Early Vascular Aging (EVA)

New Directions in Cardiovascular Protection
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 6. August 2015
  • |
  • 376 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-801676-3 (ISBN)
 

Early Vascular Aging (EVA): New Directions in Cardiovascular Protection brings together the last decade of research related to the characterization of EVA, as well as the predictive power of pulse wave velocity (PWV).

The book presents a novel approach to the problem of cardiovascular disease, showing it in relation to great vessels disease and revealing a comprehensive approach to the problem of increased rigidity of the great vessels, its causes, and further consequences.

Information provided is accompanied by online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures.


  • Introduces the latest information on early vascular aging (EVA), complete with summaries of recent evidence and guidelines for relevant risk factor control
  • Ideal reference for the study of vascular aging, pulse wave velocity, arteriosclerosis, EVA, arterial stiffness, vascular, PWV biomarkers, and cardiovascular disease
  • Contains all the relevant information available from different fields of knowledge (from basic biology to epidemiology) in regard to EVA
  • Provides evidence that leads to a new target for interventions, early vascular aging (EVA) in subjects with early onset increased arterial stiffness
  • Includes online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 16,90 MB
978-0-12-801676-3 (9780128016763)
0128016760 (0128016760)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Early Vascular Aging (EVA)
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • 1 Historical Aspects and Biology of Aging
  • Evolutionary Traits, Genes, and the Environment Influencing Aging
  • Changes During the Twentieth Century in Life Expectancy
  • Early Life Programming Effects
  • Vascular Aging in Perspective
  • New Models and Interventions to Influence Aging
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 2 Cellular and Molecular Determinants of Arterial Aging
  • Introduction
  • Cytoskeletal and Contractile Proteins in the Aging Arterial Wall
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Contractile Proteins
  • Cellular Matrix Structure in the Aging Arterial Wall
  • Proinflammatory Molecular, Cellular, and Vascular Events in the Aging Arterial Wall
  • The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
  • Proteinases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • Calpain-1
  • Transforming Growth Factor-ß1
  • Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1
  • Reactive Oxygen Species and NO Bioavailability
  • MFG-E8, Fibronectin, and Integrin Receptors
  • MFG-E8 and Its Fragment Medin
  • Fibronectin
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cytoskeletal Serum Response Transcription Factor
  • Proinflammatory Transcription Factors Ets-1 and NF-?B
  • Anti-Inflammatory Molecule SIRT1
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 3 Aging Population: Challenges and Opportunities in a Life Course Perspective
  • Aging Populations-Between Decreasing Mortality and Improved Health
  • Living Longer, but with More Chronic Diseases
  • From Healthcare of Older Subjects to Life Course Approach
  • Strategies for Healthy Aging
  • References
  • 4 Population-Based Studies: Milestones on the Epidemiological Timeline
  • Introduction
  • Proven Prognostic Power in High-Risk Subpopulations
  • Proven Prognostic Power in the General Population
  • Beyond Curve Divergence
  • Data Harmonization
  • Quo Vadis: More Depth and Breadth of Phenotyping, More Comprehensive Populations, Longer Event Horizons
  • More Depth and Breadth of Phenotyping: Wave Reflection
  • More Depth and Breadth of Phenotyping: Time-Varying Phenomena
  • More Comprehensive Populations: Studying the Early Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors
  • More Comprehensive Populations: Early Vascular Aging and Stroke-Prone Populations
  • Longer Event Horizons
  • References
  • 5 Lessons from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study
  • AGAHLS-The Cohort Profile
  • Study Design and Population
  • The Introduction of Large Artery Properties Measures-Rationale and Methods
  • Definition of Vascular Aging Phenotypes
  • Early Determinants of Arterial Stiffness-A Life Course Approach
  • Cumulative Burden and Trajectories of Biological RFs-The Critical Role of BP and (Central) Fatness
  • Blood Pressure
  • Total and Central Fatness
  • Blood Lipids and Physical Fitness
  • Cumulative Burden and Trajectories of Lifestyle RFs-The Preventive Role of Lifelong Lifestyles
  • Dietary Intake
  • Habitual Physical Activity
  • Sedentary Behavior
  • Additional Studies
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 6 Cardiovascular Aging: Perspectives from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)
  • Introduction
  • Detecting Occult CV Disease in BLSA Participants
  • Risk Factors for Silent Myocardial Ischemia
  • Chest Pain Reports Are Linked to Personality
  • Epidemiological Studies of Genetic and Hormonal and Metabolic Risk Factors for CAD
  • Metabolic Risk Factors
  • ApoE4 and the Longitudinal Changes in CV Risk Factors
  • Plasma Levels of Estradiol, Testosterone, and Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate
  • Age-Associated Changes in Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and the Arterial Waveform
  • Independent Determinants of Aortic Stiffness (PWV) and Central Pressure Augmentation (AGI)
  • Age, Aerobic Capacity, and Arterial Stiffness
  • Inter-Arm Difference in Systolic Blood Pressure
  • PWV as a Predictor of the Longitudinal Increase in SBP and of Incident Hypertension in the BLSA
  • Longitudinal Perspective on the Conundrum of Central Arterial Stiffness, Blood Pressure, and Aging
  • Impact of Traditional CV Risk Factors on PWV
  • Central Obesity
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Plasma Vitamin D Levels
  • Sex Hormones
  • Estrogen and Progestin Replacement in Postmenopausal Women
  • Androgenic Hormones
  • Alcohol Consumption
  • Suppressed Anger
  • Arterial Stiffness as Early Markers for Subsequent CV Events in Asymptomatic BLSA Participants
  • CV Disease Events
  • CV Event Prediction in an Individual Participant Meta-Analysis of Prospective Observational Data
  • Cognitive Function
  • PP, a Surrogate for Central Arterial Stiffness and Albumin Excretion
  • Age-Associated Changes in Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness
  • Intima-Media Thickness and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Older Adults
  • Carotid IMT Predicts Cognitive Decline
  • Depressive Symptoms and Carotid IMT in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
  • The Vascular Aging: The Link that Bridges Age to Early Atherosclerosis (The VALIDATE Study)
  • Arterial-Heart Coupling
  • References
  • 7 Changes in Peripheral Blood Pressure with Normal and Accelerated Aging
  • Introduction
  • What Induces Accelerated Vascular Aging?
  • Changes in Peripheral BP During Normal Aging
  • Changes in Peripheral BP During Accelerated Aging
  • Predictors of Diastolic Hypertension
  • Predictors of ISH in Adolescents and Young Adults
  • Predictors of ISH in Middle-Aged and the Elderly
  • The Value of Paired BP Components in Predicting CVD Risk
  • The Role of J-Curves in Predicting CVD Risk
  • Perspectives
  • References
  • 8 Changes in Arterial Stiffness with Normal and Accelerated Aging
  • Introduction
  • A Word of Caution on Study Design
  • Chronological Aging of the Arteries
  • Accelerated Aging of the Arteries
  • Aging in Patients with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome
  • Summarizing Remarks
  • References
  • 9 Changes in Central Hemodynamics, Wave Reflection, and Heart-Vessel Coupling with Normal and Accelerated Aging
  • Introduction
  • The Heart and Its Interaction with the Arterial Tree
  • Introduction and General Concepts
  • Heart-Vessel Coupling: Matching Elastances
  • Heart-Vessel Coupling: Importance of Loading Sequence
  • Aging and Wave Reflections
  • Impedance Analysis, Wave Reflections, and Effect of Age
  • Wave Separation Analysis and Reflection Magnitude
  • Augmentation Index
  • Central Arterial Pressure
  • Introduction-Methodological Issues
  • Aging and Central Pressure
  • References
  • 10 Early Aging of Endothelial Function and Platelet-Vessel Wall Interactions
  • Introduction
  • Platelet-Vessel Wall Interactions in Hemostasis
  • Regulation of the Adhesiveness of Platelets at the Vessel Wall
  • Age-Related Changes in Platelet-Vessel Wall Interactions
  • Clinical Implications of Platelet-ECs Interactions and Drug Development
  • References
  • 11 The Cross-Talk Between the Macro- and the Microcirculation
  • Introduction
  • Small Artery in Normal and Accelerated Aging
  • Small-Artery Remodeling
  • Small-Artery Remodeling in Normal Aging
  • Small-Artery Remodeling in Hypertension, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes
  • Functional Consequences and Target Organ Damage
  • Large-Artery Remodeling
  • Large-Artery Remodeling
  • Large-Artery Remodeling, Wave Reflection, and Central BP
  • Large-/Small-Artery Cross-Talk in Normal and Accelerated Aging
  • Large-/Small-Artery Cross-Talk and Central Pulsatility
  • Large-/Small-Artery Cross-Talk and Target Organ Damage
  • Cardiac Damage
  • Brain Damage
  • Renal Damage
  • Cardiovascular and Renal Outcome
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 12 Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure Variability
  • Introduction
  • Very Short- (Beat-to-Beat) and Short-Term (Over 24h) Blood Pressure Variability
  • Mid-Term (Day-by-Day) Blood Pressure Variability
  • Long-Term and Very Long-Term Visit-to-Visit BPV
  • Relationship Between Arterial Stiffness and BPV
  • Mechanisms for the Association Between Arterial Stiffness and BP Variability
  • Alterations in Active Mechanisms Involved in BP Control
  • Alterations in Large Artery Mechanics
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 13 Early Vascular Aging in the Young: Influence of Birth Weight and Prematurity
  • Introduction
  • Development of the Vasculature During Fetal Life and Early Childhood
  • Influence of Birth Weight on Blood Pressure
  • Impact of Birth Weight on Vascular Structure and Function
  • Low Birth Weight and Endothelial Function
  • Influence of IUGR/SGA Phenotype on Arterial Structure and Function
  • Influence of Prematurity on Arterial Structure and Function
  • Influence of IUGR Versus Prematurity
  • Influence of Extreme Prematurity on Vascular Structure and Function
  • Effects of Increased "Catch-Up" Growth Patterns
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 14 Age-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction and Intima-Media Thickening
  • Age-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction
  • Age-Induced Intima-Media Thickening
  • References
  • 15 Glucose Metabolism, Diabetes, and the Arterial Wall
  • Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance, and Arterial Wall Damage
  • Preclinical Large Artery Changes in Diabetes Mellitus
  • Endothelial Dysfunction
  • Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Remodeling
  • Large Artery Stiffness
  • Preclinical Large Artery Changes in the MetS and Obesity
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 16 Chronic Inflammation and Atherosclerosis
  • Age and Development of Atherosclerosis
  • Inflammation and Plaque Formation According to the Response-to-Retention Theory
  • Evidence for the Role of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis
  • Innate Immunity
  • Monocytes and Macrophages
  • Neutrophils
  • Dendritic Cells
  • Natural Killer-T Cells
  • Adaptive Immunity
  • T-Cells
  • B-Cells
  • The Role of Cytokines and Chemokines
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-a
  • Interleukins
  • Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1
  • Interferon-?
  • Regulated on Activation, Normal T-Cell Expressed and Secreted
  • Fractalkine
  • Regulation and Resolution of Inflammation
  • Interleukin-10
  • Transforming Growth Factor-ß
  • M2 Macrophages
  • Regulatory T-cells
  • Factors Increasing Vascular Aging
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Rheumatologic Disease
  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia
  • Inflammation as a Therapeutic Target
  • Interleukin-1ß
  • Methotrexate
  • References
  • 17 Early and Late Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in Relation to Arterial Changes
  • Introduction
  • Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections
  • Basic Distinct Features of Renal Microcirculation
  • Arterial Changes in Early and Predialysis CKD
  • Studies Evaluating the Progression of Arterial Stiffness in Relation to the Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Studies Evaluating Arterial Stiffness as a Predictor of Renal Function Decline
  • Arterial Changes in Patients with ESRD
  • Pathogenesis of Arterial Stiffness in CKD and ESRD
  • Volume Overload
  • Elevated Calcium-Phosphate Product and Vascular Calcification
  • Activation of the RAAS
  • Endothelial Dysfunction
  • Vascular Inflammation
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 18 Non-Hemodynamic Components of EVA: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Introduction
  • Definition of PCOS
  • PCOS and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease
  • PCOS Phenotypes and Cardiometabolic Risk
  • Subclinical Arterial Disease in Women with PCOS
  • Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Women with PCOS
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 19 Impact of Arterial Aging on Early and Late Stages of Brain Damage
  • Cognitive Decline and Dementia: The Emerging Role of Arterial Aging
  • Structural Brain Changes and Arterial Aging
  • Pathophysiological Consideration
  • Therapeutic Opportunities and Research Perspectives
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 20 Telomere Biology and Vascular Aging
  • Introduction
  • Telomere Length and Cellular Senescence
  • Telomere Structure and Function
  • Measurement of Telomere Length
  • Regulation of Telomere Length
  • Genetic Factors
  • LTL During the Life Course
  • Endogenous Factors
  • Telomere Shortening
  • Inhibition of Telomere Shortening
  • Environmental Factors
  • Telomere Shortening
  • Long LTL
  • Telomere Length and Vascular Aging and Disease
  • Cultured Vascular Cells
  • Vascular Tissue
  • Heart Tissue
  • Clinical and Epidemiological Studies
  • LTL, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiac Disease
  • Controversial Issues
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 21 Traditional Versus New Models of Risk Prediction
  • Evaluating New Risk Models
  • Screening
  • Traditional Risk Models
  • Risk Estimation Using New Markers of Subclinical Organ Damage
  • Proof of Concept
  • Markers of Subclinical Organ Damage
  • Microalbuminuria
  • Ankle Brachial Index
  • Coronary Artery Score
  • Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques
  • Pulse Wave Velocity
  • Combination of Markers and Comparison of Markers
  • Novel Risk Markers as Guidelines
  • Future Research
  • Determination of Net Benefit
  • Individualized Treatment
  • References
  • 22 Imaging Biomarkers: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Aortic Stiffness as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Introduction
  • Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and CV Prognosis
  • How to Assess cIMT by Duplex Ultrasound
  • Associations Between cIMT and Traditional CV Risk Factors
  • Carotid IMT as a Predictor of CV Events
  • Studies in Healthy Population (Table 22.1)
  • Carotid IMT as a Predictor of CHD
  • Carotid IMT as a Predictor of Stroke
  • Studies in Higher CV Risk Groups
  • What Is the Clinical Value of cIMT Measurement?
  • Aortic Stiffness and CV Prognosis
  • Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity
  • Methodology
  • Predictive Value-Use as Surrogate Endpoint
  • Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity
  • Methodology
  • Predictive Value-Use as Surrogate Endpoint
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 23 Genetic Markers in Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease-What Is the Risk?
  • Familial Syndromes-Monogenic Diseases
  • Syndromic BP Phenotypes-Gordon's Syndrome
  • Inherited Aortopathies (Marfan's Syndrome)-From Models to Therapies
  • Genes for Aortopathies and Aortic Aneurysms
  • Genetic Complexity in Mendelian Traits-A Mosaic Model
  • Rare Mendelian Disorder Genes Inform BP Genetics in Whole Population
  • Complex Diseases-GWAS and the Search for Common Variants
  • GWASs and Arterial Stiffness
  • Missing Heritability-Limitations of GWAS
  • Building on GWAS-The Future of Cardiovascular Genomics
  • Custom Genotyping Array Approaches
  • Search for the De Novo Variants-Interrogation of the Exome
  • Next Generation Sequencing
  • Pharmacogenomics of Vascular Aging
  • Lessons Learned from GWAS-Biological Mechanisms and Pathways
  • The Nitric Oxide and Natriuretic Peptide Guanylate Cyclase Signaling Pathway
  • Using Gene Loci to Prime Therapeutic Innovation for BP Control
  • Role of Epigenetics in Cardiovascular Disease Pathology
  • National and International Genomic Initiatives
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 24 Vascular Aging and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Changes with Age in the Arterial Tree
  • Aging and Structural Changes in the Arterial Wall
  • Aging and Pressure Wave Reflection
  • The Arterial Stiffening Gradient and the Impedance Mismatch Between Macro/Micro Circulation
  • Links Between Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis
  • Accelerators of the Aging Process
  • Monitoring Vascular Aging and Detecting Accelerated Signs of Vascular Deterioration
  • Estimating Vascular Age
  • New Definitions of Accelerated Vascular Aging
  • Central Hemodynamic Variables and Association to CV Risk
  • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • References
  • 25 Lifestyle Intervention: What Works?
  • Smoking
  • Diet and Nutrition
  • Coffee and Caffeine
  • Tea
  • Chocolate (Cocoa and Components)
  • Fruits and Vegetables
  • Dairy Products
  • Soy Products
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • Vitamins
  • Salt
  • Alcohol
  • Red Wine
  • Obesity and Weight Loss
  • Mental, Emotional Status, and Work Stress
  • Work Stress
  • Exercise
  • Air Pollution
  • Illegal Substances
  • References
  • 26 Targeting Blood Pressure Lowering and the Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Tests for Studying the Human Sympathetic Nervous System
  • NA Spillover Measurements
  • Clinical Microneurography
  • Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Human Hypertension
  • The Link Between the Sympathetic Nervous System and Arterial Stiffening
  • Pharmacological Modulation of Arterial Stiffness
  • Effect of Procedural Interventions on Arterial Stiffness and Sympathetic Outflow
  • Other Device-Based and Interventional Strategies for Lowering BP
  • Baroreceptor Stimulation
  • Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Carotid Body Denervation
  • Device-Guided Slow Breathing
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 27 Targeting Central Blood Pressure Through the Macro- and Microcirculation Cross-Talk
  • Introduction
  • Effects of Drugs on Small Artery Structure and Function in Hypertension
  • Predictive Value of Small Resistance Artery Structure for CV Events
  • Effect of Antihypertensive Drugs on Small Artery Structure
  • Effects of Drugs on Large Artery Structure and Function in Hypertension
  • Predictive Value of Arterial Stiffness for CV Events
  • Effects of Drugs on Arterial Stiffness
  • Classical Antihypertensive Drugs
  • BP-Independent Destiffening of Large Artery
  • The Particular Case of Nitrates
  • Targeting Central BP Through the Macro- and Microcirculation Cross-Talk
  • A Virtuous Circle of Improvement
  • Illustration by Therapeutic Trials
  • The Particular Case of ß-Blockers
  • Differential Central and Brachial BP Responses to Antihypertensive Medications
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 28 Treatment Aspects
  • PART I. Treatment of Abnormalities in Lipid Metabolism and EVA
  • What Is Early Vascular Aging (EVA) and How Can It Be Measured?
  • Hyperlipidemia and EVA
  • Treatment of Lipids and EVA
  • Conclusions and Perspectives
  • References
  • PART II. Early Vascular Aging and Obesity Treatment
  • Obesity and Early Vascular Aging
  • Current Recommendations for Weight Management Do Not Include EVA Biomarkers
  • Obesity Management-Influences on Vascular Aging Biomarkers
  • Dietary Weight Loss
  • Exercise
  • Weight Loss Medications
  • Bariatric Surgery
  • Summary and Future Outlook
  • References
  • PART III. Treatment of Abnormalities in Glucose Metabolism
  • Hyperglycemia and Vascular Aging
  • Definition
  • Treatment
  • Treatment Goals for Glycemic Control
  • Lifestyle
  • Oral Agents and Non-Insulin Injectables
  • Metformin
  • Sulfonylurea
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • DPP4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists
  • a-Glucosidase Inhibitors
  • SGLT2-Inhibitors
  • Insulin
  • References
  • 29 New Drugs Under Development for Cardiovascular Prevention
  • Introduction
  • New Molecules Targeting Isolated Systolic Hypertension
  • AGE Inhibitors and AGE Breakers
  • Novel Molecules Targeting Arterial Calcifications
  • NO Donors
  • New Drugs for Hypertension
  • Dual Vasopeptidase Inhibitors
  • Dual NEP/ACEIs
  • Dual NEP/ECE Inhibitors
  • Dual ACE/ECE Inhibitors and Triple ACE/NEP/ECE Inhibitors
  • Dual ARNI (Dual Acting AT1R and Neprilysin Inhibitors)
  • Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitors
  • Other Drugs Targeting the RAS
  • AT2-Receptor Agonists
  • Ang-(1-7), Derivatives of Ang-(1-7) and MAS Agonists
  • Activators of the ACE2 and Recombinant Human ACE2
  • Nonpeptide Antagonists of the (Pro)Renin Receptor (i.e., Renin/Prorenin Receptor Blocker, RERB)
  • Orally Active Aminopeptidase A Inhibitors
  • ET Antagonists
  • Current Pharmacological Classes, New Versus Old Molecules
  • Old Drugs-New Combinations
  • Other Possible Alternatives to Classical Drugs
  • Telomerase Inhibitors
  • Drugs Targeting Lamin A
  • Klotho as a Potential Target
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 30 Interventions to Retard Biological Aging to Be Explored
  • Introduction
  • Vascular Aging
  • Preventable Factors Leading to EVA
  • Progeria: A Model of Extreme EVA
  • Skin Aging
  • Bone Aging
  • Bone Aging and Vascular Calcification
  • Periodontal Disease and CVD
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 31 Immunization, Vaccines, and Immunomodulation
  • Introduction
  • Defining the Target for Immunization and Role of Immunity in Hypertension
  • Immunization
  • Renin Immunization
  • Angiotensin I (Ang I) Vaccine
  • Animal Studies
  • Human Studies
  • Ang II Vaccine
  • Animal Studies
  • Human Studies
  • AT1R Vaccine
  • Animal Studies
  • Safety of Anti-RAAS Vaccines
  • References
  • Index

List of Contributors


Enrico Agabiti-Rosei,     Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Tine de Backer

Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium

Luc van Bortel,     Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Pierre Boutouyrie

Department of Pharmacology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou - Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale-INSERM U970, Paris, France

Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France

Michel Burnier,     Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

Mark Caulfield,     William Harvey Research Institute, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Cardiovascular Disease at Barts Queen Mary University of London, UK

Pascal Challande,     Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS-UMR 7190, Paris, France

Pedro G. Cunha

Center for the Research and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk, Internal Medicine Department, Guimarães-Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave/Minho University, Guimarães, Portugal

Life and Health Science Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Science, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

ICVS/3B's-PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal

Stephanie Debette

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Bordeaux, and Center for Epidemiology and Public Health-INSERM U897, University of Bordeaux, France

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

Andreas Edsfeldt

Experimental Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Skåne, Malmö/Lund, Sweden

Isabel Ferreira

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, and CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands

School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Stanley S. Franklin,     Heart Disease Prevention Program, Division of Cardiology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

Frej Fyhrquist,     Minerva Institute, Helsinki, Finland

Panagiotis I. Georgianos,     Section of Nephrology and Hypertension, 1st Department of Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Isabel Gonçalves

Experimental Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Skåne, Malmö/Lund, Sweden

Dagmara Hering,     Department of Hypertension and Diabetology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland

Jens Jordan,     Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany

Vasilios Kotsis,     Hypertension Centre of Excellence, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Papageorgiou Hospital, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Michaela Kozakova,     Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

Roel J. van de Laar,     Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Patrick Lacolley

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale-INSERM U116

Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France

Jérémy Lagrange

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale-INSERM U116

Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France

Edward G. Lakatta,     Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Intramural Research Program, Biomedical Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA

Irene Lambrinoudaki,     Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Stéphane Laurent

Department of Pharmacology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou - Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France

Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale-INSERM U970, Paris, France

Yimin Lu,     Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

Carmel M. McEniery,     Department Experimental Medicine and Immunotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Krzysztof Narkiewicz,     Department of Hypertension and Diabetology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland

Jan Nilsson,     Experimental Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Peter M. Nilsson,     Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden

Juan E. Ochoa,     Department of Cardiovascular Neural and Metabolic Sciences, S. Luca Hospital, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy

Michael H. Olsen

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Preventive Clinic, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Individualized Medicine in Arterial Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

Hypertension in Africa Research Team, School for Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, North-West University,Potchefstroom, South Africa

Carl J. Östgren,     Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

Carlo Palombo,     Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

Gianfranco Parati

Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy

Department of Cardiovascular Neural and Metabolic Sciences, S. Luca Hospital, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy

Veronique Regnault

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale-INSERM U116

Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France

Meixia Ren,     William Harvey Research Institute, Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, Queen Mary University of London, UK

Ernst Rietzschel

Departments of Cardiovascular Diseases & Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Department of Cardiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

Damiano Rizzoni,     Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Paolo Salvi,     Department of Cardiovascular Neural and Metabolic Sciences, S. Luca Hospital, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy

Pantelis A. Sarafidis,     Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Giuseppe Schillaci

Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

Unit of Internal Medicine, Terni University Hospital, Terni, Italy

Arno Schmidt-Truksäss,     Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport and Exercise Medicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Angelo Scuteri,     Hospital San Raffaele Pisana, Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rome, Italy

Patrick Segers,     IBiTech-bioMMeda, iMinds Medical IT, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium

Thomas Sehestedt,     Department of Cardiology, Herlev...

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