Green Aviation

Reduction of Environmental Impact Through Aircraft Technology and Alternative Fuels
 
 
CRC Press
  • erschienen am 12. Juni 2018
  • |
  • 396 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF ohne DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-136-31820-7 (ISBN)
 

Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential. This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in green aviation. Environmental impacts, technology advances, public policy and economics are intricately linked to the pace of development that will be realized in the coming decades. Experts from NASA, industry and academia review current technology development in green aviation that will carry the industry through 2025 and beyond. This includes increased efficiency through better propulsion systems, reduced drag airframes, advanced materials and operational changes. Clean combustion and emission control of noise, exhaust gases and particulates are also addressed through combustor design and the use of alternative fuels. Economic imperatives from aircraft lifetime and maintenance logistics dictate the drive for "drop-in" fuels, blending jet-grade and biofuel. New certification standards for alternative fuels are outlined. Life Cycle Assessments are used to evaluate worldwide biofuel approaches, highlighting that there is no single rational approach for sustainable buildup. In fact, unless local conditions are considered, the use of biofuels can create a net increase in environmental impact as a result of biofuel manufacturing processes. Governmental experts evaluate current and future regulations and their impact on green aviation. Sustainable approaches to biofuel development are discussed for locations around the globe, including the US, EU, Brazil, China and India.

weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt

Emily S. Nelson is a research engineer at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) specializing in interdisciplinary research at the intersection of fluid mechanics and heat transport, materials science, biology and/or human physiology. She received her B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (1983); M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology (1986); and her Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley (1998). Dr. Nelson has been employed as a research engineer by NASA GRC since 1989. She is conducting numerical simulations of industrial algae growth processes, which combine hydrodynamics with biokinetics to evaluate and develop system designs and operating protocols for biomass yield, consumption of waste CO2 generated by a power plant, and power requirements.

Dhanireddy Ramalinga "D.R" Reddy, Chief of the Aeropropulsion Division at NASA Glenn Research Center , Cleveland, Ohio, is responsible for providing enabling capabilities to the aerospace community by leading research and developing technology in the areas of turbomachinery, combustion, fuels/propellants, icing, inlets, nozzles, propulsion system simulation, engine systems, and computational methods. He received his Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering (1971) from Sri Venkateswara University, A. P., India; Master of Engineering in Aeronautical Engineering (1974) from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; and Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering (1983) from the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Reddy joined NASA GRC in 1991, serving as Chief of the Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch and Senior Consultant, and focusing research on developing a predictive capability to accurately simulate the complex flow features of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

Introduction
Emily S. Nelson and Dhanireddy R. Reddy
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Part I - Environmental Impacts of Aviation

Chapter 1. Noise Emissions from Commercial Aircraft
Edmane Envia
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Chapter 2. Aircraft Emissions: Gaseous and Particulate
Changlie Wey1 and Chi-Ming Lee2
1Vantage Partners, Cleveland, OH 44135 USA, 2NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Chapter 3. Aeropropulsion Fuel Efficiency
James D. Heidmann,
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Part II - Technologies To Mitigate Environmental Impacts

Chapter 4. Noise Mitigation Strategies
Dennis Huff and Edmane Envia,
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Chapter 5: Lightweight Materials for Airframe and Propulsion Systems
Ajay Misra1 and Karen Taminger2
1NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA, 2NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Chapter 6: Clean Combustion and Emission Control
Changlie Wey1 and Chi-Ming Lee2
1Vantage Partners, Cleveland, OH, USA, 2NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Chapter 7: Airspace Systems Technologies
Banavar Sridhar,
NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA

Part III - Alternative Fuels

Chapter 8: Alternative Fuels and Green Aviation
Emily S. Nelson,
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Chapter 9: Overview of Alternative Fuel Drivers, Technology Options and Demand Fulfillment
Kirsten Van Fossen,1 Kristin C. Lewis,1 Robert Malina,2 Hakan Olcay2 and James I. Hileman3
1Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, 3Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C., USA

Chapter 10: Biofuel Feedstocks and Supply Chains: How Ecological Models Can Assist with Design and Scale-Up
Kristin Lewis,1 Dan F.B. Flynn,2 and Jeffrey J. Steiner3
1Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2DFBF Northwest Institute for Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining, China and Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland, 3National Institute of Food and Agriculture, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA

Chapter 11: Microalgae Feedstocks for Aviation Fuels
Mark Wigmosta. Amdre M. Coleman, Erik R. Venteris and Richard L. Skaggs
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

Chapter 12: Certification of Alternative Fuels
Mark Rumizen1 and Tim Edwards2
1Aircraft Certification Service, US Federal Aviation Administration, USA,2US Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, USA

Chapter 13: Environmental Performance of Alternative Fuels
Hakan Olcay,1 Robert Malina,1 Kristin Lewis,2 Jennifer Papazian,2 Kirsten van Fossen,2 Warren Gillette,3 Mark Staples,1 Steven R.H. Barrett,1 Russell W. Stratton1 and James I. Hileman3
1Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA, USA, 2Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, USA, 3US Federal Aviation Administration, Washington DC, USA

Part IV - Conclusion

Chapter 14: Perspectives on the Future of Green Aviation
Jay E. Dryer
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., USA

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