The New Day of Atonement

A Matthean Typology
 
 
Mohr Siebeck (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen im Mai 2020
  • |
  • XI, 293 Seiten
 
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978-3-16-159394-9 (ISBN)
 
In this work, Hans M. Moscicke investigates the influence of the Day of Atonement on Matthew's passion narrative. The author argues that the First Evangelist crafts a sustained Yom Kippur typology in the twenty-seventh chapter of his Gospel and then remodels the Barabbas episode (Matt 27:15-26) as a Yom Kippur lottery between two "goats". Pilate acts as high priest, designating Jesus as the immolated goat and Barabbas, along with the crowd, as a sin-bearing scapegoat. Matthew also casts Jesus as a scapegoat in the Roman-abuse scene (Matt 27:27-31), in which he depicts Jesus as physically receiving the sins of the world upon himself. Finally, the author suggests that Matthew, in his death-resurrection narrative (Matt 27:50-54), conceives Jesus as offering his life-force to God as the sacrificial goat for YHWH and descending to the realm of the dead as the goat for Azazel.
 
In this work, Hans M. Moscicke investigates the influence of the Day of Atonement on Matthew's passion narrative. The author argues that the First Evangelist crafts a sustained Yom Kippur typology in the twenty-seventh chapter of his Gospel and then remodels the Barabbas episode (Matt 27:15-26) as a Yom Kippur lottery between two "goats". Pilate acts as high priest, designating Jesus as the immolated goat and Barabbas, along with the crowd, as a sin-bearing scapegoat. Matthew also casts Jesus as a scapegoat in the Roman-abuse scene (Matt 27:27-31), in which he depicts Jesus as physically receiving the sins of the world upon himself. Finally, the author suggests that Matthew, in his death-resurrection narrative (Matt 27:50-54), conceives Jesus as offering his life-force to God as the sacrificial goat for YHWH and descending to the realm of the dead as the goat for Azazel.
  • Dissertationsschrift
  • Englisch
  • Tübingen
  • |
  • Deutschland
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 2,40 MB
978-3-16-159394-9 (9783161593949)
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Born 1985; 2008 BA from Moody Bible Institute (Biblical Studies); 2011 MA from Wheaton College Graduate School (Biblical Exegesis); 2019 PhD from Marquette University (Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity).
  • Cover
  • Titel
  • Preface
  • Table of Content
  • Introduction
  • A. Method
  • B. Procedure
  • Chapter 1: Status Quaestionis on Yom Kippur in the Passion Narrative and Atonement in the Gospel of Matthew
  • A. Jesus as the Scapegoat of Leviticus 16
  • I. John Dominic Crossan
  • II. Helmut Koester
  • III. Evaluation
  • B. Jesus as Pharmakos-Scapegoat
  • I. Adela Yarbro Collins
  • II. Richard E. DeMaris
  • III. Evaluation
  • C. Jesus and Barabbas, the Two Goats of Leviticus 16
  • I. Albert Wratislaw
  • II. Daniel Stökl Ben Ezra
  • III. Jennifer K. Berenson (Maclean)
  • IV. Evaluation
  • D. Alternative Approaches to Atonement in the Gospel of Matthew
  • I. Jesus as the Suffering Servant in Matthew
  • II. Jesus's Death in Light of Matthew's Metaphors for Sin
  • III. Jesus's Death as the New Exodus and Paschal Defeat of Dark Powers
  • IV. Jesus's Death as a Matter of Innocent Blood in Matthew
  • V. Other Views on Atonement in the Gospel of Matthew
  • E. Conclusion
  • Chapter 2: Overview of Leviticus 16 and Yom Kippur Traditions in Early Judaism and Christianity
  • A. Leviticus 16: An Overview of Critical Issues and a Summary of the Biblical Yom Kippur Ritual
  • B. Apocalyptic Yom Kippur Traditions
  • I. The Book of Watchers (1 Enoch 1-36)
  • II. 4Q180-181
  • III. The Book of Giants
  • IV. The Apocalypse of Abraham
  • C. Additional Yom Kippur Traditions in Second Temple Judaism
  • I. The Book of Zechariah
  • II. The Book of Jubilees
  • III. 11QMelchizedek
  • IV. Yom Kippur at Qumran
  • V. Heavenly Ascents in the Yom Kippur Imaginaire
  • D. Extra-Biblical Scapegoat Rituals in Second Temple Tradition
  • E. Yom Kippur Christologies in the New Testament
  • I. The Pauline Letters
  • II. The Epistle to the Hebrews
  • III. The Book of Revelation
  • F. Yom Kippur Christologies Early Christianity
  • I. The Epistle of Barnabas
  • II. Justin Martyr
  • III. Tertullian
  • IV. Hippolytus
  • V. Origen
  • VI. Jerome
  • VII. The First Commentary on Mark
  • G. Conclusion
  • Chapter 3: Jesus, Barabbas, and the Crowd as Actors in Matthew's Day of Atonement Typology (Matt 27:15-26)
  • A. Matthew's Innocent-Blood Discourse and the Watchers Tradition
  • B. The Yom Kippur Typology in Matt 27:15-26
  • I. The Similarity of the Two Goats
  • II. The Opposing Designations of the Two Goats
  • III. The Priestly Lottery between the Two Goats
  • IV. The Sending of the Scapegoat to Azazel
  • V. Transference of Iniquity by Ritual Hand-action and Confession
  • Excursus: The Crowd as Azazel or the Lot of Azazel?
  • VI. Banishment and Inhabitation in a Wilderness
  • VII. The Inheritance of Iniquity and a Curse
  • C. Anti-Judaism and Matthew's Yom Kippur Typology
  • D. Conclusion
  • Chapter 4: Jesus as Scapegoat in the Roman-Abuse Scene (Matt 27:27-31)
  • A. The Cultural Background of Jesus's Roman Mockery Reconsidered
  • I. Ancient Games
  • II. Theatrical Mimes
  • III. Historical Incidents
  • IV. Carnival Festivals
  • V. Conclusion
  • B. Jesus's Roman Abuse as Ancient Elimination Rite
  • I. Threatening Crisis and the Victim's Marginal Status
  • II. The Victim's Designation and Transformation
  • III. The Victim's Abuse and Exit from the Community
  • IV. The Roman-abuse Scene as Elimination Ritual
  • C. The Christological Scapegoat Typology in Matthew 27
  • I. The Scapegoat Is Adorned with a Scarlet Garment
  • II. Sins Are Placed upon the Scapegoat's Head
  • III. The Scapegoat Is Severely Abused
  • IV. The Scapegoat Is Bound Twice
  • V. The Scapegoat Is Stripped of its Garment before its Demise
  • VI. The Scapegoat Is Escorted from the City by a Handler
  • VII. The Scapegoat Undergoes a Two-stage Removal
  • VIII. The Scapegoat's Exile Engenders Eschatological Restoration
  • IX. The Scapegoat Is Sealed in the Earth
  • X. Conclusion
  • D. The Atoning Crown of the Priest-King
  • I. Matthew's Allusion to Zech 6:11, 13 LXX
  • II. Joshua's Crown (Zech 6:11) as Priestly Diadem
  • III. Matthew's High Priest Typology in the Roman-abuse Scene
  • E. Conclusion
  • Chapter 5: A New Day of Atonement: Jesus as the Two Goats of Yom Kippur
  • A. Jesus as Goat for Yahweh (Matt 27:50-51a)
  • I. The Velum Scissum as Dual Temple Portent
  • II. Cultic Background of Jesus's Death (Matt 26:28)
  • III. Matthew's Parody of Priestly Expiation (Matt 27:3-10)
  • IV. The Priestly Offering of Jesus's p?e?µa (Lifeforce) beyond the Veil
  • B. Jesus as Goat for Azazel (Matt 27:51b-53)
  • I. Jesus's Death as Binary Movement of the Goats of Yom Kippur
  • II. Matthew's Jonah Typology and Jesus's Descent to Hades
  • III. Jesus as Both Goats at his Baptism and Temptation (Matt 3:13-4:11)
  • C. Conclusion
  • Conclusion
  • A. Gauging the Strength of the Yom Kippur Typology in Matthew 27
  • B. New Insights into Matthew's Yom Kippur Typology
  • C. Matthew's Theology of Atonement in Light of his Yom Kippur Typology
  • Bibliography
  • Index of Ancient Sources
  • Index of Authors
  • Index of Subjects

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