Medical Biosensors for Point of Care (POC) Applications

 
 
Woodhead Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 21. August 2016
  • |
  • 316 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100078-6 (ISBN)
 

Medical Biosensors for Point of Care (POC) Applications discusses advances in this important and emerging field which has the potential to transform patient diagnosis and care. Part 1 covers the fundamentals of medical biosensors for point-of-care applications. Chapters in part 2 go on to look at materials and fabrication of medical biosensors while the next part looks at different technologies and operational techniques. The final set of chapters provide an overview of the current applications of this technology.

Traditionally medical diagnostics have been dependent on sophisticated technologies which only trained professionals were able to operate. Recent research has focused on creating point-of-care diagnostic tools. These biosensors are miniaturised, portable, and are designed to be used at the point-of-care by untrained individuals, providing real-time and remote health monitoring.


  • Provides essential knowledge for designers and manufacturers of biosensors for point-of-care applications
  • Provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals, materials, technologies, and applications of medical biosensors for point-of-care applications
  • Includes contributions from leading international researchers with extensive experience in developing medical biosensors
  • Discusses advances in this important and emerging field which has the potential to transform patient diagnosis and care
  • Englisch
  • Cambridge
Elsevier Science
  • 5,60 MB
978-0-08-100078-6 (9780081000786)
0081000782 (0081000782)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Medical Biosensors for Point of Care (POC) Applications
  • Related titles
  • Medical Biosensors for Point of Care (POC) Applications
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials
  • One - Fundamentals of medical biosensors for POC applications
  • 1 - Introduction to medical biosensors for point of care applications
  • 1.1 Biosensors and medical biosensors
  • 1.2 Biosensors for point of care testing
  • 1.3 Biorecognition elements of medical biosensors
  • 1.3.1 Antibodies
  • 1.3.2 Nucleic acid probes
  • 1.3.2.1 Single-strand DNA
  • 1.3.2.2 Hairpin DNA
  • 1.3.2.3 Peptide nucleic acids
  • 1.3.2.4 Locked nucleic acids
  • 1.3.2.5 G-quadraplexes
  • 1.3.2.6 DNAzymes
  • 1.3.2.7 Aptamers
  • 1.3.2.8 Other biorecognition elements
  • 1.4 Medical biosensors for point of care applications
  • 1.5 Overview of types of point of care techniques
  • 1.5.1 Lab on chip
  • 1.5.2 Labeled
  • 1.5.3 Label-free
  • 1.5.4 Nanomaterial based
  • 1.5.5 Wearable
  • 1.5.6 Wireless
  • 1.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 2 - Validation and regulation of point of care devices for medical applications
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Analytical method validation
  • 2.2.1 Why is validation required?
  • 2.2.2 The extent and scope of method validation
  • 2.2.3 Before starting method validation experiments
  • 2.2.3.1 Establishing a clinical need
  • 2.2.3.2 Choosing the correct device for the clinical application
  • 2.2.3.3 Decide which samples to test
  • 2.2.3.4 Consider who should undertake the validation and where
  • 2.2.4 Parameters of method validation
  • 2.2.4.1 Imprecision [18-20]
  • 2.2.4.2 Linearity
  • 2.2.4.3 Accuracy and bias
  • 2.2.4.4 Interference studies
  • 2.2.4.5 Establishing a limit of detection
  • 2.2.4.6 Verification of the reference ranges and cut-offs
  • 2.2.5 Validation of qualitative test
  • 2.3 Clinical validation methodology
  • 2.3.1 Clinical pathway mapping
  • 2.3.2 Diagnostic accuracy studies
  • 2.3.2.1 Randomised controlled trials
  • 2.3.3 Barriers to adoption
  • 2.3.4 Implementation
  • 2.4 Regulation of POCT devices
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • 3 - Materials for improved point of care biosensor-tissue interfaces
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Materials for in vitro sensors
  • 3.2.1 Ion selective electrodes
  • 3.2.2 Amperometric sensors
  • 3.2.3 Commercial systems
  • 3.3 Biocompatibility
  • 3.3.1 The tissue matrix
  • 3.3.2 Tissue effects on biosensors
  • 3.4 Materials for in vivo sensors
  • 3.4.1 Ion selective electrodes
  • 3.4.2 Glucose sensors
  • 3.4.2.1 Rationale for monitoring
  • 3.4.2.2 Enzyme-based systems
  • 3.4.2.3 Affinity sensors
  • 3.5 Materials for ex vivo sensors
  • 3.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Two - Materials, fabrication and types of biosensors for POC applications
  • 4 - Screen printing and other scalable point of care (POC) biosensor processing technologies
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Printing techniques
  • 4.2.1 Contact methods
  • 4.2.1.1 Screen printing
  • 4.2.1.2 Gravure printing
  • 4.2.1.3 Flexographic printing
  • 4.2.1.4 Microcontact printing
  • 4.2.2 Noncontact methods
  • 4.2.2.1 Inkjet printing
  • 4.2.2.2 Wax-ink printing
  • 4.2.2.3 Three-dimensional printing
  • 4.3 Thin-film deposition
  • 4.4 Other POC prototyping techniques
  • 4.4.1 Injection moulding
  • 4.4.2 Hot embossing
  • 4.4.3 Polymer laminate technology/lamination
  • 4.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 5 - Lab-on-chip (LOC) devices for point of care (POC) applications
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Optical detection
  • 5.2.1 Fluorescence
  • 5.2.2 Absorbance
  • 5.2.3 Chemiluminescence
  • 5.2.4 Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
  • 5.2.5 Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)
  • 5.2.6 Interferometry
  • 5.3 Electrochemical method
  • 5.3.1 Amperometric
  • 5.3.2 Voltammetric detection
  • 5.3.3 Impedance-based detection
  • 5.3.4 Conductometric detection
  • 5.4 Other detection techniques
  • 5.4.1 Thermal detection
  • 5.4.2 Acoustic wave-based detection
  • 5.5 Miscellaneous
  • 5.5.1 Paper microfluidic devices
  • 5.5.1.1 Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA)
  • 5.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 6 - Intelligent tattoos, patches, and other wearable biosensors
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.1 Wearable biosensors
  • 6.1.2 Intelligent tattoos and patches
  • 6.2 Detection mechanism
  • 6.2.1 Electrochemical
  • 6.2.2 Colorimetric
  • 6.2.3 Optical
  • 6.3 Fabrications
  • 6.3.1 Overview
  • 6.3.2 Screen-printed electrodes
  • 6.3.3 Microfluidics
  • 6.3.4 Fabrication of conductive textile
  • 6.3.5 Stamp transfer electrodes for nonplanar and oversized surfaces
  • 6.3.6 Epidermal tattoo/patches as wearable biosensors
  • 6.3.6.1 Printable temporary transfer tattoos
  • 6.3.6.2 Toward stretch resistant, skin friendly, and multiple functional intelligent tattoos/patches
  • 6.4 Application
  • 6.4.1 General medicine
  • 6.4.2 Sports medicine
  • 6.4.3 Diseases
  • 6.4.3.1 Cystic fibrosis
  • 6.4.3.2 Diabetes
  • 6.4.3.3 Cardiovascular diseases
  • 6.4.3.4 Cancer
  • 6.4.3.5 Parkinson's disease
  • 6.5 Conclusions and perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 7 - Wireless biosensors for POC medical applications
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Electrical measurements using biosensors
  • 7.2.1 Biosensing techniques
  • 7.2.2 Readout circuits
  • 7.2.3 Design example of pH sensor and readout circuit
  • 7.3 Wireless telemetry systems
  • 7.4 Applications
  • 7.4.1 Wireless implantable glucose biosensors
  • 7.4.2 Wireless capsules
  • 7.4.3 Wireless wearable devices
  • 7.5 Conclusion and future trends
  • References
  • Three - POC biosensors for particular clinical applications
  • 8 - Point of care (POC) medical biosensors for cancer detection
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Definition of cancer
  • 8.3 Cancer biomarkers
  • 8.4 Types of cancer
  • 8.4.1 Breast cancer and point of care devices
  • 8.4.2 Colon and rectal cancer and point of care devices
  • 8.4.3 Bladder cancer and point of care devices
  • 8.4.4 Kidney cancer and point of care devices
  • 8.4.5 Leukaemia and point of care devices
  • 8.4.6 Melanoma and point of care devices
  • 8.4.7 Lymphoma and point of care devices
  • 8.4.8 Lung cancer and point of care devices
  • 8.4.9 Pancreatic cancer and point of care devices
  • 8.4.10 Prostate cancer and point of care devices
  • 8.4.11 Thyroid cancer and point of care devices
  • References
  • 9 - Point of care (POC) blood coagulation monitoring technologies
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.1.1 Brief historical perspective
  • 9.1.2 Traditional laboratory-based testing
  • 9.1.3 Introduction to point of care coagulation testing
  • 9.2 Development of point of care coagulation monitoring devices
  • 9.2.1 Clot-based point of care assays
  • 9.2.2 Fibrinolysis
  • 9.2.3 Thrombin
  • 9.2.4 Fibrinogen
  • 9.2.5 Antifactor Xa assays
  • 9.2.6 Techniques to measure blood viscoelasticity
  • 9.2.6.1 Cardiac surgery
  • 9.2.6.2 Trauma
  • 9.2.6.3 Thrombophilia and haemophilia screening
  • 9.3 Novel point of care coagulation tests and recent innovations
  • 9.3.1 Ultrasound elastography
  • 9.3.2 Electrochemical detection and impedance-based methods
  • 9.3.3 Optical detection
  • 9.3.3.1 Optical thromboelastography
  • 9.4 Resonator-based methods
  • 9.4.1 Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)
  • 9.4.2 Magnetoelastic transducers for monitoring coagulation
  • 9.4.3 Other novel research methods
  • 9.5 Future perspectives and challenges
  • 9.5.1 Drawbacks of measuring novel anticoagulants
  • References
  • 10 - Nanostructured materials and nanoparticles for point of care (POC) medical biosensors
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Synthesis, characterization, and application of nanomaterials
  • 10.2.1 Synthesis
  • 10.2.1.1 Chemical reduction
  • 10.2.1.2 Seeded-growth method
  • 10.2.1.3 Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
  • 10.2.1.4 Electric arc discharge
  • 10.2.1.5 Laser ablation
  • 10.2.2 Characterization
  • 10.2.2.1 UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy
  • 10.2.2.2 Dynamic light scattering (DLS)
  • 10.2.2.3 Zeta potential
  • 10.2.2.4 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • 10.2.2.5 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
  • 10.2.2.6 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • 10.2.3 Application of nanomaterials in point of care medical biosensors
  • 10.3 Biological recognition elements
  • 10.3.1 Enzymes
  • 10.3.2 DNA
  • 10.3.3 Antibodies
  • 10.4 Electroanalytical techniques
  • 10.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • 11 - Microfluidic platforms for point of care (POC) medical diagnostics
  • 11.1 Introduction and background
  • 11.1.1 Point of care tests
  • 11.1.2 Microfluidic platforms
  • 11.2 Categories of in vitro diagnostic tests
  • 11.2.1 Polymerase chain reaction/nucleic acid amplification
  • 11.2.2 Immunoassays
  • 11.2.3 Metabolites and clinical chemistry
  • 11.2.3.1 Glucose
  • 11.2.3.2 Lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL)
  • 11.2.3.3 Kidney profile (creatinine, urea, and uric acid)
  • 11.2.3.4 Liver function (AST/SGOT, ALT/SGPT)
  • 11.2.3.5 Blood gases
  • 11.2.3.6 Electrolytes
  • 11.2.3.7 Uric acid, lactate, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase
  • 11.2.4 Hematology/cell enumeration
  • 11.2.4.1 Complete blood count
  • 11.2.4.2 Microfluidic methods for hematology
  • HIV tests
  • Blood cell count/hematology
  • Malaria
  • 11.2.5 Microbiology
  • 11.2.5.1 Antibiotic sensitivity microfluidics
  • 11.2.5.2 Single cell/droplet isolation
  • 11.2.5.3 Sepsis urinary tract infection
  • 11.2.6 Integrated platforms
  • 11.2.7 Integration with smartphones
  • 11.3 Commercialization of platforms and challenges
  • 11.3.1 Existing non-microfluidic technologies and their evolution
  • 11.3.2 Manufacturing challenges
  • 11.3.3 Regulatory barriers and trends
  • 11.3.4 Outlook for the future
  • References
  • 12 - Electrochemical medical biosensors for POC applications
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 General approach to electrochemical biosensors
  • 12.2.1 Transduction in electrochemical biosensors
  • 12.2.2 Types of electrochemical biosensors based on biological recognition elements
  • 12.2.2.1 Enzymatic electrochemical biosensors
  • 12.2.2.2 Bioaffinity-based electrochemical biosensors
  • 12.2.3 Nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors
  • 12.3 Portable decentralized devices based on electrochemical biosensors for medical applications
  • 12.3.1 Microfluidics platforms and labs on chips
  • 12.3.2 Types of detection in microfluidics and in LOCs based on electrochemical biosensor strategy
  • 12.3.2.1 Enzymatic detection
  • 12.3.2.2 Electrochemical bioaffinity detection
  • 12.4 Conclusions and future prospects
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Y
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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