Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

 
 
Elsevier Science (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 24. Februar 2015
  • |
  • 668 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-444-63377-4 (ISBN)
 

Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 2nd Edition, outlines the principles of biochemical processes and explains their use in the manufacturing of every day products. The author uses a diirect approach that should be very useful for students in following the concepts and practical applications. This book is unique in having many solved problems, case studies, examples and demonstrations of detailed experiments, with simple design equations and required calculations.


  • Covers major concepts of biochemical engineering and biotechnology
  • Accessible to chemical engineering students who need to learn and apply biological knowledge in engineering principals
  • Promotes self-teaching of chapters: it is easy to follow with many solved problem and case studies; it enables the reader to easily observe how the engineering concepts are applied in actual cases
  • Describes how to carry biological research in industrial fields
  • Includes solved problems, examples and demonstrations of detailed experiments with simple design equations and all required calculations
  • Offers many graphs that present actual experimental data, figures, and tables, along with explanations. This is a good book for both those interested in more advanced research in the field of biotechnology and an actual guide for beginners to demonstrate and establish research in this field


Author of Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology is a distinguished professor in Chemical Engineering and Chairman of Biotechnology Research Center, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Iran. He is an educated scholar from University of Arkansas, USA with strong background in biological processes. He is deeply involved in research and teaching in biochemical engineering subjects and conducted many practical researches in biofuel and biochemical engineering.
He has served as academic member of University of Mazandran, Visiting Professor at University of Waterloo Canada and University of Arkansas, USA (1990-1991), Unversity Science Malaysia (USM) and Noshirvani University of Technology. He also spent his sabbatical leave at University of Arkansas, USA (1992-1993). He has expanded his scientific research activities on single cell protein (SCP), Microbial fuel cells, renewable energy and synthetic fuels. Since 2005, he was qualified and appointed as professor in Faculty of Chemical Engineering at Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Iran. He is serving as Editor in Chief of World Applied Sciences Journal, Middle East Journal of Scientific Research. Also editor in Chief of Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment since 2006. In addition, he is editor of Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Academic Journals, since 2007. He is an active member of many international institutes, editor and reviewers of number of international journals and many scientific societies. Often he is invited to many international conferences as keynote speakers. In past decades, he has supervised more than 144 master and 24 Ph.D. students. He has published more than 330 research papers in international journals and has written 8 books in the field of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology. In year 2006, he has published his book with Elsevier entitled 'Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology'. He won number of awards for research achievements and winner of gold medal for the Invention/Innovation sponsored by Ministry of Science, Technology Malaysia, 2004. His researches for formulation of transparent soap and natural biodegradable liquid detergent from palm oil's fatty acids, was patented with SIRIM Berhad, Malaysia (2003). Currently, he is supervising number of PhD scholars and conducting top research projects on microbial fuel cells, biodiesel biohydrogen, biofuel from algae, bioethanol from agro-wastes, enzyme technology, renewable energy, heterogeneous catalytic processes, wastewater treatment and biological treatment processes.
  • Englisch
  • Amsterdam
  • |
  • Niederlande
  • 26,60 MB
978-0-444-63377-4 (9780444633774)
0444633774 (0444633774)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Author Biography
  • Book Audience and Overview
  • WHO SHOULD READ THIS BOOK?
  • Preface
  • PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
  • PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
  • Chapter 1 - Industrial Microbiology
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2 ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 1.3 ROLE OF BIOSCIENCES
  • 1.4 MICROBE FUNCTIONS
  • 1.5 PROCESS FERMENTATION
  • 1.6 APPLICATION OF FERMENTATION PROCESSES
  • 1.7 BIOPROCESS PRODUCTS
  • 1.8 PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID
  • 1.9 PRODUCTION OF VINEGAR
  • 1.10 PRODUCTION OF AMINO ACIDS (LYSINE AND GLUTAMIC ACID) AND INSULIN
  • 1.11 ANTIBIOTICS, PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN
  • 1.12 PRODUCTION OF ENZYMES
  • 1.13 PRODUCTION OF BAKER'S YEAST
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Enzyme Technology
  • sub chapter 2.1 - Introduction
  • 2.2 ENZYME ELEMENTARY REACTION RATE
  • 2.3 ENZYME CLASSIFICATIONS
  • 2.4 ENZYMES SPECIFIC FUNCTION
  • 2.5 ENZYMES ACT AS CATALYSTS
  • 2.6 INHIBITORS OF ENZYME-CATALYZED REACTIONS
  • 2.7 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF ENZYMES
  • 2.8 COENZYMES
  • 2.9 EFFECT OF PH ON ENZYME ACTIVITIES
  • 2.10 ENZYME UNIT ACTIVITIES
  • 2.11 ENZYME DEACTIVATION
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • 2.12 SOLVE PROBLEMS
  • References
  • subchapter 2.13 - Case Study: Solid-State Fermentation of Sugarcane Bagasse in a Tray Bioreactor for Production of Lipase U ...
  • 2.13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.13.2 MATERIAL AND METHODS
  • 2.13.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • References
  • Chapter 3 - Gas and Liquid System (Aeration and Agitation)*
  • subchapter 3.1 - Introduction
  • 3.2 AERATION AND AGITATION
  • 3.3 AIR SPARGER
  • 3.4 AGITATION AND MIXING PHENOMENA
  • 3.5 TYPES OF AGITATOR
  • 3.6 OTR IN A FERMENTER
  • 3.7 MASS TRANSFER IN A GAS-LIQUID SYSTEM
  • 3.8 GAS HOLD-UP
  • 3.9 MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR STIRRED TANKS
  • 3.10 AGITATED SYSTEM AND MIXING PHENOMENA
  • 3.11 MASS TRANSFER LIMITED PROCESS
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • GREEK SYMBOLS
  • References
  • subchapter 3.13 - Case Study: Oxygen Transfer Rate Model in an Aerated Tank for Pharmaceutical Wastewater
  • 3.13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.13.2 MATERIAL AND METHOD
  • 3.13.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 3.13.4 CONCLUSION
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • subchapter 3.14 - Case Study: Fuel and Chemical Production from the Water-Gas Shift Reaction by Fermentation Processes*
  • 3.14.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.14.2 KINETICS OF GROWTH IN A BATCH BIOREACTOR
  • 3.14.3 EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION ON MICROBIAL GROWTH
  • 3.14.4 MASS TRANSFER PHENOMENA
  • 3.13.5 KINETIC OF WATER GAS SHIFT REACTION
  • 3.14.6 GROWTH KINETICS OF CO SUBSTRATE ON C. LJUNGDAHLII
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • Outline placeholder
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - Fermentation Process Control
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION**THIS CASE STUDY WAS PARTIALLY WRITTEN WITH CONTRIBUTIONS FROM:HOSSEIN ZARE, BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH LAB., FACU ...
  • 4.2 BIOREACTOR CONTROLLING PROBES
  • 4.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOREACTOR SENSORS
  • 4.4 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
  • 4.5 DISSOLVED OXYGEN MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
  • 4.6 PH/REDOX MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
  • 4.7 DETECTION AND PREVENTION OF FOAM
  • 4.8 BIOSENSORS
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Growth Kinetics
  • subchapter 5.1 - Introduction
  • Outline placeholder
  • 5.2 INDIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF CELL GROWTH
  • 5.3 CELL GROWTH IN BATCH CULTURE
  • 5.4 GROWTH PHASES
  • 5.5 KINETICS OF BATCH CULTURE
  • 5.6 GROWTH KINETICS FOR CONTINUOUS CULTURE
  • 5.7 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR (CSTR)
  • 5.8 ENZYME REACTION KINETICS
  • 5.9 UNSTRUCTURED KINETIC MODEL
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • subchapter 5.11 - Case Study: Enzyme Kinetic Models for Resolution of Racemic Ibuprofen Esters in a Membrane Reactor*
  • Outline placeholder
  • 5.11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.11.2 ENZYME KINETICS
  • 5.11.3 ENZYME KINETICS FOR RAPID EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM (QUASI-EQUILIBRIUM)
  • 5.11.4 DERIVATION OF ENZYMATIC RATE EQUATION FROM RAPID EQUILIBRIUM ASSUMPTION
  • 5.11.5 VERIFICATION OF KINETIC MECHANISM
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - Bioreactor Design
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 BIOREACTORS: BACKGROUND
  • 6.3 TYPE OF BIOREACTOR
  • 6.4 STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR
  • 6.5 BUBBLE COLUMN FERMENTER
  • 6.6 AIRLIFT BIOREACTORS
  • 6.7 HEAT TRANSFER
  • 6.8 DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR CSTR FERMENTER
  • 6.9 TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON RATE CONSTANT
  • 6.10 SCALE-UP OF STIRRED-TANK BIOREACTOR
  • 6.11 BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN THROUGH CELLS
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Downstream Processing
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING
  • 7.3 FILTRATION
  • 7.4 CENTRIFUGATION
  • 7.5 SEDIMENTATION
  • 7.6 FLOTATION
  • 7.7 EMERGING TECHNOLOGY FOR CELL RECOVERY
  • 7.8 CELL DISRUPTION
  • 7.9 SOLVENT EXTRACTION
  • 7.10 ADSORPTION
  • 7.11 CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • 7.12 CRYSTALLIZATION PROCESS
  • 7.13 FREEZE-DRYING
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Immobilization of Microbial Cells for the Production of Organic Acid and Ethanol
  • subchapter 8.1 - Introduction
  • Outline placeholder
  • 8.2 IMMOBILIZED MICROBIAL CELLS
  • 8.3 ICR EXPERIMENTS
  • 8.4 ICR RATE MODEL
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • subchapter 8.6 - Case Study: Ethanol Fermentation in an Immobilized Cell Reactor Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae*
  • Outline placeholder
  • 8.6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8.6.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
  • 8.6.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 8.6.4 CONCLUSION
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • subchapter 8.7 - Fundamentals of Immobilization Technology, and Mathematical Model for ICR Performance
  • Outline placeholder
  • 8.7.1 IMMOBILIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS BY COVALENT BONDS
  • 8.7.2 OXYGEN TRANSFER TO IMMOBILIZED MICROORGANISMS
  • 8.7.3 SUBSTRATE TRANSFER TO IMMOBILIZED MICROORGANISMS
  • 8.7.4 GROWTH AND COLONY FORMATION OF IMMOBILIZED MICROORGANISMS
  • 8.7.5 IMMOBILIZED SYSTEMS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION
  • Reference
  • Chapter 9 - Material and Elemental Balance
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 MEDIA PREPARATION FOR FERMENTATION
  • 9.3 GROWTH OF STOICHIOMETRY AND ELEMENTAL BALANCES
  • 9.4 ENERGY BALANCE FOR CONTINUOUS ETHANOL FERMENTATION
  • 9.5 MASS BALANCE FOR BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 9.6 CONSERVATION OF MASS PRINCIPLE
  • 9.7 EMBDEN-MEYERHOF-PARNAS PATHWAY
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Application of Fermentation Processes
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL BY FERMENTATION
  • 10.3 BENEFITS FROM BIOETHANOL FUEL
  • 10.4 STOICHIOMETRY OF BIOCHEMICAL REACTION
  • 10.5 OPTICAL CELL DENSITY
  • 10.6 KINETICS OF GROWTH AND PRODUCT FORMATION
  • 10.7 PREPARATION OF STOCK CULTURE
  • 10.8 INOCULUM PREPARATION
  • 10.9 INOCULATION OF SEED CULTURE
  • 10.10 ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SUGAR ANALYSIS
  • 10.11 ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR ETHANOL ANALYSIS
  • 10.12 REFRACTIVE INDEX DETERMINATION
  • 10.13 CELL DRY WEIGHT MEASUREMENTS
  • 10.14 YIELD CALCULATION
  • 10.15 BATCH FERMENTATION EXPERIMENT
  • 10.16 CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION EXPERIMENT
  • 10.17 MEDIA STERILIZATION
  • 10.18 BATCH EXPERIMENT
  • 10.19 EXPECTED RESULTS
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - Production of Antibiotics
  • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 11.2 HERBAL MEDICINES AND CHEMICAL AGENTS
  • 11.3 THE HISTORY OF PENICILLIN
  • 11.4 PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN
  • 11.5 MICROORGANISMS AND MEDIA
  • 11.6 INOCULUM PREPARATION
  • 11.7 FILTRATION AND EXTRACTION OF PENICILLIN
  • 11.8 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
  • 11.9 FERMENTER DESCRIPTION
  • 11.10 ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR BIOASSAY AND DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC
  • 11.11 ANTIBIOGRAM AND BIOLOGICAL ASSAY
  • 11.12 SUBMERGED CULTURE
  • 11.13 BIOREACTOR DESIGN AND CONTROL
  • 11.14 ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION OF FERMENTER
  • 11.15 DETERMINATION OF THE REYNOLDS NUMBER
  • 11.16 DETERMINATION OF POWER INPUT
  • 11.17 DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN TRANSFER RATE
  • 11.18 DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET FOR THE BIOREACTOR
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Production of Citric Acid
  • 12.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 12.2 PRODUCTION OF CITRIC ACID IN BATCH BIOREACTORS
  • 12.3 FACTORS AFFECTING MOLD GROWTH AND THE FERMENTATION PROCESS
  • 12.4 STARTER OR SEEDING AN INOCULUM
  • 12.5 SEED CULTURE
  • 12.6 CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION
  • 12.7 ANALYTICAL METHOD
  • 12.8 PROCESSES FOR RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF CITRIC ACID
  • 12.9 EXPERIMENTAL RUN
  • 12.10 KINETIC MODEL IN BATCH CITRIC ACID FERMENTATION
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • Chapter 13 - Bioprocess Scale-up
  • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 13.2 SCALE-UP PROCEDURE FROM LABORATORY SCALE TO PLANT SCALE
  • 13.3 BIOREACTOR DESIGN CRITERIA
  • 13.4 CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR CHEMOSTAT VERSUS TUBULAR PLUG FLOW
  • 13.5 DYNAMIC MODEL AND OXYGEN TRANSFER RATE IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE
  • 13.6 AEROBIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Single-Cell Protein
  • 14.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 14.2 DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN PRODUCTION
  • 14.3 BATCH AND CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION FOR PRODUCTION OF SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN
  • 14.4 BATCH EXPERIMENT FOR PRODUCTION OF BAKER'S YEAST
  • 14.5 SEPARATION OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS
  • 14.6 BACKGROUND
  • 14.7 PRODUCTION METHODS
  • 14.8 MEDIA PREPARATION FOR SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN PRODUCTION
  • 14.9 ANALYTICAL METHODS
  • 14.10 SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN PROCESSES
  • 14.11 NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN
  • 14.12 ORGANISMS AND SUBSTRATES FOR SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN PRODUCTION
  • 14.13 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN
  • 14.14 PREPARATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL RUN
  • References
  • Chapter 15 - Sterilization
  • 15.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 15.2 CONTROL OF MICROBIAL POPULATION BY PHYSICAL AGENTS
  • 15.3 DEATH RATE OF LIVING ORGANISMS
  • 15.4 BATCH STERILIZATION
  • 15.5 CONTINUOUS STERILIZATION
  • 15.6 HOT PLATES
  • 15.7 HIGH-TEMPERATURE STERILIZATION
  • 15.8 STERILIZED MEDIA FOR MICROBIOLOGY
  • 15.9 DRY HEAT STERILIZATION
  • 15.10 STERILIZATION WITH FILTRATION
  • 15.11 MICROWAVE STERILIZATION
  • 15.12 ELECTRON BEAM STERILIZATION
  • 15.13 CHEMICAL STERILIZATION
  • 15.14 LOW-TEMPERATURE STERILIZATION
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • Chapter 16 - Membrane Reactor
  • subchapter 16.1 - Introduction*
  • Outline placeholder
  • 16.2 MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS
  • 16.3 MEMBRANE AND MBR DEVELOPMENT
  • References
  • subchapter 16.4 - Case Study: Enhanced Ethanol Fermentation in a Continuous Membrane Bioreactor: Pervaporation Technique*
  • Outline placeholder
  • 16.4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 16.4.2 EXPERIMENTAL
  • 16.4.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 16.4.4 CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • subchapter 16.5 - Case Study: Inorganic Zirconia ?-Alumina-Coated Membrane on Ceramic Support*
  • Outline placeholder
  • 16.5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 16.5.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
  • 16.5.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 16.5.4 CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 17 - Advanced Downstream Processing in Biotechnology
  • subchapter 17.1 - Introduction*
  • Outline placeholder
  • 17.2 PROTEIN PRODUCTS
  • 17.3 CELL DISRUPTION
  • 17.4 PROTEIN PURIFICATION
  • 17.5 GENERAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CONVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES
  • 17.6 FLUIDIZED BED ADSORPTION
  • 17.7 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF LIQUID FLUIDIZED BEDS
  • 17.8 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
  • 17.9 PROCESS INTEGRATION IN PROTEIN RECOVERY
  • NOMENCLATURE
  • References
  • subchapter 17.11 - Case Study: Biochemical Characterization of a Custom Expanded Bed Column for Protein Purification*
  • Outline placeholder
  • 17.11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 17.11.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
  • 17.11.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 17.11.4 CONCLUSION
  • References
  • Chapter 18 - Microbial Fuel Cells: A New Source of Power*
  • 18.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 18.2 BIOLOGICAL FUEL CELL
  • 18.3 MICROBIAL FUEL CELL
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 19 - Biological Treatment*
  • 19.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 19.2 ORGANIC REMOVAL IN SUSTAINABLE MICROBIAL GROWTH
  • 19.3 MICROBIAL METABOLISM
  • 19.4 MICROBIAL GROWTH KINETICS
  • 19.5 GROWTH RATE AND TREATMENT KINETICS
  • 19.6 REMOVAL MECHANISMS IN BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 19.7 AEROBIC BIOOXIDATION
  • 19.8 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
  • 19.9 ABIOTIC LOSSES
  • 19.10 VOLATILIZATION
  • 19.11 BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION
  • 19.12 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES: SUSPENDED AND ATTACHED GROWTH
  • References
  • Chapter 20 - Biofuel Production*
  • 20.1 BIOFUEL PRODUCTION AND GLOBAL SCENARIOS
  • 20.2 FEEDSTOCK FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
  • 20.3 PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES
  • 20.4 INTENSIFICATION AND INTEGRATION
  • 20.5 ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE
  • References
  • Appendix
  • CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS
  • PHYSICAL CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS
  • CONVERSION FACTORS
  • Index
Chapter 1

Industrial Microbiology


Abstract


In this chapter, application of industrial microbiology is discussed. The role of bioscience and biotechnology in biochemical processes are investigated. The applications of fermentation in a number of biological processes are reviewed. The biological transformation of useful products in living cells in terms of food, medicine, chemicals, antibiotics, and protein are discussed. Fermentation processes are able to produce very useful biobased products that are used in our daily life. Deep understanding of the bioconversion processes may assist readers to develop advance technology for obtaining a high yield of products. Schematic flow diagrams for several fermentation processes are demonstrated in this Chapter In these biological pathways, carbon sources such as corn, potato starch, molasses, and whey are used in fermentative processes for the production of amino acids, enzymes, proteins, and antibiotics.

Keywords


Insulin; Production of amino acids; Production of baker's yeast; Production of enzymes; Production of lactic acid; Production of penicillin; Production of vinegar; Role of biotechnology

Outline

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Role of Biotechnology 2

1.3 Role of Biosciences 5

1.4 Microbe Functions 5

1.5 Process Fermentation 7

1.6 Application of Fermentation Processes 9

1.7 Bioprocess Products 10

1.7.1 Biomass 10

1.7.2 Cell Products 11

1.7.3 Modified Compounds (Biotransformation) 11

1.8 Production of Lactic Acid 11

1.9 Production of Vinegar 13

1.10 Production of Amino Acids (Lysine and Glutamic Acid) and Insulin;14

1.10.1 Stepwise Amino Acid Production 14

1.10.2 Insulin 15

1.11 Antibiotics, Production of Penicillin 15

1.12 Production of Enzymes 16

1.13 Production of Baker's Yeast 16

References 18

1.1. Introduction


Microorganisms have been identified and exploited for more than a century. The Babylonians and Sumerians used yeast to prepare alcohol. There is a great history beyond fermentation processes that explains the applications of microbial processes that resulted in the production of food and beverages. In the mid-19th century, Louis Pasteur understood the role of microorganisms in fermented food, wine, alcohols, beverages, cheese, milk, yogurt and other dairy products, fuels, and fine chemical industries. He identified many microbial processes and discovered the first principal role of fermentation, which was that microbes require substrate to produce primary and secondary metabolites and end products. In the new millennium, extensive application of bioprocesses has created an environment for many engineers to expand the field of biotechnology. One of the useful applications of biotechnology is the use of microorganisms to produce alcohols and acetone, which are used in industrial processes. The knowledge related to industrial microbiology has been revolutionized by the ability of genetically engineered cells to make many new products. Genetic engineering and gene mounting have been developed in the enhancement of industrial fermentation. Consequently, biotechnology is a new approach for making commercial products using living organisms. Furthermore, knowledge of bioprocesses has been developed to deliver fine-quality products. The application of biological sciences in industrial processes is known as bioprocess. Today, most biological and pharmaceutical products are produced in well-defined industrial bioprocesses. For instance, bacteria are able to produce most amino acids that can be used in food and medicine. There are hundreds of microbial and fungal products purely available in the biotechnology market. The microbial production of amino acids can be used to produce L-isomers; chemical production results in both D- and L-isomers. Lysine and glutamic acid are produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Another food additive is citric acid, which is produced by Aspergillus niger. Table 1.1 summarizes several widespread applications of industrial microbiology to deliver a variety of products in applied industries. The growth of cells on a large scale is called industrial fermentation. Industrial fermentation is normally performed in a bioreactor, which controls aeration, pH, and temperature. Microorganisms use an organic source and produce primary metabolites such as ethanol, which are formed during the cells' exponential growth phase. In some bioprocesses, yeast or fungi are used to produce advanced valuable products. Those products are considered as secondary metabolites, such as penicillin, which is produced during the stationary phase. Yeasts are grown for wine- and bread-making. There are other microbes such as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Bacillus thuringiensis that are able to grow and use carbohydrates and organic sources originating from agricultural wastes. Vaccines, antibiotics, and steroids are also products of microbial growth.

1.2. Role of Biotechnology


Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary area that governs the application of biology and chemistry in engineering sciences. In fact, it is the knowledge of the exploitation of living microorganisms and their by-products, such as enzymes, secondary metabolites, and any product from the pathway of living organisms. These biobased products are expanding as safe food additives, medicines, and cosmetics. In the past decades, the application of biotechnology focused only on animal biotechnology or plant cell technology and horticulture. But today, the development of biotechnology has enhanced and moved beyond the borders. The knowledge has expanded in many fields of engineering as well as in advance biomaterial and nano-biotechnology products.

Table 1.1

Industrial products produced by biological processes1

Fermentation products Microorganism Applications Ethanol (nonbeverage) Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fine chemicals 2-Ketogluconic acid Pseudomonas sp. An intermediate in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) production; a precursor for isoascorbic acid synthesis Pectinase, protease Aspergillus niger, A. aureus Clarifying agents in fruit juice Bacterial amylase Bacillus subtilis Modifying starch, sizing paper Bacterial protease
Lipase
Protease
Lysine B. subtilis
Candida rugosa
Bacillus subtilis
Micrococcus glutamicus Desizing fibers, spot remover
Esterification of fat and lipids
Hydrolysis of protein
Food additives Dextran Leuconostoc mesenteroides Food stabilizer Sorbose Gluconobacter suboxydans Manufacturing of ascorbic acid Cobalamin (vitamin B12) Streptomyces olivaceus Food supplements Glutamic acid Brevibacterium sp. Food additive Gluconic acid Aspergillus niger Pharmaceutical products Lactic acid
Lactic acid Rhizopus oryzae
Lactobacillus delbrueckii Foods and pharmaceuticals food additives and chemicals Citric acid Aspergillus niger or A. wentii Food products, medicine Acetone-butanol-ethanol Clostridium acetobutylicum Solvents, chemical intermediate Insulin, interferon
Coagulated milk Recombinant E. coli
Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus Human therapy
Yogurt-starting culture Yeast and rennet Lactobacillus bulgaricus Cheese and yogurt production Microbial protein (single cell protein)
Single cell protein (SCP) Candida utilis
Pseudomonas methylotroph
Oxidizing bacteria, fungus Fusarium Food supplements
Food supplements Penicillin Penicillium chrysogenum Antibiotics Cephalosporin Cephalosporium acremonium Antibiotics Erythromycin Streptomyces erythreus Antibiotics In the mid-19th century, Louis Pasteur well understood the industrial application of microorganisms to deliver useful products while implementing various bioprocesses. The raw materials were used as substrates and nutrients for microorganisms to draw suitable products. The products were used by humans, and the even rate of productions was at commercial scale. Microorganisms under normal condition produce large number of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food-grade products. Other applications of microorganisms are clearly...

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Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

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Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

184,45 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
Hinweis: Die Auswahl des von Ihnen gewünschten Dateiformats und des Kopierschutzes erfolgt erst im System des E-Book Anbieters
E-Book bestellen

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