Sex Differences in Physiology

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 10. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 236 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-802608-3 (ISBN)
 

Sex Differences in Physiology is an all-encompassing reference that details basic science research into sex differences in all physiological fields. It includes scientific discoveries concerning sex differences in cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal physiology. In addition, coverage of the development, endocrinology, neurophysiology, immunity, and metabolism is included, making this important reference a resource that will meet the needs of investigators interested in incorporating sex differences into their research programs, while also providing clinicians with the basis for providing the best sex-based medical treatment options available.


  • Provides a sweeping, organ-by-organ review of currently observed sex differences in animal models and human disease
  • Explains how sex differences influence physiology and disease
  • Provides the critical knowledge on sex differences for better understanding of prevention and treatment of diseases
  • Englisch
  • Atlanta
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 7,19 MB
978-0-12-802608-3 (9780128026083)
0128026081 (0128026081)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Sex Differences in Physiology
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • 1 Introduction for Sex Differences in Physiology
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 2 Chromosomal and Endocrinological Origins of Sex
  • Introduction
  • Chromosomal Sex
  • Gonadal/Hormonal Sex
  • Puberty
  • Major Hormonal Events of Puberty
  • Initiation of Puberty
  • Endocrine Functions Across Life Span: An Emphasis on Mammalian Menopause
  • Influences on Sexual Differentiation and Development
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 3 Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology: Implications for Brain Function, Behavior, and Neurological Disease
  • Introduction
  • Steroid Hormones
  • Mechanism of Action of Steroid Hormones
  • Estrogen and Receptors
  • Progesterone and Receptors
  • Androgen and Receptors
  • Sex and Neuronal Signaling
  • Brain Regions
  • Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of the Preoptic Area
  • Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus
  • Arcuate Nucleus
  • Preoptic Area
  • Medial Basal Hypothalamus
  • Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis
  • Hippocampus and Amygdala
  • Neuronal Structure
  • Neurotransmitter Systems
  • Norepinephrine
  • Serotonin
  • Acetylcholine
  • Luteinizing Hormone
  • Kisspeptin
  • Vasopressin and Oxytocin
  • Neurological Control of Body Functions
  • Body Weight and Food Intake
  • Body Fluid Balance and Regulation
  • Cardiovascular Effects
  • Renin-Angiotensin System
  • Water and Salt Intake
  • Stress
  • Sex and Behavior
  • Reproductive Behavior
  • Aggressive Behavior
  • Addictive Behavior
  • Social Behavior
  • Influence of Genetics on Behavior
  • Sex and Neurological Disease
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Stroke
  • Depression and Anxiety
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 4 Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Immune System
  • Introduction
  • Traditional Sex Hormone Receptors in the Immune System
  • Vitamin D Receptor: A Sex Steroid Receptor
  • Sex Differences in Innate Immunity
  • Sex Differences in the Adaptive Immune System
  • Sex Hormones and T Cell Ontogeny
  • Sex Hormones Effect on DCs
  • Sex Hormones Effect on T Cell Activation and Polarization
  • Sex Hormones Effect on T Regulatory Cells
  • Sex Hormones and B Cells
  • Effect of Vitamin D on the Innate and Adaptive Immune System
  • Effect of Menopause on Inflammation
  • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • Funding
  • References
  • 5 Sex and Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease
  • Introduction
  • Coronary Heart Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Models and Mechanisms
  • Treatment and Outcomes
  • Heart Failure
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Precipitating Factors
  • Pathophysiology
  • Models and Mechanisms
  • Management
  • Hypertension
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Animal Models
  • Mechanisms
  • Management
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Right Ventricular Dysfunction
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Treatment Strategies
  • Hormone Therapy and CVD Risk
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 6 Sex Differences in Pulmonary Anatomy and Physiology: Implications for Health and Disease
  • Introduction
  • Sex Differences in the Pulmonary System
  • Sex Differences in the Developing Lung
  • Sex Differences in the Adult Lung
  • Sex Steroid Signaling in the Lung
  • Impact of Sex Steroids on Pulmonary Structure and Function
  • Sex Steroid Effects in the Epithelium
  • Sex Steroid Effects in Airway Smooth Muscle
  • Sex Steroid Effects in Fibroblasts
  • Sex Steroid Effects in Airway Nerves
  • Sex Steroid Effects in Immune Cells
  • Sex Differences in Diseases of the Lung
  • Implications of Sex Differences in the Lung
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 7 Sex Differences in Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • Kidney Anatomy, Development, and Overall Function
  • Kidney Weight, Volume, and Structure
  • Nephron Number and Fetal Reprogramming
  • Renal Hemodynamics
  • Water Homeostasis and Aquaporins
  • Kidney Regulation of Water Homeostasis
  • Vasopressin and V2 Receptors
  • Regulation of Renal Aquaporins
  • Hyponatremia
  • BP Control and Electrolyte Homeostasis
  • Sex Differences in BP
  • Major Sodium Transporters, Exchangers, and Channel Subunits
  • Renal NO
  • Endothelins
  • Dopamine
  • The RAS Overview
  • Angiotensinogen, ACE, and Renin
  • Angiotensin II Sensitivity and Receptors
  • ACE2, Ang 7, MAS Receptor
  • Aldosterone
  • Metabolic Influences on the Kidney
  • Sugar Reabsorption in PT
  • Gluconeogenesis and Fructose
  • Phosphorus, Calcium, Vitamin D, and Renal Stones
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium
  • Vitamin D
  • CKD and Dysregulation of Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis
  • Renal Stones
  • Acid-Base Homeostasis and Renal Elimination of Toxins and Drugs
  • Organic Anion and Cation Transporters
  • Renal Metabolism and Elimination of Toxins
  • Special Conditions and Renal Pathology
  • Renal Aging
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Ureteral Obstruction
  • Biological Mechanisms Underlying Sex Differences in the Kidney
  • Sex Steroids Versus Gene Dosage
  • X-Inactivation and the Kidney
  • Sex Steroid Receptors and the Kidney
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 8 Sex Differences in Gastrointestinal Physiology and Diseases: From Endogenous Sex Hormones to Environmental Endocrine Disr...
  • Estrogen, Androgen, and Progesterone Receptor Expression along the GI Tract
  • Tissue Distribution of Estrogen Receptors
  • Progesterone and Androgen Receptors
  • Sex Hormone Modulation of Gastrointestinal Motility
  • Epithelial Ion Transport and Gut Barrier Function
  • Sex Hormone Modulation of Hydroelectrolytic Exchanges and Calcium Uptake
  • Sodium and Chloride Channels in Fluid Homeostasis
  • Calcium Absorption
  • Sex Hormone Modulation of Intestinal Barrier
  • Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucus Secretion
  • Tight Junction Permeability
  • Influence of Sex in Gastrointestinal Diseases and Pain Sensitivity
  • Sex Differences in Gastroduodenal Ulcers
  • Clinical Manifestations of Hormonal Status in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Lessons from Animal...
  • Sex Hormones and Inflammation in IBD
  • Sex Hormones, Epithelial Permeability and Visceral Pain in IBS
  • Sex Hormones in Gastric and Colorectal Cancers
  • Age, Gender, and Hormonal Status in Food Safety: Open Questions for Endocrine Disruptor Compounds
  • Endocrine Disruptors: What Are They?
  • The Perinatal Period Is a Vulnerable Window for EDC Exposure
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 9 Sex and Gender Differences in Body Composition, Lipid Metabolism, and Glucose Regulation
  • Introduction
  • Sex Differences in Body Fat Deposition
  • Body Composition and Metabolic Health Risk
  • Sex Hormones and Fat-Depot Distribution
  • Estrogens
  • Androgens
  • Adipose Tissue Sex-Hormone Metabolism
  • Sex Differences in Lipid Metabolism
  • FFA Uptake and Triglyceride Storage in White Adipose Tissue
  • Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Mobilization From White Adipose Tissue
  • Plasma Lipid Profiles and Hepatic Lipoprotein Kinetics
  • Sex Differences in Plasma Lipid Profiles and Cardiovascular Health
  • Hepatic Lipid Kinetics in Lean Men and Women
  • Effects of Obesity on Hepatic Lipoprotein Kinetics in Men and Women
  • Sex Hormones and Cardiovascular Health
  • Adipokines
  • Leptin
  • Adiponectin
  • Other Adipokines
  • Sex Differences in Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Action
  • Whole Body and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity
  • Ovarian Hormones, Menstrual Cycle, and Insulin Sensitivity
  • Glucose Homeostasis and Menstrual Cycle
  • Estrogen, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Cytokines
  • Androgens and Insulin Sensitivity
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • 10 Sex Hormone Influenced Differences in Skeletal Muscle Responses to Aging and Exercise
  • Introduction
  • E2 Loss and Aging Muscle
  • E2 and Exercise
  • Indirect E2 Effects on Aging Skeletal Muscle in Females
  • Hormone Treatment Effects in Aging Women
  • Mechanisms of E2 or HRT Supplementation
  • E2, HRT, and Recovery from Muscle Atrophy and Damage
  • Contraindications to E2 in Aging Women
  • Alternatives to HRT
  • Skeletal Muscle Aging in Men
  • T2 and Aging
  • Hormone Treatment of Aging Men
  • T2 and Exercise Effects
  • Mechanisms of T2 Effects
  • Indirect Effects of T2 on Aging Skeletal Muscle in Males
  • Adverse Events Associated with T2 Treatment
  • Alternatives to T2
  • Summary
  • References
  • 11 Strategies and Approaches for Studying Sex Differences in Physiology
  • Introduction
  • Historical Barriers to the Study of Both Sexes
  • Why Study Sex Differences?
  • Where Do Sex Differences Come From?
  • What Is the Nature of Sex Differences?
  • 11.1. How to Study Sex Differences Caused by "Sex Chromosome Effects" on Tissues
  • The Four Core Genotypes Mouse Model
  • The XY* Model
  • Finding the Genes
  • The Future of Sex Chromosome Effects
  • References
  • 11.2. Organizational Influences of the Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Lessons Learned Through the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis
  • Introduction
  • Sex Differences in the HPA Axis
  • Organizational-Activational Effects on the HPA Axis
  • Mapping Gonadal Hormone Sensitive Circuits in the Brain
  • The Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus
  • The Medial Preoptic Nucleus Revisited
  • Strategies for Research on Gonadal Steroid Organizational Influences on the HPA Axis
  • Timing of Gonadal Steroid Hormone and Drug Delivery
  • Permanent versus Temporary Hormone Removal
  • Controlling for Confounding Effects on Maternal Care
  • Assessing Adult Hormone Concentrations
  • Sex Differences in Response to Hormone Removal and Replacement
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 11.3. Strategies and Approaches for the Study of Activational Influences of Gonadal Hormones on Sex Differences in Physiology and Behavior
  • The Gonadal Hormones
  • You Find a Sex Difference in a Trait-What Now?
  • Monitoring the Estrous Cycle
  • Gonadectomy and Hormone Replacement
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 11.4. Human Methodologies in the Study of Sex Differences
  • Introduction
  • Prenatal Hormone Exposure
  • Finger Length
  • Amniotic Fluid and Umbilical Cord Blood
  • Adult Hormone Exposure
  • Sex Hormone Measurement
  • Hormone Receptor Expression
  • Sex-Specific Gene Expression
  • Sex Hormone Manipulation
  • Brain Imaging Methodologies
  • Structural Imaging
  • Functional Imaging
  • Psychosocial Methodologies
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References for Strategies and Approaches for Studying Sex Differences in Physiology
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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