogels 177

9.6 Natural Polymers Used for Hydrogels 177

9.6.1 Protein 177 Collagen 177 Gelatine 178 Matrigel 178

9.6.2 Polysaccharides 179 Hyaluronic Acid 179 Alginate 180 Chitosan 180 Xyloglucan 181 Dextran 181 Agarose 183

9.6.3 Heparin 183

9.7 Synthetic Polymers Used for Hydrogels 185

9.7.1 Polyacrylic Acid 185

9.7.2 Polyimide 185

9.7.3 Polyethylene Glycol 186

9.7.4 Polyvinyl Alcohol 186

9.8 Crosslinking of Hydrogels 187

9.8.1 Physical Crosslinking 187

9.8.2 Chemical Crosslinking 187

9.8.3 Photocrosslinking 188

9.9 Biomedical Applications of Hydrogels 188

9.9.1 Contact Lenses 188

9.9.2 Oral Drug Delivery 189

9.9.3 Tissue Engineering 189

9.9.4 Wound Healing 190

9.9.5 Gene Delivery 190

9.10 Conclusions 191

References 191

10 Natural Aerogels as Thermal Insulators 201
Mohammadreza Saboktakin and Amin Saboktakin

References 220

Index 227

Biomonomers for Green Polymers: Introduction

P. M. Visakh

Department of Physical Electronics, TUSUR University, Tomsk, Russia

1.1 Processing Methods for Bionanocomposites

The new generation of hybrid nanostructured materials has two crucial properties: biocompatibility and biodegradability [1,2]. Exploitation of various biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, etc. for preparation of nanocomposites has been done in last few decades [3]. Processing methods for matrix and filler are sometimes the same. However, some matrices are prepared using combinations of techniques to achieve the desired quality of bionanocomposites, therefore we will discuss the processing methods for bionanocomposites with suitable examples. Bionanocomposites of polysaccharide matrices are mainly prepared by solvent intercalation or melt processing and not through in situ polymerization where nature of the polysaccharide directly influences the route of preparation. Some polysaccharides with nanostructure fillers are discussed as examples. Most of the cellulose whiskers-reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocomposites are prepared by melt extrusion to avoid agglomeration and aggregation during drying [4]. Porous networks and thickened cellulose ribbons in gelatin/nanocellulose composites are prepared using an enzymatically modified form of gelatin [5]. Cellulose nanocomposites based on nanoparticles, such as clay [6-14], carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [15], graphene, layered double hydroxide (LDH) [16], and silica [17] have been prepared.

Starch is another abundant, inexpensive, naturally renewable and biodegradable polysaccharide, produced by most green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and animal feeds. Starch nanocomposites are mixtures of starch-based biopolymers with nanofillers (solid layered clays, synthetic polymer nanofibers, cellulose nanowhiskers, CNTs, and other metal nanostructures). Environmentally friendly starch nanocomposites exhibit significant improvements in mechanical properties, dimensional stability, transparency, improved processability, and solvent or gas resistance. Chitosan (CS)/chitin, the second most abundant natural biopolymer, also can be integrated with clay, graphene, and carbon nanostructures to prepare bionanocomposites [18-21]. Due to its high content of amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups, chitosan and its derivatives are excellent adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions, fluoride, and organic dyes. Films of spin-coated chitosan-alginate nanocomposite have potential uses in bioapplications. Lignin-based nanocomposite films have been prepared using CNCs (carbon nanocomposites) and used in various applications such as medical, biological, optical and sensors, and electronic [22]. They are also used as adhesives, stabilizing agents, and precursors for many aromatic chemicals. Modified lignins, such as lignosulfates, kraft lignin, and acetylated lignin, contain CNCs or commercial derivatives or nanocellulosic polysaccharides. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film coated with graphene oxide (GO)/pullulan nanocomposite can be used in food/pharmaceutical applications [23]. Bionanocomposites with enriched properties based on two microbial polysaccharides, pullulan and bacterial cellulose (BC), were prepared by Trovatti et al. for possible application in organic electronics, dry food packaging and the biomedical field [24]. Pullulan composites with many materials, including chitosan [25], caseinate [26], starch nanocrystals [27], collagen [28], poly (vinyl alcohol) [29], and hydrogel with methacrylate [30], have excellent compatibility.

Their biodegradability, low cost, and surfaced modification with active functional groups for catching targeting molecules make these matrices feasible candidates for applications in the pharmaceutical industry [31]. Electrospun collagen-chitosan nanofibers were stabilized by glutaraldehyde vapor via crosslinking, which afforded a biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) for cell growth [32]. Collagen is regarded as one of the most useful biomaterials, exhibiting a number of biological advantages. The outstanding performance and biomedical application of this protein biomaterial have induced researcher interests in synthetic composite material fabrication. Soy protein isolate (SPI) has been extensively studied for bioderived packaging materials. Several recent studies have investigated the improvement of mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films after incorporating nanoclays such as montmorillonite (MMT) [33-41]. Further, these nanocomposite films have also been reported for decreased water vapor and oxygen permeability, and increased elastic modulus and tensile strength, which makes them suitable for packaging industry. Recent studies have also reported that the SPI-based nanocomposite bioplastics with highly exfoliated MMT have significantly improved mechanical strength and thermal stability [42]. Thus, bio-based polycaprolactone-SPI is not only ecofriendly but intercalated nanocomposites with enhanced tensile and dynamic mechanical properties when produced by the melt compounding method [43].

In the case of biocomposites, the properties of the composites produced are dependent on the inter-phase interaction of the reinforced material and matrix. Filler is also a value-added material, but wise selection of processing methodology, optimum conditions, and compatible phase components is needed. Polymer/metal nanocomposites consisting of polymer as matrix and metal nanoparticles as nanofiller commonly exhibit several attractive advantages, such as electrical, mechanical, and optical characteristics [44]. Metal nanocomposites with protein, nucleic acid, and polysaccharides have shown potential applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioimaging, wound healing, biomedicine, energy production and storage, and electronic devices such as biosensors, affinity materials, etc. [45]. Bottom-up methods are found to be promising for controlling the properties and specific orientation of nanomaterials. Thermal evaporation and sputtering techniques have been considered as facile, simple, low-cost, and high-yield methods for synthesis of high-quality nanomaterials/nanostructures [46,47]. Various immobilization methods, including entrapment, adsorption, crosslinking, electro-polymerization, and encapsulation, have been used for capturing biological moieties in the matrix. This is one of the main processes employed in the manufacturing of nanobiocomposites (NBCs) [48]. There are two main types of extrusion: reactive extrusion and extrusion cooking. Reactive extrusion uses chemical modification via crosslinking [49]. Generally, extrusion technology used in the food industry is referred to as extrusion cooking and results in different physical and chemical properties of the extrudates depending on the raw materials and extrusion conditions used [50]. Various starch nanocomposite varieties have been prepared and reported by many researchers for biodegradable packaging applications in food industry. Moigne et al. developed a continuous CO2 assisted extrusion process to prepare poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/clays NBC foams with better homogeneity and high porosity [51]. Inventor Torkelson has successfully produced a well-dispersed graphite-polymer nanocomposite [52]. Taking advantage of near-ambient-temperature processing, solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) was recently used to produce biodegradable polymer matrix composites with starch [53], rice husk ash [54], and eggshell filler [55,56]. This technique that has proven to effectively disperse nanoscale structural entities to achieve compatibilized polymer blends and exfoliated polymer nanocomposites.

This physical method uses extrusion of the polymer solution with reinforcement of nanomaterials and biological entity for the preparation of NBCs. Polymers, molten at high temperature, can also be made into nanofibers by electrically charging a suspended droplet of polymer melt or solution [57-63]. Instead of a solution, the polymer melt is introduced into the capillary tube. The major difference is that a compound spinneret with two (or more) components can be fed through different coaxial capillary channels [64]. Wet-dry electrospinning and wet-wet electrospinning techniques are used for volatile and non-volatile solvents respectively. Both techniques offer the possibility of producing nanofibers with controlled fiber diameter to make film or membrane or an oriental controlled fiber. Such fibrous scaffolds are ideal for the purpose of tissue regeneration because their dimensions are similar to the components of the extracellular matrix and mimic its fibrillar structure, providing essential signals for cellular assembly and proliferation. Core-shell structured nanofibers where collagen as the shell and...

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