Oxyfuel Combustion for Clean Energy Applications

 
 
Springer (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 11. Februar 2019
  • |
  • X, 368 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Wasserzeichen-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-3-030-10588-4 (ISBN)
 

This book aims to be the reference book in the area of oxyfuel combustion, covering the fundamentals, design considerations and current challenges in the field. Its first part provides an overview of the greenhouse gas emission problem and the current carbon capture and sequestration technologies. The second part introduces oxy-fuel combustion technologies with emphasis on system efficiency, combustion and emission characteristics, applications and related challenges. The third part focuses on the recent developments in ion transport membranes and their performance in both oxygen separation units and oxygen transport reactors (OTRs). The fourth part presents novel approaches for clean combustion in gas turbines and boilers. Computational modelling and optimization of combustion in gas turbine combustors and boiler furnaces are presented in the fifth part with some numerical results and detailed analyses.


1st ed. 2019
  • Englisch
  • Cham
  • |
  • Schweiz
Springer International Publishing
Bibliographie
  • 15,63 MB
978-3-030-10588-4 (9783030105884)
10.1007/978-3-030-10588-4
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt

Hassan M. Badr has a PhD from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and is a Professor at the Mechanical Engineering Department of the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Book Table of Contents

Preambles

Dedication

Contributing Authors

Preface

Foreword

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Global Warming

1.1.1 Carbon budget for the 2 oC limit

1.1.2 Required atmospheric CO2 reduction

1.2 Status of renewable energies

1.2.1 Market and industry trends

1.2.2 Renewables for global warming control

1.3 carbon capture and storage (CCS) techniques

1.3.1 carbon capture technologies

1.3.1.1 Pre-combustion carbon capture technology

1.3.1.2 Post-combustion carbon capture technology

1.3.1.3 Oxy-fuel combustion carbon capture technology

1.3.2 Carbon storage techniques

1.3.2.1 Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

1.3.2.2 Depleted oil/gas fields

1.3.2.3 Deep saline aquifers

1.3.3 Carbon utilization techniques

1.4 Approaches for oxy-fuel combustion technology

1.4.1 Conventional combustion systems

1.4.2 Oxygen transport reactors (OTRs)

1.5 Why oxy-combustion

1.6 Oxy-combustion in gas turbines

1.6.1 Required system modifications

1.6.2 Gas turbine performance under oxy-combustion

1.6.3 Emissions characteristics

1.6.4 Flame stability

1.7 Bio-energy with CCS (BECCS) for negative CO2 emissions

1.7.1 Concept of BECCS

1.7.2 Status of BECCS

1.8 Summary

References

Chapter 2: Application of Oxyfuel Combustion Technology into Conventional Combustors

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Oxy-fuel combustion characteristics

2.2.1 Reactions and emission characteristics

2.2.2 Oxy-combustion systems

2.2.2.1 Air Separation Unit

2.2.2.2 Carbon dioxide purification unit

2.2.2.3 Flue gas recirculation system

2.3 Oxy-combustion alternatives

2.3.1 Using air separation unit and conventional combustion chamber

2.3.1.1 Applications of Oxy-fuel combustion in gas turbines

2.3.1.1.1 Typical characteristics

2.3.1.1.2 Optimal supply of oxygen and diluent to oxy-fuel combustion

2.3.1.1.3 Reactions characteristics

2.3.2 Using membrane reactor technology

2.4 Oxy-fuel combustion in conventional combustion systems

2.4.1 Gaseous fuel operation

2.4.2 Liquid fuel operation

2.4.2.1 General combustion characteristics of liquid fuels

2.4.2.2 Oxy-combustion characteristics of liquid fuels

2.4.3 Coal fuel operation

2.4.3.1 Oxy-combustion characteristics of coal

2.4.3.2 Application of coal oxy-combustion in power cycles

2.4.4 Recent advances and technology readiness level (TRL)

2.4.4.1 Oxy-combustion for coal-fired power plants

2.4.4.2 Oxy-combustion for gas turbines

2.5 Trends of oxy-combustion technology

2.5.1 Oxy-combustion integrated power plants

2.5.2 Third generation technologies for CO2 capture

2.6 Summary

References

Chapter 3: Ion Transport Membranes (ITMs) for Oxygen Separation

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Oxygen separation membranes

3.3 Gaseous oxy-fuel combustion in OTRs

3.4 Trending applications of OTR technology

3.4.1 OTRs for syngas production

3.4.1.1 Syngas OTM system characteristics

3.4.1.2 Syngas catalytic OTRs

3.4.2 Combustion utilizing liquid fuels in OTRs

3.4.3 Membranes for Splitting H2O to Produce H2

3.4.4 Membranes for CO2 Utilization

3.4.4.1 Splitting of CO2 for syngas and syn-fuel production

3.4.4.2 Conversion of CO2 into methanol

3.4.4.3 Use of CO2 for enhancing oil recovery

3.4.4.4 Conversion of CO2 into plastics

3.5 Summary

References

Chapter 4: Novel Approaches for Clean Combustion in Gas Turbines

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Types of flame

4.2.1 Non-premixed/premixed flames

4.2.2 MILD/Flameless combustion

4.2.3 Colorless distributed combustion (CDC)

4.2.4 Low-Swirl Injector (LSI) combustion

4.3 Burner design

4.3.1 Swirl stabilized burners

4.3.1.1 Turbulent reacting flow

4.3.1.2 Swirling flow

4.3.2 DLN/DLE burners

4.3.2.1 Construction and design of DLN/DLE burners

4.3.2.2 Emissions and combustion characteristics of DLN/DLE burners

4.3.3 Catalytic combustion

4.3.4 Perforated plate burners

4.3.5 Environmental EV/SEV/AEV burners

4.3.5.1 Concept of operation of EV/SEV/AEV burners

4.3.5.2 Performance of the EV/SEV/AEV burners

4.3.6 Micromixer burners

4.3.6.1 Micromixer design

4.3.6.2 Lean Direct Injection (LDI) hydrogen micromixer combustion

4.4 Fuel flexibility

4.4.1 H2-enriched premixed combustion

4.4.2 Fuel variability concerns

4.4.2.1 Concerns on hydrogen

4.4.2.2 Concerns on medium heating value fuels

4.4.2.3 Concerns on low heating value fuels

4.5 Oxidizer flexibility

4.5.1 LPM air combustion

4.5.2 Oxy-fuel combustion

4.6 Feasibility of different combustion technologies

4.7 Summary

References

Chapter 5: CFD Approaches for Oxyfuel Combustion

6.1 Introduction

6.2 General conservation equations

6.3 Modeling turbulent reacting flow

5.3.1 Modeling non-premixed turbulent combustion

5.3.1.1 Non-premixed combustion overview

5.3.1.2 RANS model

5.3.2 Modeling turbulent premixed combustion

5.3.2.1 Premixed combustion overview

5.3.2.2 Premixed flame fundamentals

5.3.2.3 Premixed combustion regime

5.3.2.4 Combustion modeling governing equations

5.3.2.5 Combustion modeling approaches

5.3.2.6 LES methodology

5.3.2.7 LES combustion modeling techniques

5.3.2.8 Artificially thickened flame approach

6.4 Modeling radiation

6.5 Modeling species transport

6.6 Modified two-step model for oxy-combustion of methane

5.6.1 Chemistry reduction/acceleration techniques

5.6.1.1 Reduced Chemistry Mechanisms

5.6.1.2 One-Step Global Chemistry

5.6.1.3 Low-Dimensional Manifolds

5.6.1.4 Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGMs)

5.6.2 Modified two-step model for oxy-combustion of methane

5.6.3 Modified JL-mechanism for oxy-combustion of H2-enriched-methane

5.7 H2-enriched methane oxy-combustion in a model gas turbine combustor: case study

5.7.1 Boundary conditions and solution technique

5.7.2 Results and discussions

5.7.2.1 Flow and flame characteristics

5.7.2.2 Effect of equivalence ratio

5.7.2.3 Effects of oxidizer mixture composition

5.7.2.4 Effects of hydrogen enrichment

5.7.2.5 Effects of swirl vane angle

5.8 Methane oxy-combustion in a fire-tube boiler: case study

5.8.1 Mathematical formulations

5.8.2 Boundary conditions

5.8.3 Comparison of air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion

5.9 Summary

References

Chapter 6: Applications of Oxygen Transport Reactors (OTRs) into Gas Turbine Combustors and Boiler Furnaces: Modeling and Optimization

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Development of oxygen permeation model

6.3 CFD modeling of OTR

6.4 Modeling of radiation

6.5 Integration of OTRs with conventional combustors for ZEPP applications

6.6 Application of OTR into gas turbine combustor

6.6.1 Monolith-structure design OTR for replacement of a gas turbine combustor

6.6.1.1 Numerical modeling

6.6.1.2 Model validation

6.6.1.3 Co-current OTR design

6.6.1.4 Counter-current OTR design

6.6.1.5 Effect of channel width

6.6.1.6 Effect of fuel concentration

6.6.2 Design of a multi-can carbon-free gas turbine combustor utilizing multiple shell-and-tube OTRs for ZEPP applications

6.6.2.1 Proposed power cycle

6.6.2.2 OTR design and flow conditions

6.6.2.3 CFD modeling

6.6.2.4 Co-current vs. counter-current flow configurations

6.6.2.5 Effect of inlet fuel concentration

6.6.2.6 Effect of membrane tube length

6.6.2.7 Effect of membrane tube diameter

6.6.2.8 Effect of membrane tube pitch

6.6.2.9 Final design of the gas turbine combustor

6.7 Application of OTR into fire tube boilers

6.7.1 Reactor features and boundary conditions

6.7.2 Methodology of the numerical solution

6.7.3 OTR design for boiler furnace substitution

6.7.4 Operation under co-current flow configuration

6.7.5 Operation under counter-current flow configuration

6.7.6 Influence of fuel concentration

6.8 Summary

References

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