The Nature and Use of Ecotoxicological Evidence

Natural Science, Statistics, Psychology, and Sociology
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 1. Februar 2018
  • |
  • 298 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-809645-1 (ISBN)
 

The Nature and Use of Ecotoxicological Evidence: Natural Science, Statistics, Psychology, and Sociology examines how toxicologists and environmental professionals come to understand and make decisions about possible harm from pollutants. Drawing on concepts and techniques from the natural, social and mathematical sciences, the book emphasizes how pollutant-related evidence is gathered, assessed, communicated and applied in decision-making. Each chapter begins with a real-world example before exploring fundamental cognitive, social, statistical or natural science concepts to explain the opening example. Methods from other disciplines for recognizing, reducing or removing the influence of impediments in wise decision-making are highlighted in each chapter.

Misreading evidence by the scientific community, and miscommunication to regulators and the public, remain major impediments to wise action in pollution issues. Which evidence comes to dominate the dialogue among scientists, regulators and decision makers depends on social and scientific dynamics. Yet psychological and sociological factors that influence the movement of evidence through scientific communities to regulators receive cursory discussion by professionals unfamiliar with the sociology literature. Toxicologists, environmental scientists, psychologists and professionals and students across the sciences will find the book useful for understanding how evidence is generated, assessed and communicated in their own fields.

  • Includes groundbreaking research synthesizing information from across the sciences to understand the decision-making process
  • Provides real life examples and uses theoretical concepts to analyze them in clear, direct language
  • Encourages critical thinking about complex problems


Michael C. Newman is currently the A. Marshall Acuff, Jr. Professor of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary's School of Marine Science where he also served as Dean of Graduate Studies from 1999 to 2002. Previously, he was a faculty member at the University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. His research interests include quantitative ecotoxicology, environmental statistics, risk assessment, population effects of contaminants, metal chemistry, bioaccumulation and biomagnification modeling, and during the last 15 years, qualities of new concepts or technologies that foster or inhibit their adoption by the ecotoxicology scientific community. In addition to more than 140 articles, he authored 5 books and edited another 5 books on these topics. Mandarin and Turkish translations of his Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology are available from Chemical Industry Press (Beijing) and PALME (Ankara). A Mandarin translation of his marine risk assessment book was released in 2011. He taught full semester and short courses at universities throughout the world including the University of California - San Diego, University of South Carolina, University of Georgia, College of William and Mary, Jagiellonian University (Poland), University of Antwerp (Belgium), University of Joensuu (Finland), University of Technology - Sydney (Australia), University of Hong Kong, University of Koblenz-Landau (Germany), Huazhong Normal University (P.R. China), and Royal Holloway University of London (UK). He served numerous international, national, and regional organizations including the OECD, US EPA Science Advisory Board, US EPA ECOFRAM, US EPA STAA, and the US National Academy of Science NRC. He was a Fulbright Senior Scholar (University of Koblenz- Landau, Germany, 2009) and a Government of Kerala Scholar in Residence/Erudite Scholar (Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin University, Kerala, India, 2011). In 2004, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) awarded him its Founder's Award, 'the highest SETAC award, given to a person with an outstanding career who has made a clearly identifiable contribution in the environmental sciences." In 2014, he was also named a SETAC Fellow, for 'long-term and significant scientific and science policy contributions.'
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
  • 7,97 MB
978-0-12-809645-1 (9780128096451)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • The Nature and Use of Ecotoxicological Evidence
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • About the Author
  • Preface
  • Intent
  • Scope and Tenor
  • Coverage
  • References
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 1 The Emerging Importance of Pollution
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Historical Emergence of Pollution
  • 1.2.1 Pre-20th Century: The Slow Emergence of Pollution
  • 1.2.2 20th Century: Running Up the Bill for the Next Generation
  • 1.2.3 21st Century: Budget Balancing While Paying Down the Debt
  • 1.3 Emergence of the Anthropocene
  • 1.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • 2 How Individuals Gather and Judge Evidence
  • 2 Human Reasoning: Everyday Heuristics and Foibles
  • 2.1 Cognitive Psychology and Heuristics
  • 2.2 Origins and Nature of Everyday Heuristics
  • 2.2.1 Fast and Frugal, But Potentially Biased, Heuristics
  • 2.2.2 Prominent Heuristics and Cognitive Biases
  • 2.2.2.1 Overconfidence Bias
  • 2.2.2.2 Availability (Ease of Recall) as Influenced by Vividness or Emotional Content
  • 2.2.2.3 Availability (Ease of Recall) as Influenced by Social Accentuation
  • 2.2.2.4 Availability (Ease of Recall) as Influenced by Familiarity
  • 2.2.2.5 Confirmation Bias
  • 2.2.2.6 Anchoring
  • 2.2.2.7 Framing Error
  • 2.2.2.8 Acquiescence
  • 2.2.2.9 Segregation/Isolation Effect
  • 2.2.2.10 Time Inconsistency in Choices
  • 2.2.2.11 Value Centrality Bias
  • 2.2.2.12 Compulsion to Find Order, Patterns, and Relationships
  • 2.2.2.13 Differences for One- and Two-Sided Events
  • 2.2.2.14 Endowment and Mere Ownership Effects
  • 2.2.2.15 Status Quo Bias
  • 2.2.2.16 Risk Aversion
  • 2.2.2.17 Risk Thermostat/Compensation
  • 2.2.2.18 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
  • 2.2.2.19 Self-Handicapping
  • 2.2.2.20 Imitation Including Informational Mimicry
  • 2.2.2.21 Leveling and Sharpening
  • 2.2.2.22 Probability Blindness
  • 2.2.2.23 Base Rate Neglect (or Fallacy)
  • 2.2.2.24 Conjunction Fallacy
  • 2.2.2.25 Certainty Effect
  • 2.2.2.26 Insensitivity to Sample Size
  • 2.2.2.27 Visual Misperception
  • 2.3 Conclusion
  • 2.3.1 The Wisdom of Cognitive Insecurity
  • 2.3.2 Suggestions for Minimizing Cognitive Biases
  • 2.3.2.1 Overconfidence Bias
  • 2.3.2.2 Availability (Ease of Recall) as Influenced by Vividness or Emotional Content, Confirmation Bias, Anchoring, Endowm...
  • 2.3.2.3 Availability (Ease of Recall) as Influenced by Social Accentuation
  • 2.3.2.4 Framing Error
  • 2.3.2.5 Acquiescence
  • 2.3.2.6 Risk Aversion
  • 2.3.2.7 Self-Handicapping
  • 2.3.2.8 Imitation Including Informational Mimicry
  • 2.3.2.9 Leveling and Sharpening: Availability (Influenced by Social Attenuation or Familiarity)
  • 2.3.2.10 Probability Blindness
  • 2.3.2.11 Base Rate Neglect
  • 2.3.2.12 Visual Misperception
  • References
  • 3 Human Reasoning: Within Scientific Traditions and Rules
  • 3.1 Human Reasoning in a Scientific Context
  • 3.2 Traditions in Science
  • 3.2.1 Historical Wisdom
  • 3.2.2 Falsification and Strong Inference
  • 3.2.3 Abductive Inference: Strongest Possible Inference
  • 3.2.4 Weaker Forms of Inference
  • 3.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • 4 Pathological Reasoning Within Sciences
  • 4.1 Pathological Science
  • 4.1.1 Pathological Science Emerging From Human Foibles
  • 4.1.2 Sound Regulation Trumps Healthy Science?
  • 4.2 Examples of Pathological Science
  • 4.2.1 Classic Examples
  • 4.2.2 Environmental Science Examples
  • 4.3 Conclusion
  • 4.3.1 Pathological Science in Our Applied Science
  • 4.3.2 Minimizing Pathological Ecotoxicology
  • References
  • 5 Individual Scientist: Reasoning by the Numbers
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Quantitative Methods
  • 5.2.1 Explicitness of Quantitative Methods
  • 5.2.2 Classic Statistical Testing and Inference
  • 5.2.2.1 Fisherian Significance Testing
  • 5.2.2.2 Nyman-Pearson Hypothesis Testing
  • 5.2.2.3 Useful Embellishments and Extensions
  • 5.2.3 Confidence Intervals
  • 5.2.4 Information-Theoretic Methods
  • 5.2.5 Bayesian Inference
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • References
  • 3 How Groups Weigh and Apply Evidence
  • 6 Social Processing of Evidence: Commonplace Dynamics and Foibles
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.1 Evolution of Decision-Making Social Systems
  • 6.1.2 Homophily and Heterophily
  • 6.2 Individual-Peer Dyads
  • 6.3 Groupthink and Polythink
  • 6.4 Satisficing
  • 6.5 Eliciting Judgments From Groups of Experts
  • 6.6 Reducing the Impact of Group Errors
  • 6.6.1 Groupthink and Polythink
  • 6.6.2 Satisficing
  • 6.6.3 Improved Expert Elicitation Techniques
  • 6.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • 7 How Innovations Enter and Move Within Groups
  • 7.1 Innovation Diffusion
  • 7.2 Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolution
  • 7.3 Innovation Diffusion Theory
  • 7.3.1 Basic Concepts and Qualities Influencing Diffusion
  • 7.3.2 Quantitative Models
  • 7.3.3 Strength of Weak Ties
  • 7.3.4 Temporal Influences
  • 7.4 Information Transmission Integrity and Fruitfulness
  • 7.5 Innovations in Ecotoxicology
  • 7.5.1 Fundamental Tension: Standardization and Scientific Evolution
  • 7.5.2 Examples
  • 7.5.2.1 Progression of Innovations Concerning Metal Bioactivity
  • 7.5.2.2 Innovations Differing in Ease of Application, Simplicity, and Relevance
  • 7.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • 8 Evidence in Social Networks
  • 8.1 The Social Science of Ecotoxicology
  • 8.2 Social Network Analysis
  • 8.2.1 Network Types, Qualities, and Metrics
  • 8.2.1.1 Whole Versus Ego Networks
  • 8.2.1.2 Centrality, Cohesion, and Subgroups
  • 8.2.2 Actor Roles and Influences in Networks
  • 8.3 Networks of Scientists
  • 8.4 Conclusions
  • 8.4.1 General
  • 8.4.2 Emerging Possibilities of Crowdsourcing
  • References
  • 4 Conclusion
  • 9 Conclusion
  • 9.1 The Elephant-in-the-Room
  • 9.2 The Nature of Ecotoxicology Evidence
  • 9.3 The Use of Ecotoxicology Evidence
  • References
  • Appendix 1: Ecotoxicology Innovation Survey Methods
  • A.1.1 Innovation Data Set
  • A.1.2 Innovation Diffusion
  • A.1.3 Co-authorship Networks
  • References
  • Appendix 2: ResearchGate Ecotoxicologist Survey
  • A.2.1 General
  • A.2.2 Tabulation for 80 Ecotoxicologists
  • Reference
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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