Handbook of Neuro-Oncology Neuroimaging

 
 
Academic Press
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 2. April 2016
  • |
  • 864 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-801168-3 (ISBN)
 

Remarkable progress in neuro-oncology due to increased utilization of advanced imaging in clinical practice continues to accelerate in recent years. Refinements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) technology, and the addition of newer anatomical, functional, and metabolic imaging methods, such as MRS, fMRI, diffusion MRI, and DTI MRI have allowed brain tumor patients to be diagnosed much earlier and to be followed more carefully during treatment. With treatment approaches and the field of neuro-oncology neuroimaging changing rapidly, this second edition of the Handbook of Neuro-Oncology Neuroimaging is so relevant to those in the field, providing a single-source, comprehensive, reference handbook of the most up-to-date clinical and technical information regarding the application of neuro-Imaging techniques to brain tumor and neuro-oncology patients. This new volume will have updates on all of the material from the first edition, and in addition will feature several new important chapters covering diverse topics such as advanced imaging techniques in radiation therapy, therapeutic treatment fields, response assessment in clinical trials, surgical planning of neoplastic disease of the spine, and more. It will also serve as a resource of background information to neuroimaging researchers and basic scientists with an interest in brain tumors and neuro-oncology.


  • Provides a background to translational research and the use of brain imaging for brain tumors
  • Contains critical discussions on the potential and limitations of neuroimaging as a translational tool for the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor and neuro-oncology patients
  • Presents an up-to-date reference on advanced imaging technologies, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), as well as the recent refinements in these techniques
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
Elsevier Science
  • 43,72 MB
978-0-12-801168-3 (9780128011683)
0128011688 (0128011688)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • HANDBOOK OF NEURO-ONCOLOGY NEUROIMAGING
  • HANDBOOK OF NEURO-ONCOLOGY NEUROIMAGING
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • I - OVERVIEW OF NEURO-ONCOLOGICAL DISORDERS
  • 1 - Overview of Brain Tumor Epidemiology
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PBTS
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MBTS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 2 - Overview of Pathology and Treatment of Primary Brain Tumors
  • PATHOLOGY OF SELECTED PBTS
  • SURGICAL THERAPY OF PBTS
  • RADIATION THERAPY OF PBTS
  • CHEMOTHERAPY OF PBTS
  • MOLECULAR OR "TARGETED" TREATMENT
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 3 - Overview of Pathology and Treatment of Metastatic Brain Tumors
  • PATHOLOGY OF MBTS
  • SURGICAL THERAPY OF MBTS
  • RADIATION THERAPY OF MBTS
  • CHEMOTHERAPY OF MBTS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4 - Overview of Spinal Cord Tumor Epidemiology
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PRIMARY SCT
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INTRAMEDULLARY SPINAL CORD METASTASES
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5 - Overview of Pathology and Treatment of Primary Spinal Cord Tumors
  • PATHOLOGY OF SELECTED PRIMARY SCT
  • SURGICAL THERAPY OF PRIMARY SCT
  • RADIATION THERAPY OF PRIMARY SCT
  • CHEMOTHERAPY OF PRIMARY SCT
  • MOLECULAR OR "TARGETED" TREATMENT
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 6 - Overview of Pathology and Treatment of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastases
  • PATHOLOGY OF ISCM
  • SURGICAL THERAPY OF ISCM
  • RADIATION THERAPY OF ISCM
  • CHEMOTHERAPY OF ISCM
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 7 - Epidural Spinal Cord Compression in Adult Neoplasms
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ETIOLOGY
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • CORTICOSTEROIDS
  • TREATMENT
  • PROGNOSIS
  • References
  • 8 - Neoplastic Meningitis
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • PATHOGENESIS
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • CSF Analysis
  • Neuroradiographic Studies
  • STAGING
  • PROGNOSIS
  • EVALUATION AND RESPONSE TO TREATMENT
  • TREATMENT
  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • INTRACSF THERAPY
  • SYSTEMIC THERAPY
  • EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS
  • IntraCSF Experimental Agents
  • Supportive Care
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 9 - Vascular Disorders: Epidemiology
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COAGULOPATHY
  • ISCHEMIC CEREBROVASCULAR EVENTS
  • INTRACRANIAL TUMOR
  • Treatment Effects
  • INFECTION
  • OTHER
  • References
  • 10 - Intracranial Hemorrhage in Cancer Patients
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ETIOLOGY
  • Coagulopathy
  • Tumor-Related Hemorrhages
  • Treatment Effects
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • MANAGEMENT
  • References
  • 11 - Central Nervous System Infarction
  • INTRODUCTION
  • IMAGING EVALUATION OF CNS INFARCTION
  • Computed Tomography
  • Noncontrast Computed Tomography (NCCT)
  • CT Angiography (CTA)
  • CT Perfusion (CTP)
  • Magnetic Resonance
  • Conventional MRI
  • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI)
  • MR Angiography (MRA)
  • Time-of-Flight (TOF) MRA
  • Phase Contrast (PC) MRA
  • Contrast Enhanced MRA
  • Clinical Utility of MRA
  • MR Perfusion Imaging
  • Catheter Angiography
  • CNS INFARCTION IN NEUROONCOLOGY
  • CNS Infarction Caused by Brain Tumors
  • CNS Infarction as a Result of Treatment of Brain Tumors
  • Spinal Cord Infarction in Neurooncology
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 12 - Intracranial Veno-occlusive Disease
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ETIOLOGY
  • Nonmetastatic Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
  • Metastatic Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • TREATMENT
  • References
  • 13 - Paraneoplastic Syndromes
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PARANEOPLASTIC CEREBELLAR DEGENERATION
  • LIMBIC ENCEPHALITIS
  • BRAIN-STEM ENCEPHALITIS
  • OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS
  • PARANEOPLASTIC CHOREA
  • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS
  • MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME
  • LABORATORY FINDINGS
  • EVALUATION AND TREATMENT
  • References
  • 14 - Neoplastic Plexopathies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CLASSIFICATION
  • PLEXUS ANATOMY
  • Cervical Plexus
  • Brachial Plexus
  • Lumbosacral Plexus
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
  • PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • ASSOCIATED NEOPLASTIC DISORDERS
  • Pancoast Syndrome
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
  • Postradiation Plexopathy
  • EVALUATION
  • MANAGEMENT
  • PROGNOSIS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
  • References
  • 15 - Neurologic Complications of Oncologic Therapy
  • COMPLICATIONS OF RADIOTHERAPY
  • Brain
  • Acute (0-14Days)
  • Acute Encephalopathy
  • Fatigue
  • Early Delayed (4 Weeks to Months)
  • Somnolence Syndrome
  • Pseudoprogression
  • Transient Cognitive Impairment
  • Subacute Rhombencephalitis
  • Late Delayed (Months to Years)
  • Radionecrosis
  • Leukoencephalopathy
  • Dementia
  • Mild to Moderate Cognitive Impairment
  • Radiotherapy-Induced Tumors
  • VASCULOPATHY
  • Large Vessel Atherosclerosis
  • Vascular Malformations
  • Small Vessel Disease
  • Neuroendocrine Dysfunction
  • SPINAL CORD
  • Acute
  • Early-Delayed Radiation Myelopathy
  • Late-Delayed Radiation Myelopathy
  • Delayed Radiation Myelopathy (DRM)
  • Radiogenic Lower Motor Neuron Disease
  • Vascular Changes
  • PLEXUSES AND PERIPHERAL NERVE
  • Plexopathies
  • Peripheral Nerve
  • Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Nerve Sheath Tumors
  • Cranial Neuropathies
  • COMPLICATIONS OF CHEMOTHERAPY
  • CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
  • Antimetabolites
  • Methotrexate
  • 5-Fluorouracil
  • Cytosine Arabinoside (Cytarabine, Ara-C)
  • Alkylating Agents
  • Ifosfamide
  • Busulfan
  • Platinum-Based Agents
  • Cisplatin
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Carboplatin
  • Taxanes (Paclitaxel and Docetaxel)
  • Vincristine
  • l-Asparaginase
  • Anthracycline Antibiotics (Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Mitoxantrone)
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin)
  • Ipilumimab
  • Others
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • II - PHYSICS AND BASIC SCIENCE OFNEURO-IMAGING
  • 16 - Physics of Computed Tomography Scanning
  • HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION
  • References
  • 17 - Physics of Computed Tomography: Contrast Agents
  • HISTORY
  • GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF X-RAY CONTRAST AGENTS
  • CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF CONTRAST AGENTS IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
  • SIDE EFFECTS AND TOXICITY
  • References
  • 18 - Introductory Magnetic Resonance Imaging Physics
  • EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD, PROTONS, AND EQUILIBRIUM MAGNETIZATION
  • LARMOR PRECESSION AND MRI SIGNAL
  • RADIOFREQUENCY ENERGY AND RESONANCE
  • RELAXATION
  • T1 and T2 Relaxation
  • T2* Relaxation
  • IMAGE CONTRAST MECHANISMS
  • Basic Pulse Sequence and Imaging Parameters Repetition Time and Echo Time
  • Proton Density, T1-Weighted, and T2-Weighted Images
  • Proton Density Images
  • T1-Weighted Images
  • T2-Weighted Images
  • Inversion Recovery
  • FLUID ATTENUATED INVERSION RECOVERY
  • SHORT TAU INVERSION RECOVERY
  • MAKING AN IMAGE
  • Spatial Localization by Magnetic Field Gradients
  • k-space
  • Magnetic Field Gradients, Spatial Frequencies, and k-space
  • Frequency Encoding
  • Phase Encoding
  • Slice Selection
  • Expanded Pulse Sequence Diagram and Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques
  • Echoes
  • Spin Echoes
  • Gradient Echoes
  • ADDITIONAL TOPICS RELEVANT TO NEUROIMAGING
  • Chemical Shift Fat Saturation
  • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI)
  • Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI)
  • Motion Compensation
  • Parallel Imaging
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 19 - Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Tumors
  • DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGING
  • Differential Diagnosis, Grading, Monitoring of Progression, and Response
  • Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Preoperative Assessment, Surgical Guidance, and Follow-up
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Differential Diagnosis, Grading, Surgical Planning, and Follow-up
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Assessment of Treatment Response
  • MICROVASCULAR IMAGING IN BRAIN TUMORS: PERFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGING AND T1-WEIGHTED PERMEABILITY IMAGING
  • Perfusion-Weighted Imaging
  • Perfusion-Weighted Imaging in Diagnosis, Grading, Operative Planning, and Follow-up
  • T1-Weighted Permeability Imaging
  • T1-Weighted Permeability Imaging in Diagnosis, Grading, and Follow-up
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 20 - Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents for Neuroradiology: Current Status
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CONTRAST MEDIA IN NEUROIMAGING
  • SAFETY
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
  • ADVANCED TECHNIQUES USING CONTRAST MEDIA
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY
  • FUTURE APPLICATIONS
  • References
  • 21 - Physics of High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Applications to Brain Tumor Imaging
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING PHYSICS
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF BRAIN TUMORS-STATE OF THE ART
  • INDIRECT MEASURE OF PATHOLOGY
  • A DIRECT MEASURE OF PATHOLOGY
  • HOW MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING COMPARES WITH OTHER IMAGING TECHNIQUES
  • HIGH-FIELD IMAGING: PROS AND CONS
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING
  • MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY
  • STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD: SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO
  • RADIO FREQUENCY PENETRATION
  • OTHER RADIO FREQUENCY ISSUES
  • CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • III - ADVANCES IN NEURO-IMAGING OF BRAIN TUMORS
  • 22 - Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Neurosurgery*
  • IMAGE-GUIDED THERAPY SYSTEMS
  • Choice of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner and Procedural Flow
  • Safety
  • Patient Positioning
  • BRAIN TUMOR RESECTION UNDER INTRAOPERATIVE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING GUIDANCE
  • Rationale
  • Multimodality Imaging for Guiding Brain Tumor Resection
  • Rigid and Nonrigid Image Registration for Surgical Guidance
  • Intraoperative Dynamic Contrast Imaging
  • Intraoperative Detection of Complications
  • Instrument Tracking and Neuronavigation
  • COREGISTRATION OF ULTRASOUND WITH PREOPERATIVE MRI AND IMRI
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Thermal Ablations and Focused Ultrasound Surgery
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 23 - Neurosurgical Treatment Planning
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN BRAIN TUMOR SURGERY
  • PREOPERATIVE IMAGING STRATEGIES
  • Diffusion Tensor Imaging
  • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetoencephalography
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • Electrocorticography and Electrical Cortical Stimulation
  • Wada Testing
  • FUNCTIONAL APPLICATIONS
  • Motor Mapping
  • Language Localization
  • INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGE-GUIDED SURGERY
  • LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 24 - Use of Neuroimaging for Radiation Therapy Planning
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NEUROIMAGING
  • RADIATION PLANNING AND DELIVERY
  • QUALITY ASSURANCE OF IMAGING AND DOSE DELIVERY
  • STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY
  • PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF RADIOTHERAPY IN HIGH-GRADE GLIOMA
  • TREATMENT TOXICITY
  • DELINEATING PSEUDO-PROGRESSION, TRUE DISEASE PROGRESSION, AND RADIATION NECROSIS
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 25 - TTFields Therapy: Preclinical and Clinical Data
  • INTRODUCTION AND OUTLINE
  • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TTFIELDS AND PRECLINICAL FINDINGS
  • Introduction to the Physics of Electric Fields
  • Mechanisms of Action of TTFields
  • Cell Biology Effects of TTFields, Preclinical Findings, and Pilot Trials
  • CLINICAL APPLICATION OF TTFIELDS
  • Efficacy of Alternating Electric Fields Therapy for Glioblastoma
  • ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION WITHIN CRANIUM AND BRAIN
  • Experimental Evidence
  • Computational Model
  • Modeling Results
  • Future Modeling Developments
  • IMAGING IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH TTFIELDS THERAPY
  • Response Criteria
  • Pseudoprogression and Other Treatment-Related Changes
  • Advanced Imaging Techniques
  • Imaging in Patients Treated with NovoTTF Therapy: Early Experience
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 26 - Applications of Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Neuro-Oncology
  • INTRODUCTION
  • FOUNDATIONS OF RADIOSURGERY
  • Target Size
  • Target Location
  • Target Proximity to Cranial Nerves
  • DELIVERY OF RADIOSURGERY
  • Photon and Proton Radiosurgery
  • Gamma Knife Radiosurgery
  • LINAC Radiosurgery
  • CyberKnife Radiosurgery
  • Proton Beam Radiosurgery
  • NEUROIMAGING AND RADIOSURGERY
  • Computerized Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • CT-MR Image Integration
  • Functional Imaging
  • CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF RADIOSURGERY
  • Cerebral Metastases
  • Meningiomas
  • Acoustic Neuromas
  • Pituitary Adenomas
  • Prolactinomas
  • Growth Hormone-Secreting Adenomas
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Adenomas
  • Nonfunctioning Adenomas
  • Gliomas
  • Grade I gliomas
  • Grade II gliomas
  • Grade III and IV gliomas
  • Radiation-Associated Tumor Formation
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 27 - Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Brain Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PHYSICAL BASIS
  • Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging
  • Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging
  • Diffusion Kurtosis MR Imaging
  • CLINICAL USE
  • ASSESSMENT OF EXTRA-AXIAL TUMORS
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF INTRA-AXIAL CYSTIC MASSES
  • TUMOR GRADING
  • STRATIFYING TUMOR HISTOLOGY
  • PREOPERATIVE PLANNING AND PERITUMORAL MARGINS
  • INTRAOPERATIVE DIFFUSION IMAGING
  • POSTTREATMENT EVALUATION
  • POTENTIAL FUTURE APPLICATIONS
  • Limitations
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 28 - Diffusion Imaging of Brain Tumors
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE DIFFUSION IMAGING
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF BRAIN TUMORS WITH A SINGLE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT DERIVED FROM CONVENTIONAL DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGES
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF BRAIN TUMORS WITH MULTIPLE DIFFUSION PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM HIGHLY DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGES
  • ASSESSMENT OF NERVE FIBER TRACT INTEGRITY
  • CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 29 - Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GENERAL FMRI CONSIDERATIONS
  • SENSORY/MOTOR FMRI
  • LANGUAGE FMRI
  • LATERALIZATION
  • LOCALIZATION
  • SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FMRI MEASUREMENTS USING BRAIN TUMOR PATIENTS
  • THE EFFECTS OF BRAIN TUMORS AND PRIOR SURGERY ON THE BOLD FMRI SIGNAL
  • INTERPRETATION PITFALLS
  • SURGICAL OUTCOMES AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
  • References
  • 30 - Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
  • Neoplastic versus Nonneoplastic
  • Grading and Differential Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Survival
  • MRSI Guidance for Therapy
  • Surgical Planning
  • Radiation Planning34-36
  • Assessment of Treatment Efficacy/Response
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Serial
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Recurrent Disease
  • Malignant Transformation of Low-Grade Tumors
  • Differentiation of Radiation Necrosis and Recurrent Tumor
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 31 - Perfusion Imaging for Brain Tumor Characterization and Assessment of Treatment Response
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DYNAMIC CONTRAST AGENT MRI PERFUSION TECHNIQUES
  • DYNAMIC CONTRAST-ENHANCED IMAGING
  • Basic Principles
  • Imaging Methodology
  • Use of to Characterize Non-CNS Tumors
  • Use of DCE to Characterize Gliomas and Predict Treatment Response
  • Toward Standardization of DCE Acquisition and Postprocessing Methods
  • DYNAMIC SUSCEPTIBILITY CONTRAST IMAGING
  • Basic Principles
  • DSC Imaging Methodology
  • Choice of DSC Imaging Sequence
  • Postprocessing of DSC Imaging Data
  • Contrast Agent Leakage Effects
  • Distinction of Glioma Tumor Grade
  • Distinction of High-Grade Gliomas from Other Neoplasms
  • Potential Role of CBF to Characterize Brain Tumors
  • Assessment of Tumor Vascular Architecture
  • MR Perfusion Imaging Assessment of Peritumoral Regions
  • MR Perfusion Imaging for Assessment of Tumor Therapy
  • Distinction of Tumor Recurrence from Radiation Necrosis
  • ARTERIAL SPIN-LABELING TECHNIQUES
  • CT PERFUSION IMAGING
  • References
  • 32 - Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Physics
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECT IMAGING
  • Introduction to SPECT Physics
  • SPECT Instrumentation
  • Anger Camera
  • Collimator
  • SPECT Image Reconstruction and Correction
  • PET IMAGING
  • Introduction to PET Physics
  • PET Instrumentation
  • Detector Materials
  • Detector Configurations
  • PET Image Reconstruction and Correction
  • References
  • 33 - Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Imaging
  • OVERVIEW
  • Incidence and Prevalence
  • Brain Tumor Classification
  • NEUROIMAGING
  • Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • SPECT Imaging
  • Perfusion Agents: [99mTc]HMPAO and [99mTc]ECD
  • Labeled Cations: Thallium-201(201Tl) and Technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ([99mTc]MIBI)
  • Thallium-201
  • Technetium-99m MIBI
  • Labeled Amino Acids: [123I]Iodo-a-Methyltyrosine
  • PET Imaging
  • [18F]FDG-PET
  • Tumor Detection
  • Tumor Grading and Degree of Malignancy
  • Follow-up Assessment and Monitoring Treatment
  • Other Applications
  • Novel PET Tracers: [11C]MET, [18F]FET, and [18F]FLT
  • [11C] methionine
  • [18F] Fluoroethyl-l-Tyrosine
  • 3´-deoxy-3´-[18F]fluorothymidine
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 34 - Advanced Methionine Positron-Emission Tomography Imaging for Brain Tumor Diagnosis, Surgical Planning, and Treatment
  • References
  • 35 - Ultra-High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPATIAL RESOLUTION
  • MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY
  • IMAGING TUMOR OXYGENATION
  • CELLULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY
  • MULTINUCLEAR IMAGING AND CHEMICAL EXCHANGE SATURATION TRANSFER IMAGING
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 36 - Neuroimaging of Brain Tumors in Animal Models of Central Nervous System Cancer
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF SMALL ANIMAL MODELS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CANCER
  • Distinguishing Malignant Tissue from Normal Brain Parenchyma
  • Measuring Vascular Parameters by Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Probing Cellular Structure and Organization by Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Assessment of Tissue Protein/Peptide Fragments Using Amide Proton Transfer
  • Probing Tumor Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • IN VIVO BIOLUMINESCENCE IMAGING
  • MOLECULAR IMAGING OF SMALL ANIMALS
  • Micro-Positron Emission Tomography
  • Micro-Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
  • RECENT ADVANCES
  • References
  • 37 - RANO Criteria: Application to Response Assessment in Clinical Trials
  • INTRODUCTION
  • RANO CRITERIA FOR GLIOMAS
  • KEY ASPECTS OF IMAGING AND CLINICAL CRITERIA USED FOR RANO EVALUATION
  • T1 Contrast-Enhancing Disease
  • T2/FLAIR Imaging
  • Corticosteroid Use
  • Assessment of Patient Well-Being and Neurological Functioning
  • APPLICATION OF RANO CRITERIA TO HIGH-GRADE GLIOMAS
  • APPLICATION OF RANO CRITERIA TO LOW-GRADE GLIOMAS
  • DEVELOPMENT OF RANO CRITERIA FOR BRAIN METASTASES
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RANO
  • Role of Biomarkers
  • Advanced Imaging Techniques as Biomarkers
  • PERFUSION MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
  • DIFFUSION MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY
  • POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • IV - NEURO-IMAGING OFBRAIN TUMORS
  • 38 - Malignant Astrocytomas
  • References
  • 39 - Low-Grade Astrocytomas
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PHYSIOLOGIC IMAGING
  • DIFFUSE ASTROCYTOMA
  • NONINFILTRATIVE ASTROCYTOMAS
  • Pilocytic Astrocytoma
  • Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma
  • Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma
  • Subependymal Giant-Cell Astrocytoma
  • GLIOMATOSIS CEREBRI
  • References
  • 40 - Imaging of Oligodendrogliomas
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF OLIGODENDROGLIOMAS ON ROUTINE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES
  • DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGING
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE PERFUSION AND PERMEABILITY IMAGING
  • Dynamic Susceptibility-Weighted Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Permeability Imaging-Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging
  • FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND FRACTIONAL ANISOTROPY
  • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Fractional Anisotropy
  • POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
  • IMAGING DIFFERENTIATION OF TUMOR PROGRESSION FROM PSEUDO-PROGRESSION
  • OTHER TREATMENT-RELATED IMAGING CHANGES
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 41 - Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GENERAL IMAGING FEATURES
  • Anatomical Distribution
  • Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Angiography
  • Other Imaging Modalities
  • Imaging Patterns in Immunocompetent versus Immunocompromised Patients
  • Differential Diagnosis of Primary CNS Lymphoma
  • UNCOMMON MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIMARY CNS LYMPHOMA
  • Primary Leptomeningeal Lymphoma
  • Intravascular Lymphomatosis
  • Lymphomatosis Cerebri
  • Primary Lymphoma of the Spinal Cord
  • Primary CNS Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  • Primary Intraocular Lymphoma
  • Low-Grade PCNSL
  • Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the CNS
  • Primary T cell CNS Lymphoma
  • References
  • 42 - Pituitary and Sellar Region Lesions
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ANATOMY
  • IMAGING
  • SOLID LESIONS
  • Pituitary Adenoma
  • Meningioma
  • Chiasmatic and Hypothalamic Gliomas
  • Germinoma
  • Metastasis
  • Schwannoma
  • Hypothalamic Hamartoma
  • Pituitary Hyperplasia
  • MIXED SOLID AND CYSTIC LESIONS
  • Craniopharyngioma
  • Epidermoid and Dermoid
  • Rathke's Cleft Cyst
  • Arachnoid Cyst
  • Empty Sella
  • PITUITARY STALK LESIONS
  • MISCELLANEOUS LESIONS
  • References
  • 43 - Neoplasms of the Cranial Nerves
  • NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS
  • Schwannomas
  • Introduction
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Cranial Nerve VIII-Acoustic Neuroma (Vestibular Schwannoma)
  • Nonvestibular Schwannomas
  • Cranial Nerve V-Trigeminal Schwannomas (Neuromas)
  • Cranial Nerve VII-Facial Nerve Schwannomas
  • Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI-Jugular Foramen Schwannomas
  • Cranial Nerve XII-Hypoglossal Nerve Schwannomas
  • Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI-Extraocular Nerve Schwannomas
  • Cranial Nerve I-Olfactory Nerve Schwannomas
  • Management of Nonvestibular Schwannomas
  • GLIAL NEOPLASMS
  • Optic Pathway Gliomas
  • Introduction
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Management
  • PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA
  • Introduction
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Management
  • References
  • 44 - Meningeal Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • IMAGING OF EXTRA-AXIAL TUMORS
  • MENINGIOMAS
  • Imaging Evaluation
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Angiographic Evaluation
  • Imaging Meningiomas Postembolization
  • MESENCHYMAL, NONMENINGOTHELIAL TUMORS
  • Hemangiopericytoma
  • Melanocytic Lesions
  • Other Rare Lesions
  • References
  • 45 - Intracranial Schwannomas
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PATHOLOGY
  • IMAGING
  • NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2
  • MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT
  • References
  • 46 - Diencephalic and Other Deep Brain Tumors
  • PRIMARY DIENCEPHALIC TUMORS
  • Basal Ganglia-Thalami
  • Gliomas
  • Pilocytic Astrocytoma
  • Diffuse or Infiltrating Astrocytoma
  • Bilateral Thalamic Glioma
  • Oligodendrogliomas and Mixed Gliomas
  • Ganglion Cell Tumors
  • Germ-Cell Tumors
  • Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors
  • Atypical Rhabdoid-Teratoid Tumors
  • Lymphomas
  • Metastases
  • Hypothalamus-Optic Chiasm
  • Hypothalamic and Chiasmatic Gliomas
  • Hamartoma
  • Chordoid Glioma
  • Lymphoma
  • Miscellaneous Masses
  • TUMORS THAT SECONDARILY INVADE THE DEEP BRAIN
  • Peripheral Brain Tumors
  • Ventricular Tumors
  • Pineal Gland Tumors
  • References
  • 47 - Neuroimaging of Glioneuronal Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CENTRAL NEUROCYTOMA
  • Clinical
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Treatment
  • GANGLIOGLIOMA AND GANGLIOCYTOMA
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Treatment
  • DESMOPLASTIC INFANTILE GANGLIOGLIOMA AND DESMOPLASTIC INFANTILE ASTROCYTOMA
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Treatment
  • DYSEMBRYOPLASTIC NEUROEPITHELIAL TUMOR
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Treatment
  • DYSPLASTIC GANGLIOCYTOMA OF THE CEREBELLUM
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Treatment
  • CEREBELLAR LIPONEUROCYTOMA
  • Pathology
  • Imaging
  • Tumor Management
  • References
  • 48 - Pineal Region Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ANATOMY, FUNCTION, AND NORMAL IMAGING
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY
  • CLINICAL
  • IMAGING
  • Pineal Calcification
  • Pineal Cysts
  • Pineal Region Germ-Cell Tumors
  • Germinoma
  • Nongerminomatous Germ-Cell Tumors
  • Pineal Parenchymal Tumors
  • Pineoblastomas
  • Pineocytomas
  • Pineal Parenchymal Tumors of Intermediate Differentiation
  • Papillary Tumors of the Pineal Region
  • Other Lesions
  • MAKING A DIAGNOSIS
  • TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 49 - Chordomas and Other Skull Base Tumors
  • CHORDOMA
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Imaging
  • Treatment
  • CHONDROSARCOMA
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Imaging
  • Treatment
  • OTHER SKULL BASE TUMORS
  • References
  • 50 - Pediatric Brain Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SPECIFIC PEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMORS
  • Tumors of the Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Astrocytomas
  • Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors
  • Supratentorial Ependymoma
  • Subependymal Giant Cell Tumor
  • Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors
  • Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor
  • Choroid Plexus Tumors
  • Choroid Plexus Papilloma
  • Choroid Plexus Carcinoma
  • Posterior Fossa Tumors
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Cerebellar Astrocytomas
  • Brain-Stem Tumors
  • Pontine Tumors
  • Medullary Tumors
  • Midbrain Tumors
  • Ependymomas
  • Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors
  • Sellar and Suprasellar Tumors
  • Craniopharyngioma
  • Chiasmatic/Hypothalamic Gliomas
  • Hypothalamic Hamartoma
  • Germ-Cell Tumors
  • Pituitary Adenomas
  • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
  • Parameningeal and Metastatic Tumors
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 51 - Papillary Glioneuronal Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GENERAL IMAGING FEATURES
  • UNCOMMON MANIFESTATIONS OF PGNT
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS ON MRI
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 52 - Intracranial Metastases
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
  • Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Techniques to Increase Lesion Conspicuity
  • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
  • Perfusion-Weighted Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNIQUES
  • MENINGEAL METASTASES
  • IMAGING APPROACH IN BRAIN METASTASES
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 53 - Nonneoplastic Mass Lesions of the Central Nervous System
  • DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES
  • Pineal cysts
  • Arachnoid cysts
  • Epidermoid Cysts
  • Dermoid Cysts
  • Neuroenteric Cysts
  • Intracranial Lipoma
  • Epithelial Cysts of the Central Nervous System
  • Colloid Cysts
  • Rathke Cleft Cysts
  • Cholesteatoma
  • Hamartomas
  • INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS
  • Autoimmune Encephalitis
  • Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Inflammatory Pseudotumor
  • Rosai-Dorfman Disease
  • Idiopathic Pachymeningitis
  • Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome
  • Infundibulitis and Hypophysitis
  • Demyelinating Encephalitis
  • INFECTIONS
  • Bacterial Infections and Brain Abscess
  • Fungal Infections
  • Parasitic Infections
  • Neurocysticercosis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Viral Infections
  • Herpes Encephalitis
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
  • CEREBROVASCULAR LESIONS
  • Ischemic Infarctions
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • OTHER ENTITIES
  • Extramedullary Hematopoiesis
  • Amyloidoma
  • Radiation Necrosis
  • Polymorphic Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder
  • References
  • 54 - Neuroimaging Issues in Assessing Response to Brain Tumor Therapy
  • IMAGING APPEARANCE OF GLIOMAS OF THE ADULT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
  • EVOLUTION OF DIFFUSE GLIOMAS IN ADULTS
  • IMAGING DIFFUSE GLIOMAS FOLLOWING DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
  • Low-Grade Gliomas
  • High-Grade Gliomas
  • RELATED ISSUES
  • Pseudoprogression
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • USE OF IMAGING IN CLINICAL TRIALS
  • QUANTIFICATION OF TUMOR RESPONSE BY IMAGING
  • Macdonald Criteria
  • RESPONSE EVALUATION CRITERIA IN SOLID TUMORS
  • RESPONSE ASSESSMENT IN NEURO-ONCOLOGY
  • RESPONSE AS A SURROGATE FOR SURVIVAL
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Radiographic Response as a Surrogate for Overall Survival
  • TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF MEASURING RESPONSE AND PROGRESSION
  • Technical Considerations
  • Computer-Aided Volumetric Analysis
  • Comparison of Diameter and Volumetric Approaches
  • Timing of Imaging
  • Image Interpretation and Measurements
  • Imaging Pitfalls
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 55 - Pseudoprogression in Neuro-Oncology: Overview, Pathophysiology, and Interpretation
  • OVERVIEW OF PSEUDOPROGRESSION
  • HISTORY
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • Histology
  • Theories of Pathophysiology
  • INTERPRETATION
  • Methods of Differentiation between Progression and Pseudoprogression
  • AVAglio Protocol
  • RANO Criteria
  • Limitations of Current Systems
  • NOVEL IMAGING TECHNIQUES
  • Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Perfusion Imaging
  • Delayed Contrast Extravasation Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Arterial Spin Imaging
  • Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging
  • BIOLOGIC DIFFERENTIATION
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 56 - Pitfalls in the Neuroimaging of Brain Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • IMAGING FEATURES
  • Extra-axial and Meningeal Tumors
  • Intra-axial Lesions
  • RECURRENCE VERSUS TREATMENT-RELATED COMPLICATIONS
  • References
  • V - NEURO-IMAGING OF OTHERNEURO-ONCOLOGICALSYNDROMES
  • 57 - Neuroradiology of Leptomeningeal Metastases
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CNS IMAGING MODALITIES IN LM
  • BRAIN AND SPINE MRI
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • RADIOISOTOPE CSF FLOW STUDIES
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 58 - Imaging of Epidural Spinal Cord Compression
  • CLINICAL BACKGROUND
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • EPIDURAL ANATOMY
  • IMAGING
  • Radiography
  • Myelography and Computed Tomographic Myelography
  • Computed Tomography
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • IMAGING DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
  • References
  • 59 - Neuroimaging for Surgical Treatment Planning of Neoplastic Disease of the Spine
  • INTRODUCTION
  • METASTATIC SPINAL TUMORS
  • PRIMARY BONE TUMORS
  • EXTRAMEDULLARY INTRADURAL SPINAL TUMORS
  • Meningiomas
  • Nerve Sheath Tumors
  • INTRAMEDULLARY TUMORS
  • Ependymomas
  • Astrocytomas
  • Hemangioblastomas
  • SURGICAL INTERVENTION FOR SPINAL TUMORS
  • En Bloc Resection of Single Metastasis to the Spine
  • NEUROIMAGING PREOPERATIVE PLANNING
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Spinal Metastasis
  • Leptomeningeal Metastasis
  • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
  • COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
  • Differentiation of Lytic versus Blastic Spinal Disease
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF SPINAL TUMORS
  • DYNAMIC X-RAYS
  • POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY SCAN
  • SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY/COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
  • ANGIOGRAPHY
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 60 - Imaging of Plexopathy in Oncologic Patients
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NORMAL ANATOMY OF PLEXUSES
  • Cervical and Brachial Plexus
  • Lumbosacral Plexus
  • RADIOGRAPHIC METHODS OF IMAGING
  • Technique-Computed Tomography
  • Technique-Magnetic Resonance
  • Visualization of Normal Plexus Components on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance
  • Abnormal Nerve
  • Imaging Method of Choice
  • PRIMARY PLEXUS NEOPLASMS
  • EXTRINSIC PLEXUS TUMORS
  • RADIATION INJURY
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 61 - Imaging of Peripheral Neurogenic Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BENIGN PERIPHERAL NERVE SHEATH TUMORS
  • Neurilemoma
  • Neurofibroma
  • IMAGING OF BENIGN PERIPHERAL NERVE SHEATH TUMORS
  • NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1
  • NEURAL FIBROLIPOMA
  • TRAUMATIC NEUROMA
  • NERVE SHEATH GANGLION
  • MORTON NEUROMA
  • GLOMUS TUMOR
  • MALIGNANT PERIPHERAL NERVE SHEATH TUMORS
  • METASTASES TO NERVES
  • SECONDARY SIGNS
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 62 - Neuroimaging of Cerebrovascular Complications in Cancer Patients
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TUMOR-RELATED CEREBROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
  • Coagulopathy
  • Venous Thrombosis
  • Direct Tumor-Related Compromise of Arterial Vasculature
  • Leptomeningeal Metastases
  • Tumor Emboli and Neoplastic Aneurysms
  • Tumor-Related Hemorrhagic Stroke
  • INFECTION-RELATED CEREBROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
  • THERAPY-RELATED CEREBROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
  • Radiation-Induced Cerebrovascular Complications
  • Chemotherapy-Related Cerebrovascular Complications
  • Endovascular Therapy-Related Cerebrovascular Complications
  • MISCELLANEOUS TUMOR-RELATED CEREBROVASCULAR CONDITIONS
  • Primary Angiitis of Central Nervous System
  • Intravascular Lymphomatosis
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 63 - Neuroimaging in Paraneoplastic Syndromes
  • PARANEOPLASTIC CEREBELLAR DEGENERATION
  • PARANEOPLASTIC LIMBIC ENCEPHALITIS
  • NMDAR ENCEPHALITIS
  • PARANEOPLASTIC BRAINSTEM ENCEPHALITIS
  • PARANEOPLASTIC CHOREA
  • PARANEOPLASTIC MYELOPATHY
  • IMAGING OF OCCULT MALIGNANCY IN PATIENTS WITH PARANEOPLASTIC DISORDERS
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Back Cover

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