Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies with Online Practice

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 3. Mai 2018
  • |
  • 384 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-47366-4 (ISBN)
 
Practice your way to a high score in your anatomy & physiology class

The human body has 11 major anatomical systems, 206 bones, and dozens of organs, tissues, and fluids-that's a lot to learn if you want to ace your anatomy & physiology class! Luckily, you can master them all with this hands-on book + online experience. Memorization is the key to succeeding in A&P, and Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies gives you all the practice you need to score high.

Inside and online, you'll find exactly what you need to help you understand, memorize, and retain every bit of the human body. Jam packed with memorization tricks, test-prep tips, and hundreds of practice exercises, it's the ideal resource to help you make anatomy and physiology your minion!



Take an online review quiz for every chapter
Use the workbook as a supplement to classroom learning
Be prepared for whatever comes your way on test day
Gain confidence with practical study tips

If you're gearing up for a career in the medical field and need to take this often-tough class to fulfill your academic requirements as a high school or college student, this workbook gives you the edge you need to pass with flying colors.
3rd Revised edition
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Überarbeitete Ausgabe
  • 18,10 MB
978-1-119-47366-4 (9781119473664)

weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Erin Odya teaches Anatomy & Physiology at Carmel High School in Carmel, Indiana, one of Indiana's top schools. She is also the author of Anatomy & Physiology For Dummies.

Pat DuPree taught anatomy/physiology, biology, medical terminology, and environmental science.
Introduction 1

About This Book 1

Foolish Assumptions 2

Icons Used in This Book 2

Beyond the Book 3

Where to Go from Here 3

Part 1: The Building Blocks of the Body 5

Chapter 1: The Language of Anatomy & Physiology 7

Organization of the Body 7

Getting into Position 11

Answers to Questions on Terminology 14

Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life 15

Building from Scratch: Atoms and Elements 15

Chemical Reactions 19

Chemical bonds 19

Organic compounds 21

Cycling through Life: Metabolism 26

Energy from food 27

Getting energy from energy 29

Answers to Questions on Life's Chemistry 33

Chapter 3: The Cell: Life's Basic Building Block 35

Life and Death of a Cell 35

Gaining Admission: The Cell Membrane 37

Diffusion 37

Osmosis 38

Active transport 39

Aiming for the Nucleus 41

Looking Inside: Organelles and Their Functions 43

Putting Together New Proteins 47

Answers to Questions on the Cell 50

Chapter 4: Divide and Conquer: Cellular Mitosis 53

Walking through the Cell Cycle 54

Waiting for action: Interphase 54

Sorting out the parts: Prophase 55

Dividing at the equator: Metaphase 55

Packing up to move out: Anaphase 55

Pinching off: Telophase 55

Splitting up: Cytokinesis 55

Understanding What Can Go Wrong during Cell Division 59

Answers to Questions on Mitosis 61

Chapter 5: The Study of Tissues: Histology 63

Getting into Your Skin: Epithelial Tissue 64

Making a Connection: Connective Tissue 68

Flexing It: Muscle Tissue 71

Getting the Signal Across: Nervous Tissue 73

Answers to Questions on Histology 74

Part 2: Weaving It Together: Bones, Muscles, and Skin 77

Chapter 6: It's Skin Deep: The Integumentary System 79

Digging Deep into Dermatology 79

The epidermis: Don't judge this book by its cover 80

The dermis: Going more than skin deep 82

Touching a Nerve in the Integumentary System 86

Accessorizing with Hair, Nails, and Glands 87

Wigging out about hair 87

The oil slick 88

Nailing the fingers and toes 88

Sweating the details 88

Getting an earful 89

Answers to Questions on the Skin 93

Chapter 7: A Scaffold to Build On: The Skeleton 95

Understanding the Functions of Dem Bones 95

Boning Up on Classifications and Structures 98

Turning Bone into Bone: Ossification 103

Endochondral ossification 103

Intramembranous ossification 103

The Axial Skeleton: Keeping It All in Line 105

Making a hard head harder 105

Putting your backbones into it 107

The Appendicular Skeleton: Reaching beyond Our Girdles 113

Arthrology: Articulating the Joints 117

Answers to Questions on the Skeleton 122

Chapter 8: Getting in Gear: The Muscles 127

Flexing Your Muscle Knowledge 128

Muscle Classifications: Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal 131

Contracting for a Contraction 133

Breaking down a muscle's anatomy and movement 133

Understanding what stimulates muscle contraction 135

Pulling Together: Muscles as Organs 138

Assuming the Right Tone 140

Leveraging Muscular Power 142

What's in a Name? Identifying Muscles 144

Answers to Questions on Muscles 150

Part 3: Mission Control: All Systems Go 155

Chapter 9: Feeling Jumpy: The Nervous System 157

Our Motherboard 157

Building from Basics: Neurons, Nerves, and Glial cells 158

Neurons 158

Nerves 160

Glial cells 161

Feeling Impulsive? 164

Along the neuron 165

Across the synapse 166

Minding the Central Nervous System 168

The spinal cord 168

The brain 169

Taking Side Streets: The Peripheral Nervous System 176

Keep Breathing: The Autonomic Nervous System 178

Coming to Your Senses 181

On watch: The eyes 181

Listen up: The ears 182

Answers to Questions on the Nervous System 187

Chapter 10: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System 191

No Bland Glands 192

Enter the Ringmasters 194

The hypothalamus 194

The pituitary 195

The Supporting Cast of Glandular Characters 197

Topping off the kidneys: The adrenal glands 197

Thriving with the thyroid 198

Pairing up with the parathyroid 198

Pinging the pineal gland 199

Thumping the thymus 199

Pressing the pancreas 199

Dealing with Stress: Homeostasis 202

Answers to Questions on the Endocrine System 204

Part 4: Feed and Fuel: Supply and Transport 207

Chapter 11: Spreading the Love: The Cardiovascular System 209

Moving to the Beat of a Pump 209

Finding the Key to the Heart's Chambers 213

The atria 213

The ventricles 214

Conducting the Heart's Music 218

The orchestra 218

The music 219

The performance 220

Riding the Network of Blood Vessels 223

Withstanding the pressure 224

Capillary exchange 225

Answers to Questions on the Cardiovascular System 227

Chapter 12: Keeping Up Your Defenses: The Lymphatic System 231

Duct, Duct, Lymph 231

Poking at the Nodes 235

Having a Spleen-did Time with the Lymphatic Organs 238

Reuse and recycle: The spleen 238

T cell central: The thymus gland 239

Open wide and move along: The tonsils and Peyer's patches 239

Investigating Immunity 242

Innate defenses 242

Adaptive defenses 243

Answers to Questions on the Lymphatic System 245

Chapter 13: Oxygenating the Machine: The Respiratory System 249

Breathing In the Basics 250

Preparing the Air 254

Knowing about the nose (and sinuses) 254

Dealing with throaty matters 257

Swapping the bad for the good 260

Answers to Questions on the Respiratory System 263

Chapter 14: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System 265

Digesting the Basics: It's Alimentary! 265

Nothing to Spit At: Into the Mouth and Past the Teeth 268

Entering the vestibule 269

Moving along the oral cavity 270

Stomaching the Body's Fuel 274

Breaking Down the Work of Digestive Enzymes 277

The small intestine 277

The liver 279

The pancreas 280

One Last Look Before Leaving 282

The appendix 282

The large intestine 282

Answers to Questions on the Digestive Tract 284

Chapter 15: Filtering Out the Junk: The Urinary System 287

Examining the Kidneys, the Body's Filters 288

Kidney structure 288

Going microscopic 288

Focusing on Filtering 292

Retaining water 292

Controlling blood volume 294

Getting Rid of the Waste 296

Surfing the ureters 296

Ballooning the bladder 296

Distinguishing the male and female urethras 296

Spelling relief: Urination 297

Answers to Questions on the Urinary System 299

Part 5: Survival of the Species 301

Chapter 16: Why Ask Y? The Male Reproductive System 303

Identifying the Parts of the Male Reproductive System 303

Packaging the Chromosomes for Delivery 309

Answers to Questions on the Male Reproductive System 315

Chapter 17: Carrying Life: The Female Reproductive System 317

Identifying the Female Reproductive Parts and Their Functions 318

External genitalia 318

Internal genitalia 318

Gamete production 319

Making Eggs: A Mite More Meiosis 324

Making Babies: An Introduction to Embryology 325

Growing from Fetus to Baby 327

Parturition 329

Growing, Changing, and Aging 330

Answers to Questions on the Female Reproductive System 333

Part 6: The Part of Tens 337

Chapter 18: Ten Study Tips for Anatomy and Physiology Students 339

Writing Down Important Stuff in Your Own Words 339

Gaining Better Knowledge through Mnemonics 340

Discovering Your Learning Style 340

Getting a Grip on Greek and Latin 341

Connecting with Concepts 341

Forming a Study Group 342

Outlining What's to Come 342

Putting In Time to Practice 342

Sleuthing Out Clues 343

Reviewing Your Mistakes 343

Chapter 19: Ten Fun Physiology Facts 345

Boning Up on the Skeleton 345

Flexing Your Muscles 346

Fighting Biological Invaders 346

Cells Hair, There, and Everywhere 347

Swallowing Some Facts about Saliva and the Stomach 347

Appreciating the Extent of the Cardiovascular System 347

"You're Glowing" Isn't Just an Expression 348

Looking at a Few of Your Extra Parts 348

Understanding Your Brain on Sleep 349

Getting Sensational News 349

Index 351

Chapter 1

The Language of Anatomy & Physiology


IN THIS CHAPTER

Learning to speak the language

Casing the cavities

Orienting yourself to the body

Human anatomy is the study of our bodies' structures while physiology is how they work. It makes sense, then, to learn the two in tandem. But before we can dive in to the body systems and their intricate structures, you must first learn to speak the language of the science.

Organization of the Body


As you know, the body is organized into systems, grouping together the organs that work together to achieve a common goal. To house all these organs, our body must create spaces to hold them. The body has two cavities that achieve this: the dorsal cavity, which holds the brain and spinal cord and the ventral cavity that holds everything else. The dorsal cavity splits into the spinal cavity, which holds the spinal cord, and the cranial cavity that houses the brain. The ventral cavity is split into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity by a large band of muscle called the diaphragm. Within the thoracic cavity are the right and left pleural cavities, which hold each lung, and the mediastinum. Within the mediastinum is the pericardial cavity which contains the heart. The abdominopelvic cavity divides into the abdominal cavity (with the stomach, liver, and intestines) and the pelvic cavity (with the bladder and reproductive organs), though there's no distinct barrier between the two.

In order to create these cavities within our bodies, we have membranes to border the space. The visceral membrane lies atop of the organs, making direct contact with them. For example, the outermost layer of the heart is called the visceral pericardium and on the lungs it's the visceral pleura. The parietal membrane lies on the other side of the spaces or lining the cavity itself. So the lining of the abdominopelvic cavity is known as the parietal peritoneum (note that it's not the parietal abdominopelvic that just sounds weird).

The other parts of the body are divided into axial and appendicular areas. The axial portions are the parts of your body that form your axis - the head, chest, and abdomen. The appendicular portions form your appendages - your arms and legs. For consistency when referencing them, there are proper terms for all of the body's areas. The terminology used in identifying many of the regions is found in Table 1-1. You'll notice these terms popping up all over this book.

Table 1-1 The Body's Regions

Proper Term

Region

Proper Term

Region

Antebrachial

forearm

Genicular

knee

Antecubital

inner elbow

Inguinal

groin/inner thigh

Axillary

armpit

Lumbar

lower back

Brachial

upper arm

Mental

chin

Bucchal

cheek

Orbital

eye

Carpal

wrist

Otic

ear

Cephalic

head

Pectoral

chest

Cervical

neck

Pedal

foot

Coxal

hip

Plantar

sole/bottom of foot

Crural

shin

Popliteal

back of knee

Cubital

elbow

Sural

calf

Dorsum

back

Tarsal

ankle

Femoral

thigh

Vertebral

backbone

Frontal

forehead

That's a lot of new terms for the first chapter! Let's see how well they're sticking.

Q. Which of the following organs would you find in the mediastinum?

I. lungs

II. heart

III. liver

  1. I only
  2. II only
  3. III only
  4. I & II
  5. I, II, & III

A. The correct answer is only the heart. The mediastinum is defined as the area between the lungs and the liver is in the abdominopelvic cavity.

1-10 Label the body cavities illustrated in Figure 1-1.

Illustration by Kathryn Born, MA

FIGURE 1-1: Body cavities.

  1. Abdominal
  2. Abdominopelvic
  3. Cranial
  4. Dorsal
  5. Pelvic
  6. Pericardial
  7. Pleural
  8. Spinal
  9. Thoracic
  10. Ventral

11-16 Match the description to identify the membranes that create the body's cavities.

a. parietal pericardium

b. parietal peritoneum

c. parietal pleura

d. visceral pericardium

e. visceral peritoneum

f. visceral pleura

  1. _____ The outermost layer encasing the heart
  2. _____ The membrane that lies on the surface of the liver
  3. _____ The surface of the heart
  4. _____ The lining of the thoracic cavity
  5. _____ The membrane making direct contact with the lungs
  6. _____ The layer that lines the abdominopelvic cavity

17 True or False: The cephalic region is considered part of the appendicular body.

18 Which body part would be affected if you injured your tarsal region?

  1. knee
  2. wrist
  3. ankle
  4. shoulder
  5. hip

19 If you suffered a laceration (cut) to your chin, the injury would be located in the ____ region.

  1. cubital
  2. cervical
  3. buccal
  4. mental
  5. frontal

20 Identify the correct pairing of terms:

  1. popliteal - inner elbow
  2. lumbar - back of the neck
  3. antecubital - upper arm
  4. coxal - shoulder
  5. sural - back of lower leg

Getting into Position


In anatomy and physiology, we often identify the body's features in reference to other body parts. Because of this, we need a standardized point of reference, which is known as anatomical position.

Anatomical position is the body facing forward, feet pointed straight ahead, arms resting on the sides, with the palms turned outward. Unless you are told otherwise, this is the body's position whenever specific body parts are described in reference to other locations.

Because we can only see the external surface of the body, sections must be made in order for us to see what's inside. It's important to take note of what type of section was made to provide the view you see in a picture or diagram. There are three planes (directions) in which sections can be made:

  • frontal: separating the front from the back
  • sagittal: dividing right and left sides
  • transverse: creating top and bottom pieces

We also use directional terms to describe the location of structures. It helps to learn them as their opposing pairs to minimize confusion. The most commonly used terms are:

  • anterior/posterior: in front of/behind
  • superior/inferior: above/below
  • medial/lateral: closer to/further from the midline (also used with rotation)
  • superficial/deep: closer to/further from the body surface
  • proximal/distal: closer to/further from attachment point (used for appendages)

Right and left are also used quite often but be careful! They refer to the patient's right and left, not yours.

You got it? Let's find out.

21-23 Identify the planes of body sections in Figure 1-2.

Illustration by Kathryn Born, MA

FIGURE 1-2: The body's planes.

  1. Sagittal
  2. Transverse
  3. Frontal

24-28 Fill in the blanks.

  1. The neck is __________ to the hips.
  2. The lungs are __________ to the rib cage.
  3. The nose is __________ to the ears.
  4. The wrist is __________ to the shoulder.
  5. The buttocks are __________ to the navel (belly button).

Answers to Questions on Terminology


The following are answers to the practice questions presented in this chapter.

1-10 Figure 1-1 should be labeled as follows:

1. j. ventral, 2. d. dorsal, 3....

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